A Crown is often an emblem of the sovereign state, a monarchs government, or items endorsed by it, see The Crown. Crowns may be used by some republics, a specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a crown, just a heraldic representation. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, Crowns bearing bird feathers refer to ancient beliefs, according to which the birds had divine qualities like angels communicated with the worlds beyond the sky. In Italy there are rings that show the city walls used symbolically to remember the function that had the walls to protect the city. Thus the crown is a symbol of power and protection received from someone or something or means that the owner of the crown you show guarantees you power, in this case the appearance of the crown follows a strict set of rules. A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown such as that of Norway, princely coats of arms display a princely crown and so on right down to the mural crown which is commonly displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics.
Other republics may use a so-called peoples crown or omit the use of crowns altogether, the heraldic forms of crowns are often inspired by the actual appearance of the respective countrys royal and princely crowns. Ships and other units of some navies have a crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships. Squadrons of some air forces have a crown, composed of wings. There is the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, in formal English the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns, used by members of the Royal family and Peers. In the peerage of the United Kingdom, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia. This is placed between the shield and helmet in the manner as a peers coronet. Members of the British Royal Family have coronets on their coats of arms and they are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661 shortly after his return from exile in France and Restoration, and vary depending upon the princes relationship to the Monarch.
Occasionally additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals, in Canadian heraldry, coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, the loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn. Precisely because there are traditions and more variation within some of these. Indeed, there are some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, helmets are often substitutes for coronets, and some coronets are worn only on a helmet
A coronation crown is a crown used by a monarch when being crowned. In some monarchies, monarchs have or had a number of crowns for different occasions, such as a crown for the moment of coronation. 1877 Papal Tiara - used to crown Popes Pius XII and John XXIII, the current St. Edwards Crown has been used a number of coronations since the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, but not, in fact the majority. The monarchs crowned with St. Edwards Crown were Charles II, James II, William III, George V, George VI, King Edward VII intended to be crowned with St. Edwards Crown but in the event used instead the lighter Imperial State Crown. Crown of Charlemagne - the coronation crown of Kings of France up to and it was destroyed during the French Revolution. Crown of St. Stephen - no Hungarian king was regarded as being truly legitimate without first being crowned with it. The original was a gift from Pope Sylvester II and was used to crown St. Stephen I and it was stolen and replaced with the current version, which is featured on Hungarys coat of arms.
Crown of Saint Wenceslas - coronation crown of Kingdom of Bohemia since 1347, Crown of Bolesław I the Brave - traditional coronation crown of the Polish monarchs. According to legend Bolesław I the Brave received it from Otto III, the original crown was lost in the course of history. It was only in 1320 that a new set of regalia was prepared for the coronation of King Władysław I the Elbow-high, Imperial Crown of Russia - the Great Imperial Crown of Russia, designed by Jérémie Pauzié in 1762 for the coronation of Catherine the Great. The crown was produced in a two months and weighted only 2.3 kg. From 1762, the created by Jérémie Pauzié was the coronation crown of all Romanov emperors, till the monarchy’s abolition. It is considered to be one of the treasures of the Romanov dynasty. State crown Imperial crown Royal crown Consort crown Circlet Imperial Crown of Russia by Jérémie Pauzié
Golden hats are a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Europe. So far, four such objects are known, the following Golden Hats are known as of 2012, Golden Hat of Schifferstadt, found in 1835 at Schifferstadt near Speyer, c. Avanton Gold Cone, found at Avanton near Poitiers in 1844, Golden Cone of Ezelsdorf-Buch, found near Ezelsdorf near Nuremberg in 1953, c. 1000–900 BC, the tallest known specimen at c.90 cm, Berlin Gold Hat, found probably in Swabia or Switzerland, c. 1000–800 BC, acquired by the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, the hats are associated with the Proto-Celtic Bronze Age Urnfield culture. A comparable golden pectoral was found at Mold, Flintshire, in northern Wales, the cone-shaped Golden Hats of Schifferstadt type are assumed to be connected with a number of comparable cap or crown-shaped gold leaf objects from Ireland and the Atlantic coast of Spain. The archaeological contexts of the cones are not very clear, at least two of the known examples appear to have been deliberately and carefully buried in antiquity.
