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Circuit diagram

A circuit diagram is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit. A pictorial circuit diagram uses simple images of components, while a schematic diagram shows the components and interconnections of the circuit using standardized symbolic representations; the presentation of the interconnections between circuit components in the schematic diagram does not correspond to the physical arrangements in the finished device. Unlike a block diagram or layout diagram, a circuit diagram shows the actual electrical connections. A drawing meant to depict the physical arrangement of the wires and the components they connect is called artwork or layout, physical design, or wiring diagram. Circuit diagrams are used for the design and maintenance of electrical and electronic equipment. In computer science, circuit diagrams are useful. Circuit diagrams are pictures with symbols that have differed from country to country and have changed over time, but are now to a large extent internationally standardized.

Simple components had symbols intended to represent some feature of the physical construction of the device. For example, the symbol for a resistor shown here dates back to the days when that component was made from a long piece of wire wrapped in such a manner as to not produce inductance, which would have made it a coil; these wirewound resistors are now used only in high-power applications, smaller resistors being cast from carbon composition or fabricated as an insulating tube or chip coated with a metal film. The internationally standardized symbol for a resistor is therefore now simplified to an oblong, sometimes with the value in ohms written inside, instead of the zig-zag symbol. A less common symbol is a series of peaks on one side of the line representing the conductor, rather than back-and-forth as shown here; the linkages between leads were once simple crossings of lines. With the arrival of computerized drafting, the connection of two intersecting wires was shown by a crossing of wires with a "dot" or "blob" to indicate a connection.

At the same time, the crossover was simplified to be the same crossing, but without a "dot". However, there was a danger of confusing the wires that were connected and not connected in this manner, if the dot was drawn too small or accidentally omitted; as such, the modern practice for representing a 4-way wire connection is to draw a straight wire and to draw the other wires staggered along it with "dots" as connections, so as to form two separate T-junctions that brook no confusion and are not a crossover. For crossing wires that are insulated from one another, a small semi-circle symbol is used to show one wire "jumping over" the other wire. A common, hybrid style of drawing combines the T-junction crossovers with "dot" connections and the wire "jump" semi-circle symbols for insulated crossings. In this manner, a "dot", too small to see or that has accidentally disappeared can still be differentiated from a "jump". On a circuit diagram, the symbols for components are labelled with a descriptor or reference designator matching that on the list of parts.

For example, C1 is the first capacitor, L1 is the first inductor, Q1 is the first transistor, R1 is the first resistor. The value or type designation of the component is given on the diagram beside the part, but detailed specifications would go on the parts list. Detailed rules for reference designations are provided in the International standard IEC 61346, it is a usual although not universal convention that schematic drawings are organized on the page from left to right and top to bottom in the same sequence as the flow of the main signal or power path. For example, a schematic for a radio receiver might start with the antenna input at the left of the page and end with the loudspeaker at the right. Positive power supply connections for each stage would be shown towards the top of the page, with grounds, negative supplies, or other return paths towards the bottom. Schematic drawings intended for maintenance may have the principal signal paths highlighted to assist in understanding the signal flow through the circuit.

More complex devices have multi-page schematics and must rely on cross-reference symbols to show the flow of signals between the different sheets of the drawing. Detailed rules for the preparation of circuit diagrams, other document types used in electrotechnology, are provided in the international standard IEC 61082-1. Relay logic line diagrams called ladder logic diagrams, use another common standardized convention for organizing schematic drawings, with a vertical power supply rail on the left and another on the right, components strung between them like the rungs of a ladder. Once the schematic has been made, it is converted into a layout that can be fabricated onto a printed circuit board. Schematic-driven layout starts with the process of schematic capture; the result is. The rat's nest is a jumble of wires criss-crossing each other to their destination nodes; these wires are routed either manually or automatically by the use of electronics design automation tools. The EDA tools arrange and rearrange the placement of components and find paths for tracks to connect various nodes.

