A panel saw is any type of sawing machine that cuts sheets into sized parts. Panel saws can be horizontal. Vertical saws take up less floor space. Horizontal machines are large table saws with a sliding feed table that pushes the material through the blade. Table saws without the sliding feed table can cut sheet goods. Vertical saws have low cost and higher cost. Both types have the saw traveling. For cutting length wise or rip cut, the lower cost models, have the user slide the material through the saw while the higher cost models have the saw travel through the stationary material. A sliding panel saw was invented by Wilhelm Altendorf in 1906 in Germany, its invention set a new standard in woodworking, with dramatic differences from traditional machines. Up to that time, a conventional table saw had no mechanism for edging. Meaning that for the first and second longitudinal cut on untreated massive wood, the lumber always had to be fed manually through the saw blade; the new system accomplished the task more elegantly by allowing the work piece to be fed through the saw blade while lying on a sliding table.
Thus cutting becomes faster and effortless. Panel saws are used by cabinet shops to cut panels, solid-wood, plywood, MDF, plastic sheets and melamine sheets into sizes or cabinet components, they are used by sign shops to cut sheets of aluminum and wood for their sign blanks. Some higher end panel saws feature computer controls that move the blade and fence systems to preset values. Other lower end machines offer simplicity and ease of use, including full scale hobbyist level panel saws at a mere fraction of the cost. While the entry level machines are designed for light duty usage, they offer home DIYers a cheap alternative for infrequent cutting when accuracy and clean cuts are not required. Panel saws can have one main saw blade, or a scoring along with a main saw blade. Scoring is used to create a groove in double side laminate before the main saw rips the piece apart, to avoid chipping; the scoring saw rotates in an opposite direction, as the main saw to avoid chipping
A hydraulic motor is a mechanical actuator that converts hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular displacement. The hydraulic motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder as a linear actuator. Most broadly, the category of devices called hydraulic motors has sometimes included those that run on hydropower but in today's terminology the name refers more to motors that use hydraulic fluid as part of closed hydraulic circuits in modern hydraulic machinery. Conceptually, a hydraulic motor should be interchangeable with a hydraulic pump because it performs the opposite function - similar to the way a DC electric motor is theoretically interchangeable with a DC electrical generator. However, many hydraulic pumps can not be used as hydraulic motors. A hydraulic motor is designed for working pressure at both sides of the motor, whereas most hydraulic pumps rely on low preasure provided from the reservoir at the input side and would leak fluid when abused as a motor. One of the first rotary hydraulic motors to be developed was that constructed by William Armstrong for his Swing Bridge over the River Tyne.
Two motors were provided, for reliability. Each one was a three-cylinder single-acting oscillating engine. Armstrong developed a wide range of hydraulic motors and rotary, that were used for a wide range of industrial and civil engineering tasks for docks and moving bridges; the first simple fixed-stroke hydraulic motors had the disadvantage that they used the same volume of water whatever the load and so were wasteful at part-power. Unlike steam engines, as water is incompressible, they could not be throttled or their valve cut-off controlled. To overcome this, motors with variable stroke were developed. Adjusting the stroke, rather than controlling admission valves, now controlled the engine power and water consumption. One of the first of these was Arthur Rigg's patent engine of 1886; this used a double eccentric mechanism, as used on variable stroke power presses, to control the stroke length of a three cylinder radial engine. The swashplate engine with an adjustable swashplate angle would become a popular way to make variable stroke hydraulic motors.
Hydraulic motors divide into two fundamental classes: Vane motors and gear motors are simple rotating systems. Their benefits include high rpm. Plunger & piston motors in axial or radial configuration are more complex and made for high quality rotating drive systems; some axial plunger & piston motors provide adjustable transfer ratio. For an explanation of plunger & piston Many designs are possible; the following types of hydraulic motors are available: A vane motor consists of a housing with an eccentric bore, in which runs a rotor with vanes in it that slide in and out. The force differential created by the unbalanced force of the pressurized fluid on the vanes causes the rotor to spin in one direction. A critical element in vane motor design is how the vane tips are machined at the contact point between vane tip and motor housing. Several types of "lip" designs are used, the main objective is to provide a tight seal between the inside of the motor housing and the vane, at the same time to minimize wear and metal-to-metal contact.