Although none can be dated precisely, their technology suggests that they were made between 1200 and 800 BC. It is assumed that the Golden Hats served as religious insignia for the deities or priests of a sun cult widespread in Central Europe, attempts to decipher the Golden Hats ornamentation suggest that their cultic role is accompanied or complemented by their use as complex calendrical devices. Whether they were used for such purposes, or simply presented the underlying astronomical knowledge. The gold cones are covered in bands of ornaments along their whole length, the ornaments - mostly disks and concentric circles, sometimes wheels - were punched using stamps, rolls or combs. The older examples show a more restricted range of ornaments than the ones and it appears to be the case that the ornaments on all known Golden Hats represent systematic sequences in terms of number and types of ornaments per band. A detailed study of the Berlin example, which is preserved, revealed that the symbols probably represent a lunisolar calendar.
The object would have permitted the determination of dates or periods in both lunar and solar calendars, whether the hats themselves were indeed used for determining such dates, or whether they simply represented such knowledge, remains unknown. The functions discovered so far would permit the counting of temporal units of up to 57 months, a simple multiplication of such values would permit the calculation of longer periods, e. g. metonic cycles. Each symbol, or each ring of a symbol, represents a single day, in principle, starting with zone Zi, a sum is achieved by adding a relevant contiguous number of neighbouring sections, Zi. To reach the equivalent lunar or solar value, from this sum must be subtracted the sum of symbols from the intercalary zone within the area counted. The illustration depicts the solar representation on the left and the one on the right
A tiara is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions, particularly if the code is white tie. Today, the tiara is often used interchangeably with the word diadem. Both words come from head ornaments worn by ancient men and women to high status. As Geoffrey Munn notes, The word tiara is actually Persian in origin — the name first denoted the high-peaked head-dresses of Persian kings, now, it is used to describe almost every form of decorative head ornament. Ancient Greeks and Romans used gold to make wreath-shaped head ornaments, the use of tiaras and diadems declined along with the decline of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity. In the late 18th century, Neoclassicism gave rise to a revival of tiaras, jewelers taking inspiration from Ancient Greece and Rome created new wreaths made from precious gemstones. Napoleon and his wife Joséphine de Beauharnais are credited with popularizing tiaras along with the new Empire style, napoleon wanted the French court to be the grandest in Europe and had given his wife many fabulous Parures which included tiaras.
Queen Elizabeth II is said to have the largest and most valuable collection of tiaras in the world and she is often seen wearing them on state occasions. The Queen received many of them through inheritance, especially from Queen Alexandra, Queen Mary, consort of King George V, purchased the Grand Duchess Vladimir tiara in the 1920s. It consists of numerous interlocking diamond circles, pearl drops can be attached inside the circles or emeralds. Queen Mary had a made for the Delhi Durbar held in 1911 in India. It is now on loan for wearing by the Duchess of Cornwall, wife of Charles, Queen Elizabeth II commissioned a ruby and diamond tiara. A gift of aquamarines she received as a present from the people of Brazil were added to diamonds to make a new tiara, other queens and princesses regularly wear tiaras at formal evening occasions. The Swedish Royal Family have a magnificent collection as do the Danish, the Dutch, many of the Danish royal jewels originally came into the collection when Princess Louise of Sweden married the future King Frederick VIII of Denmark.