This results in the final layout artwork for printed circuit board. A generalized design flow may be as follows: Schematic → schematic capturenetlist → rat's nest → routing → artwork → PCB development and etching → com

William Leitch (scientist)

William Leitch was a Scottish astronomer and mathematician, a minister of the Church of Scotland. Leitch studied mathematics and science at the University of Glasgow, moved to Canada in 1860 to take the post of principal at Queen's University. Space historian Robert Godwin published in October 2015 his discovery that Leitch gave the first modern scientific explanation of the potential for space exploration using rockets. Leitch was said to be "a distinguished astronomer and mathematician", his proposal for rocket spaceflight came four decades prior to more well-known proposals by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Robert H. Goddard, Hermann Oberth. Leitch's rocket spaceflight description was first provided in his 1861 essay "A Journey Through Space", published in his book God's Glory in the Heavens; this description attributed rocket thrust to the "internal reaction" and identified that rocket thrust is most effective in the vacuum of space. In the third edition of his biography of Leitch, Godwin explained Leitch's connections to the Boston community, how both Leitch and Robert Hutchings Goddard both knew and corresponded with patent attorney Orson Desaix Munn.

A serious accident confined Leitch to his room for many months at age 14, during which he studied mathematics and science. After the grammar school at Greenock, he attended the University of Glasgow and earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with highest honours in 1837, he followed this with a Master of Arts the next year, became observatory assistant to Professor John Pringle Nichol, lectured on astronomy. He studied for two years at the university's Divinity Hall, became a licensed minister of the Church of Scotland in 1839. Leitch stayed with the Kirk through the Disruption of 1843, when he was ordained and worked in the parish of Monimail, in the presbytery of Cupar for 16 years. During this time he worked with the church's Sabbath schools and became interested in popular education, he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity by Glasgow University in 1860. In 1859, two trustees of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario came to Scotland to find a successor to the retiring principal. Leitch accepted the post and moved to Ontario in October 1860.

Leitch, William. God's Glory in the Heavens. Godwin, Robert. William Leitch Presbyterian Scientist & The Concept of Rocket Space Flight 1854–64. Apogee Books. ISBN 978-1926837-36-9. Neatby, Hilda. "Leitch, William". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. 9. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved 9 October 2015. "Leitch, The Rev William". Queen's Encyclopedia. Queen's University. K7L 3N6. 613.533.2000. Retrieved 9 October 2015; the First Scientific Concept of Rockets for Space Travel by Robert Godwin

Philippe Néricault Destouches

Philippe Néricault Destouches was a French playwright who wrote 22 plays. Destouches was born in today's department of Indre-et-Loire; when he was nineteen years of age, he became secretary to M. de Puysieux, the French ambassador to Switzerland. In 1716 he was attached to the French embassy in London, where he remained for six years under abbé Dubois, he contracted a marriage with Dorothea Johnston, Lancashire lady. In 1727 he portrayed his domestic circumstances in Le Philosophe Marié. Upon returning to France in 1723, he was elected to the Académie française. In 1727 he acquired considerable estates, the possession of which conferred the privileges of nobility, he spent his years at Fortoiseau, his chateau near Melun, died July 4, 1754. Destouches wished to revive the comedy of character as understood by Molière, but he thought it desirable that the moral should be directly expressed, his early comedies were: Le Curieux Impertinent L'Ingrat L'Irrésolu Le Médisant La Fausse Veuve Le Triple Mariage L'Obstacle Imprévu The most regarded of these is L'Irrésolu, in which Dorante, after vacillating throughout the play between Julie and Climène, marries Julie, but concludes the play with the reflection, "J'aurais mieux fait, je crois, d'épouser Climène".

After eleven years of diplomatic service, Destouches returned to the stage in 1727 with Le Philosophe Marié, followed in 1730 by Les Philosophes Amoureux and in 1732 by Le Glorieux, a picture of the struggle beginning between the old nobility and the wealthy parvenus who found opportunity in the poverty of France. He wrote: La Pupille L'Ambitieux et l'Indiscrète Les Dehor Trompeurs La Belle Orgueilleuse L'Amour Use Les Amours de Ragonde His comedies were: La Force du Naturel Le Jeune Homme á l'Épreuve Le Dissipateur His last three plays were produced posthumously, they were: La Fausse Agnès Le Tambour Nocturne L'Homme Singulier Destouches's 1717 dramatic comedy L'Obstacle Imprévu was the origin of the oft-quoted maxim, “The absent are always in the wrong.” Bergen Evans, in his Dictionary of Quotations, said: “Though Néricault... is credited with the first statement of this thought in this form, the idea is old and, in other forms, universal.” In "le Glorieux" he wrote "To critic is easy, only the art is difficult".