A gear motor consists of the driven gear and the idler gear. High pressure oil is ported into one side of the gears, where it flows around the periphery of the gears, between the gear tips and the wall housings in which it resides, to the outlet port; the gears mesh, not allowing the oil from the outlet side to flow back to the inlet side. For lubrication, the gear motor uses a small amount of oil from the pressurized side of the gears, bleeds this through the hydrodynamic bearings, vents the same oil either to the low pressure side of the gears, or through a dedicated drain port on the motor housing, connected to a line that vents the motor's case pressure to the system's reservoir. An positive attribute of the gear motor is that catastrophic breakdown is less common than in most other types of hydraulic motors; this is because the gears wear down the housing and/or main bushings, reducing the volumetric efficiency of the motor until it is all but useless. This happens long before wear causes the unit to seize or break down.
The gerotor motor is in essence a rotor with N-1 teeth, rotating off center in a rotor/stator with N teeth. Pressurized fluid is guided into the assembly using a axially placed plate-type distributor valve. Several different designs exist, such as the Nichols motors; the Gerotor motors are low-to-medium speed and medium-to-high torque. For high quality rotating drive systems plunger motors are used. Whereas the speed of hydraulic pumps range from 1200 to 1800 rpm, the machinery to be driven by the motor requires a much lower speed; this means that when an axial plunger motor is used, a gearbox is needed. For a continuously adjustable swept volume, axial piston motors are used. Like piston type pumps, the most common design of the piston type of motor is the axial; this type of motor is the most used in hydraulic systems. These motors are, like their pump counterparts, available in both variable and fixed displacement designs. Typical usable rotational speeds range from below 50 rpm to above 14000 rpm.
Efficiencies and minimum/maximum rotational speeds are dependent on the design of the rotating group, many different types are in use. Radial piston
Multi-tool is a common name for an oscillating power tool powered by battery or mains. The name "multi-tool" is a reference to the many functions that this tool can perform with the range of attachments available. "Master Tool" is a trade name used in North America, short for the original tool by Fein called the Multi-Master. So far there are tools available to saw, rasp, scrape and polish. Use of an offset in a fitted blade allows the tool to cut flush with a surface; this is useful when fitting flooring along a skirting board, cutting the skirting to allow the board to slide under for a neat finish. The small form of these tools and the ability to mount the blade/accessory in any orientation allows cutting in areas unreachable; the ability to cut a complex or precise recess without the need to remove the work piece from where is it fixed increases productivity. Small and precise cuts are possible on end grain, a small sliver can be removed from timber cut too long for a perfect fit; the accessory is fitted to the tool by a mechanism which allows that accessory to be rotated back and forth.
This creates friction with the sanding attachments or rapid cutting motions with the saw and grinding attachments. The narrow angle of oscillation allows for precise control over the tool as it does not kick like a rotating tool can; the angle of oscillation creates increasing friction further from the center of the tool as these areas travel a greater distance. The increased friction is apparent with the triangular sanding and grinding attachments which allow the operator to reach into corners and confined spaces, a feature unique to this type of power tool; the saw blade attachments use the angle of oscillation in the same way. The oscillating blade will not clear swarf in the same way as a rotating blade so it is necessary to move the blade back and forth to clear built up sawdust and clear the blades. Improvements in battery technology such as lithium ion have allowed for tools which can be small in size and weight but still perform well enough to compete with mains-powered equivalents while freeing the user from the restrictions of cables.
Various attachments and blades have come on the market giving these machines a wide variety of uses. The blades can be separated into 5 main categories: cutting, grout & masonry, sanding and polishing. Cutting blades are standard saw blades with various tooth configurations for cutting different material, they are either straight blades with the teeth on the end, allowing the user to'plunge cut' directly into the material they are cutting or circular blades. Bi-metal blades offer smaller hardened teeth that allow the user to cut soft metals and the popular Japan tooth blades have large teeth that cut wood but cannot cut metal Tile and masonry attachments are either carbide or diamond coated and allow the user to clear grout between tiles or do light masonry work. Standard sanding attachments allow the user to sand flat surfaces and specialty attachments such as the profile sanding kit allow detailed profile sanding work to be done. Polishing is possible with the help of polishing pad attachments.