The Romanov dynasty had a superb collection up until the revolution of 1917, the Iranian royal family had a large collection of tiaras. Since the Iranian Revolution, they are housed at the National Jewelry Museum in Tehran, although usually associated with women of reigning and noble families, tiaras have been worn by commoners as well, especially rich American socialites like Barbara Hutton. Tiaras are generally a semi-circular or circular band, usually of precious metal, Tiaras are worn by women around their head or on the forehead as a circlet on very formal or high social occasions
In heraldry, an escutcheon is a shield that forms the main or focal element in an achievement of arms. The word is used in two related senses, firstly, as the shield on which a coat of arms is displayed. Escutcheon shapes are derived from actual shields used by knights in combat, other shapes are in use, such as the roundel commonly used for arms granted to Aboriginal Canadians by the Canadian Heraldic Authority. Secondly, a shield can itself be a charge within a coat of arms, more often, a smaller shield is placed over the middle of the main shield as a form of marshalling. In either case, the shield is usually given the same shape as the main shield. When there is one such shield, it is sometimes called an inescutcheon. The word escutcheon is derived from Middle English escochon, from Anglo-Norman escuchon, from Vulgar Latin scūtiōn-, from Latin scūtum, from its use in heraldry, escutcheon can be a metaphor for a familys honour. The idiom a blot on the escutcheon is used to mean a stain on somebodys reputation, by about 1250 the shields used in warfare were almost triangular in shape, referred to as heater shields.
That on the monument to the latters grandfather Geoffrey V. This almost equilateral shape is used as a setting for armorials from this classical age of heraldry. In the Tudor era the heraldic escutcheon took the shape of an inverted Tudor arch, continental European designs frequently use the various forms used in jousting, which incorporate mouths used as lance rests into the shields, such escutcheons are known as à bouche. The mouth is correctly shown on the side only, as jousting pitches were designed for right-handed knights. Heraldic examples of English shields à bouche can be seen in the spandrels of the timber roof of Lincolns Inn Hall. In this case the lozenge is without crest or helm, again objects of manly warfare, for the practical purpose of categorisation the lozenge may be treated as a variety of heraldic escutcheon. In general a female was represented by her paternal arms impaled by the arms of her husband on an escutcheon, in modern Canadian heraldry, and certain other modern heraldic jurisdictions, women may be granted their own arms and display these on an escutcheon.
Life peeresses in England display their arms on a lozenge, an oval or cartouche is occasionally used instead of the lozenge for armigerous women. Divorced women may theoretically until remarriage use their ex-husbands arms differenced with a mascle, the lozenge shape of quasi-escutcheon is used for funerary hatchments for both men and women. Pretoria High School for Girls in South Africa is one of the few schools that was granted permission to use the lozenge as part of its coat of arms
In heraldry and heraldic vexillology, a blazon is a formal description of a coat of arms, flag or similar emblem, from which the reader can reconstruct the appropriate image. The verb to blazon means to such a description. Blazon refers to the language in which a blazon is written. This language has its own vocabulary and syntax, or rules governing word order, other objects — such as badges and seals — may be described in blazon. The word blazon is not to be confused with the verb to emblazon, or the noun emblazonment, the word blazon is derived from French blason, shield. It was found in English by the end of the 14th century, experts in heraldry assumed that the word was related to the German verb blasen, to blow. Present-day lexicographers reject this theory as conjectural and disproved, the blazon of armorials follows a rigid formula, designed to eliminate ambiguity of interpretation, to be as concise as possible and to avoid repetition and extraneous punctuation. The nomenclature is equally significant, and its aim is to combine definitive exactness with a brevity that is indeed laconic.