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Destouches, Philippe". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 104. Works by Philippe Néricault Destouches at Project Gutenberg Works by Philippe Néricault Destouches at Faded Page Works by or about Philippe Néricault Destouches at Internet Archive

Federal Building (Ruston, Louisiana)

The Federal Building known as the Old Post Office, is a historic institutional building located at 201 North Vienna Street in Ruston, Louisiana. Built in 1909 to host Ruston Post Office, the structure is a small one-story rectangular limestone building with a hipped roof featuring circular dormers; the building was vacated about 1961 when a new post office was built, was used since 1963 as a federal office building. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 9, 1974, it was declared a contributing property of Downtown Ruston Historic District at the time of its creation on January 31, 2017. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln Parish, Louisiana Downtown Ruston Historic District

Ammersee

Ammersee is a Zungenbecken lake in Upper Bavaria, southwest of Munich between the towns of Herrsching and Dießen am Ammersee. With a surface area of 47 square kilometres, it is the sixth largest lake in Germany; the lake is at an elevation of 533 metres, has a maximum depth of 81 metres. Like other Bavarian lakes, Ammersee developed as a result of the ice age glaciers melting. Ammersee is fed by the River Ammer. Like neighbouring Lake Starnberg, similar in size and shape, it is a popular location for watersports. Ammersee and the Amper are part of the ancient Celtic amber trading route leading to the Brenner Pass; the word Ammer is a 13th-century form of Amper, the Celtic *ambra, deriving from the Indo-European *ombh-, *mbh- "wet, Water". Passenger services have operated on the lake since 1879. Today they are operated by the Bayerische Seenschifffahrt company, using a mixture of historic paddle steamers and motor ships; the lake's water has been of good quality since a circular sewerage system was introduced in the 1960s collecting all wastewater from around the lake and transporting it to a treatment plant below the lake's outlet at Eching.

The Ammersee abounds with fish and is the home of the vulnerable species of deepwater char Salvelinus evasus. Deepwater char are sensitive to changes in the quality of the water and some species such as Salvelinus neocomensis and Salvelinus profundus were driven to extinction in other European lakes. Media related to Ammersee at Wikimedia Commons Nixdorf, B.. "Ammersee", Dokumentation von Zustand und Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands, Berlin: Umweltbundesamt, p. 8 Pictures of the Ammersee

Methodist Hospital of Sacramento

Methodist Hospital is a hospital located in the southern part of Sacramento, California. It is located just off Highway 99 by taking the Calvine Road/Consumnes River Boulevard exit 289, its address is 7500 Hospital Drive. The hospital has 162 acute care beds. In 2011, 9,136 patients were admitted, 53,056 emergency department visits were made, 1,188 babies were delivered; the hospital has more than 430 physicians and 1,133 employees. It is operated by Dignity Health, who acquired the hospital in 1992. On July 28, 2011, Becker's Hospital Review listed Methodist Hospital of Sacramento under 60 Hospitals With Great Orthopedic Programs, it has been designated as a Blue Distinction Center for Knee and Hip Replacement by Blue Shield of California. The surgeons at the hospital focus on spine surgery and sports medicine; the surgeons are able to stay on the cutting edge by performing a minimally invasive partial knee replacement procedure with The Oxford Knee or the Opus Magnum minimally invasive procedure for rotator cuff tears.

The department includes hand and foot surgery specialists and outpatient rehabilitation centers designed for patients with extremities injuries and conditions. The HealthGrades website contains the clinical quality data for Methodist Hospital of Sacramento, as of 2018. For this rating section clinical quality rating data and patient safety ratings are presented. For inpatient conditions and procedures, there are three possible ratings: worse than expected, as expected, better than expected. For this hospital the data for this category is: Worse than expected - 1 As expected - 12 Better than expected - 5For patient safety ratings the same three possible ratings are used. For this hospital they are: Worse than expected - 2 As expected - 9 Better than expected - 1Percent of patients who would rate this hospital as a 9 or 10 - 63%. Percent of patients nationally who rate hospitals on average a 9 or 10 - 69%. Methodist Hospital of Sacramento Dignity Health This hospital in the CA Healthcare Atlas A project by OSHPD