The arbor attachment on all machines has varied since these machines started production, with many machines using a proprietary arbor configuration. Many after-market blade companies have created universal arbor attachments that are compatible with most, but not all, oscillating multi-tool machines; the Starlock interface was launched by Fein. The interface is compatible with a number of other manufacturers. Fein Multimaster RS Cast saw The Family Handyman - Popular uses for the oscillating tool
In sailing, a block is a single or multiple pulley. One or a number of sheaves are enclosed in an assembly between chocks. In use, a block is fixed to a spar, or to a surface. A line is reeved through the sheaves, maybe through one or more matching blocks at some far end, to make up a tackle; the purchase of a tackle refers to its mechanical advantage. In general the more sheaves in the blocks that make up a tackle, the higher its mechanical advantage; the matter is complicated by the fact that every tackle has a working end where the final run of rope leaves the last sheave. More mechanical advantage can be obtained if this end is attached to the moving load rather than the fixed end of the tackle. There are various types of blocks; some blocks are used to increase mechanical advantage and others are used to change the direction of a line. A ratchet block turns when a line is pulled in one direction but does not turn the other direction, although the line may slip past the sheave; this kind of block makes a loaded line easier to hold by hand, is sometimes used on smaller boats for lines like main and jib sheets that are adjusted.
A single, sail-powered warship in the mid-19th century required more than 1,400 blocks of various kinds. Chock a' block Refers to the situation where pulling on the working line will not raise the load any further because the cheeks of one lifting block are against the other. Figuratively this has come to mean that something is as close as it can be. Block and tackle Two six heave Portsmouth Block Mills
A hole saw known as a hole cutter, is a saw blade of annular shape, whose annular kerf creates a hole in the workpiece without having to cut up the core material. It is used in a drill. Hole saws have a pilot drill bit at their center to keep the saw teeth from walking; the fact that a hole saw creates the hole without needing to cut up the core makes it preferable to twist drills or spade drills for large holes. The same hole can be made faster and using less power; the depth to which a hole saw can cut is limited by the depth of its cup-like shape. Most hole saws have a short aspect ratio of diameter to depth, they are used to cut through thin workpieces. However, longer aspect ratios are available for applications. Cutting with a hole saw is analogous to some machining operations, called trepanning in the trade, that swing a cutter analogous to a fly cutter in order to achieve a similar result of annular kerf and intact core; the saw consists of a metal cylinder steel, mounted on an arbor. The cutting edge either has industrial diamonds embedded in it.
The arbor can carry a drill bit to bore a centering hole. After the first few millimeters of cut, the centering mechanism may no longer be needed, although it will help the bit to bore without wandering in a deep hole; the sloping slots in the cylinder wall help carry the dust out. The kerf of the cut is designed to be larger than the diameter of the rest of the hole saw so that it does not get jammed in the hole. Holes saws for use with portable drills are available in diameters from 6 to 130 mm, or in the US, ¼ to 6 inches; the only limit on the length of the cylinder, thus depth of the hole, is the need to remove the bit from the hole to clear dust. A 300 mm cylinder length is not uncommon. By breaking the core off from time to time and using a shank extension, a diamond core drill can drill to depths many times its length. Saw teeth are used for most materials, such as wood, soft plaster, metal. Diamond hole saws are used to bore holes in brick, concrete and stone. An adjustable hole saw consists of a number of thin metal saw blade-like strips, a flat disc with a large number of grooves in one side and a shank on the other.