The rules of blazonry are as follows, Every blazon of a coat of arms begins by describing the field, with first letter as a capital, in a majority of cases this is a single tincture, e. g. Azure. If the field is complex, the variation is described, followed by the used, e. g. Chequy gules. The most common names are historically abbreviated. A Tincture is named only once in a given blazon, the principal charge are named, with their tincture, e. g. a bend or. The principal charge is followed by any other charges placed around or on it, if a charge be a bird or beast, its attitude is described, followed by the animals tincture, followed by anything that may be differently coloured, e. g. An eagle displayed gules armed and wings charged with trefoils or, any accessories present — such as crown/coronet, torse, crest, motto and compartment — are described in turn, using the same terminology and syntax. According to Boutell, It appears desirable always to print all heraldic blazon in italic, heraldry has its own vocabulary, word-order and punctuation, and showing it in italics thus indicates to the reader the presence of a quasi-foreign language. A quartered shield is blazoned one quarter at a time, proceeding by rows from chief to base, a divided shield is blazoned party per or parted per, though the word party or parted is almost always omitted. A tincture is sometimes replaced by of the first, of the second etc. to avoid repetition of tincture names, counterchanged means that a charge which straddles a line of division is tinctured of the same tinctures as the divided field, reversed.
But as to the formulae of blazoning, John Brooke-Little and Ulster King of Arms, wrote in 1985
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
In Christology, the Person of Christ refers to the study of the human and divine natures of Jesus Christ as they co-exist within one person. There is no discussion in the New Testament regarding the dual nature of the Person of Christ as both divine and human. Hence, since the days of Christianity theologians have debated various approaches to the understanding of these natures. In the period following the Apostolic Age, specific beliefs such as Arianism and Docetism were criticized. On the other end of the spectrum, Docetism argued that Jesus physical body was an illusion, docetic teachings were attacked by St. Ignatius of Antioch and were eventually abandoned by proto-orthodox Christians. However, after the First Council of Nicaea in 325 the Logos, historically in the Alexandrian school of christology, Jesus Christ is the eternal Logos paradoxically humanized in history, a divine Person who became enfleshed, uniting himself to the human nature. The views of these schools can be summarized as follows, Antioch, Logos assumes a specific human being The First Council of Ephesus in 431 debated a number of views regarding the Person of Christ.
At the same gathering the council debated the doctrines of monophysitism or miaphysitism. The council rejected Nestorianism and adopted the term hypostatic union, referring to divine, the language used in the 431 declaration was further refined at the 451 Council of Chalcedon. However, the Chalcedon creed was not accepted by all Christians, because Saint Augustine died in 430 he did not participate in the Council of Ephesus in 431 or Chalcedon in 451, but his ideas had some impact on both councils. On the other hand, the major theological figure of the Middle Ages. The Third Council of Constantinople in 680 held that both divine and human wills exist in Jesus, with the divine will having precedence and guiding the human will. John Calvin maintained that there was no element in the Person of Christ which could be separated from the person of The Word. Calvin emphasized the importance of the Work of Christ in any attempt at understanding the Person of Christ, the study of the Person of Christ continued into the 20th century, with modern theologians such as Karl Rahner and Hans von Balthasar.
Balthasar argued that the union of the human and divine natures of Christ was achieved not by the absorption of human attributes, thus in his view the divine nature of Christ was not affected by the human attributes and remained forever divine
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
The Eastern Crown is a gold crown surmounted with a variable number of sharp spikes. It is so called because of its origin in the Eastern Mediterranean, the Eastern Crown is one of the oldest crowns, and so for this reason it has known as Antique Crown. The Celestial Crown is a modified Eastern Crown with longer spikes, Crown Heraldry Circlet Golden hat Eastern Crown definition. Heraldic crowns, www. scottish-wedding-dreams. com Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles A Complete Guide to Heraldry, Chapter XXIII, Crest and Chapeaux
Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia. Exceptionally, the highest class may be referred to as Grand Cordon or equivalent, in other cases, the rank of Grand Cross may come after another even higher rank, e. g. In rare cases, solely the actual insignia is referred to as the grand cross, in international relations, in many times the class of Grand Cross is typically reserved for royalty, heads of state and equivalent. Sometimes a holder of the highest class or grade are referred to as Commander Grand Cross and this stands in contrast to the typical practice in other countries where knighthood is conferred at the initial, lowest rank of the order, typically Knight