By snapping the blades into different grooves on the disc, a hole saw of a wide variety of sizes can be constructed. Another type of adjustable hole saw called a circle cutter, is formed by having one, two, or three adjustable teeth on a platform with a pilot bit. To cut out a hole of any size, the teeth need only be adjusted to the proper position; this type is available in sizes up to a foot and larger, can be used to cut large circles. The main advantage over conventional drill bits is the hole saw's efficiency, because little of the total material being removed is cut, which reduces the overall power requirement. Another advantage over drill bits is the wider size capability. For example, a 100 millimetres hole would require a huge twist drill or spade drill, unable to be properly driven by a pistol-grip drill or benchtop drill press; some disadvantages include: The portable drill used must be capable of producing considerable torque at low speed They tend to bind if choked with dust, or if allowed to wander away from the central axis of the planned hole The kick-back from a powerful drill may be severe under some conditions, long side-handles should be used, preferably with two operators for large holes.
The core plug binds inside the hole saw, must be pried out after each hole is cut. Sometimes the prying is quite difficult. Sometimes the core plug will twist apart mid-cut, creating a condition where the core inside the hole saw spins on the yet-uncut portion of the core still in the workpiece; this tends to stop the cutting action of the saw, if the workpiece is wood or plastic, the friction will start to singe it, creating a burning smell and heating up the hole saw. The twisted-off core must be pried out of the hole saw before the cutting can continue. Diamond hole saws are called diamond core drill bits. Laser welded diamond core drill bits can be used in wet and dry drilling, but not all materials to be drilled are suitable for dry drilling. Hard materials like reinforced concrete should be drilled with water, otherwise the excessive heat generated during the drilling process may cause the diamonds on the core bit to become blunt, lead to poor drilling performance; the bond materials welded diamond core drill bits are specially adjusted to fit the wet and dry drillings respectively.
This lifespan. Diamond hole saws will drill through tile, porcelain tiles, marble, concrete and any lapidary material
Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are laid in and bound together by mortar. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, adobe. Masonry is a durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, the pattern in which the units are assembled can affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a bricklayer; these are both classified as construction trades. Masonry is used for walls and buildings. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction, they provide great compressive strength, are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures.
The use of material such as bricks and stones can increase the thermal mass of a building. Masonry can protect the building from fire. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from tornadoes. Extreme weather, under certain circumstances, can cause degradation of masonry due to expansion and contractions forces associated with freeze-thaw cycles. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation, such as reinforced concrete, to avoid settling and cracking. Other than concrete, masonry construction does not lend itself well to mechanization, requires more skilled labor than stick-framing. Masonry consists of loose components and has a low tolerance to oscillation as compared to other materials such as reinforced concrete, wood, or metals. Masonry has high compressive strength under vertical loads but has low tensile strength unless reinforced; the tensile strength of masonry walls can be increased by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers at intervals.
Where practical, steel reinforcements such as windposts can be added. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is decorative, not structural; the brick veneer is connected to the structural wall by brick ties. There is an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall; as clay-based brick is not waterproof, the structural wall will have a water-resistant surface and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks and cultured stones, veneer adobe are sometimes used in a similar veneer fashion. Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, adobe, veneers or some combination thereof feature interior insulation in the form of fiberglass batts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or drywall. In most climates this insulation is much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage of the aforementioned thermal mass of the masonry.
This technique does, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface over the insulation and is more expensive. The strength of a masonry wall is not dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, some dry set masonry structures forgo mortar altogether. Solid brickwork is made of two or more wythes of bricks with the units running horizontally bound together with bricks running transverse to the wall; each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different'bonds' such as the common bond, the English bond, the Flemish bond. Bonds can differ in insulating ability. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond; the wide selection of brick styles and types available in industrialized nations allow much variety in the appearance of the final product. In buildings built during the 1950s-1970s, a high degree of uniformity of brick and accuracy in masonry was typical.
In the period since this style was thought to be too sterile, so attempts were made to emulate older, rougher work. Some brick surfaces are made to look rustic by including burnt bricks, which have a darker color or an irregular shape. Others may use antique salvage bricks, or new bricks may be artificially aged by applying various surface treatments, such as tumbling; the attempts at rusticity of the late 20th century have been carried forward by masons specializing in a free, artistic style, where the courses are intentionally not straight, instead weaving to form more organic impressions. A crinkle-crankl
A vise or vice is a mechanical apparatus used to secure an object to allow work to be performed on it. Vises have two parallel jaws, one fixed and the other movable, threaded in and out by a screw and lever. Woodworking vises are attached to a workbench flush with its work surface, their jaws are made of wood or metal, the latter faced with wood, called cheeks, to avoid marring the work. The movable jaw may include a retractable dog to hold work against a bench dog. "Quick-release" vises employ a split nut that allows the screw to engage or disengage with a half-turn of the handle. When disengaged the movable jaw may be moved in or out throughout its entire range of motion, vastly speeding up the process of adjustment. Common thread types are buttress. Traditional workbench vises are either face vises, attached to the front of the workbench, near the left end or end vises, attached to or forming part of the right end of the bench. One common variety of face vise is the leg vise, which has a long extension down to the floor, with a provision to adjust the spacing of the bottom of the leg, to keep the clamping surfaces of the jaws parallel though the work to be clamped may be of various thicknesses.
An engineer's vise known as a metalworking vise or machinist's vise, is used to clamp metal instead of wood. It is used to hold metal when cutting, it is sometimes made of cast steel or malleable cast iron. However, most heavy duty vises are 65,000 psi ductile iron; some vises have a cast iron body but a steel channel bar. Cast iron is popular because it is 30,000 psi grey iron, rigid and inexpensive; the jaws are separate and replaceable engraved with serrated or diamond teeth. Soft jaw covers made of aluminum, wood or plastic may be used to protect delicate work; the jaw opening of an engineer's vise is always the same size as the jaw width, if not bigger. An engineer's vise is bolted onto the top surface of a workbench, with the face of the fixed jaws just forward of its front edge; the vise may include other features such as a small anvil on the back of its body. Most engineer's vises have a swivel base; some engineer's vises marketed as "Homeowner Grade" are not made of steel or cast iron, but of pot metal or a low grade of iron with a tensile strength of under 10 ksi.
Most homeowner's bench vises have an exposed screw. Machine vises are mounted on grinding machines and milling machines. Abrasive chop saws have a special type of machine vise built into the saw; some hobbyists use a machine vise as a bench vise because of small size. A vacuum vise is a hobbyist's tool used to hold circuit boards, model airplanes and other small work, they are mounted with a suction cup and have an articulated joint in the middle to allow the vise to pivot and swivel. Jewelers use vacuum vises to hold jewelry. Pipe vises are a plumber's tool used to hold pipes in place for threading and cutting. There are two main styles: yoke; the yoke type vise uses a screw to clamp down the pipe, the chain style uses a chain for securing the pipe. Clamp-on vises are very light-duty bench vises, they have smooth jaws for wood and light metalworking, but some have serrated jaws for getting a better grip on metal. Some unique vises combine these features in a rotating design, they help to secure an object while working on the object.
Vises that combine the functions of a pipe vise with a metalworker's vise do exist, are quite common. Some vises have a rotating design to provide both pipe jaws; these are used by plumbers. Other kinds of vise include: Hand vises Compound slide vises are more complex machine vises, they allow precision in the placement of the work. Cross vises, which can be adjusted using leadscrews in the Y axes. Compare router table. Off-center vises Angle vises Sine vises, which use gauge blocks to set up a accurate angle Rotary vises Suction vices Diemakers' vise Saw vices – used for sharpening hand saws Pin vises Jewellers' vises and by contrast Fly tying vise, used to secure fishing hook in fly tying Leg vises, which are attached to a bench but supported from the ground so as to be stable under the heavy use imposed by a blacksmith's work Trailer hitch vice Shaker broom vise Rigging vise, otherwise known as a triangle vise or splicing vise, which has three jaws. Used to close thimbles and splice rope and wire rope.
A vise is sometimes misused as a makeshift press. Sometimes people will hit it with a hammer; this will void the warranty of the vise and destroy it and is covered in the instruction manuals for vises. Another way to misuse a vise is by pulling back too against the movable face. Parallels Vise grip