A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include clowns, trained animals, trapeze acts, dancers, tightrope walkers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists. The term circus describes the performance which has followed various formats through its 250-year modern history. Although not the inventor of the medium, Philip Astley is credited as the father of the modern circus. In 1768 Astley, a skilled equestrian, began performing exhibitions of trick horse riding in an open field called Ha'Penny Hatch on the south side of the Thames River. In 1770 he hired acrobats, tightrope walkers, jugglers and a clown to fill in the pauses between the equestrian demonstrations and thus chanced on the format, named a "circus". Performances developed over the next fifty years, with large-scale theatrical battle reenactments becoming a significant feature; the traditional format, in which a ringmaster introduces a variety of choreographed acts set to music, developed in the latter part of the 19th century and remained the dominant format until the 1970s.

As styles of performance have developed since the time of Astley, so too have the types of venues where these circuses have performed. The earliest modern circuses were performed in open-air structures with limited covered seating. From the late 18th to late 19th century, custom-made circus buildings were built with various types of seating, a centre ring, sometimes a stage; the traditional large tents known as "big tops" were introduced in the mid-19th century as touring circuses superseded static venues. These tents became the most common venue. Contemporary circuses perform in a variety of venues including tents and casinos. Many circus performances are still held in a ring 13 m in diameter; this dimension was adopted by Astley in the late 18th century as the minimum diameter that enabled an acrobatic horse rider to stand upright on a cantering horse to perform their tricks. Contemporary circus has been credited with a revival of the circus tradition since the late 1970s, when a number of groups began to experiment with new circus formats and aesthetics avoiding the use of animals to focus on human artistry.

Circuses within the movement have tended to favor a theatrical approach, combining character-driven circus acts with original music in a broad variety of styles to convey complex themes or stories. Contemporary circus continues to develop new variations on the circus tradition while absorbing new skills and stylistic influences from other performing arts. First attested in English 14th century, the word circus derives from Latin circus, the romanization of the Greek κίρκος, itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος, meaning "circle" or "ring". In the book De Spectaculis early Christian writer Tertullian claimed that the first circus games were staged by the goddess Circe in honour of her father Helios, the Sun God; the modern and held idea of a circus is of a Big Top with various acts providing entertainment therein. However, the history of circuses is more complex, with historians disagreeing on its origin, as well as revisions being done about the history due to the changing nature of historical research, the ongoing circus phenomenon.

For many, circus history begins with Englishman Philip Astley, while for others its origins go back much further—to Roman times. In Ancient Rome, the circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, gladiatorial combat and displays of trained animals; the circuses of Rome were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction, for events that involved re-enactments of naval battles, the circus was flooded with water. The Roman circus buildings were, not circular but rectangular with semi circular ends; the lower seats were reserved for persons of rank. The circus was the only public spectacle at which women were not separated; some circus historians such as George Speaight have stated "these performances may have taken place in the great arenas that were called'circuses' by the Romans, but it is a mistake to equate these places, or the entertainments presented there, with the modern circus" Others have argued that the lineage of the circus does go back to the Roman circuses and a chronology of circus-related entertainment can be traced to Roman times, continued by the Hippodrome of Constantinople that operated until the 13th century, through medieval and renaissance jesters and troubadours to the late 18th century and the time of Astley.

The first circus in the city of Rome was the Circus Maximus, in the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills. It was constructed during the monarchy and, at first, built from wood. After being rebuilt several times, the final version of the Circus Maximus could seat 250,000 people. Next in importance were the Circus Flaminius and the Circus Neronis, from the notoriety which it obtained through the Circensian pleasures of Nero. A fourth circus was constructed by Maxentius. For some time after the fall of Rome, large circus buildings fell out of use as centres of mass entertainment. Instead, itinerant performers, animal trainers and showmen travelled between towns throughout Europe, performing at local fairs; the origin of the modern circus has been attributed to Philip As

The Whopperettes

The Whopperettes is a series of advertisements created by Crispin, Porter + Bogusky for Burger King, featuring Brooke Burke. The commercials premiered during Super Bowl XL and featured the King orchestrating a Broadway-style show, reminiscent of The Rockettes' Shows, featuring women dressed as burger condiments and toppings; the King is featured "directing" the show. The commercial was shot in a warehouse in Rio de Brazil, it took a total of five days to complete the shooting of it. Brooke Burke was cast as the role of the Top Bun in this commercial. After the commercials were over, the audience had the ability to go onto The Whopperettes website and create their own show; the website allows the user to enter their name and what condiments they prefer on their Whopper, once they finish that, they can watch their show that they customized to their liking. The staff who played roles in producing this commercial include the following: Creative Director: Rob Reilly Director: Bryan Buckley Production Company: Hungry Man Productions, NYC Costume Designer: Angus Strathie Choreographer: Michael Rooney Burger King advertising Crispin, Porter + Bogusky Crispin, Porter + Bogusky’s homepage

Hell on Earth 2006

"Hell on Earth 2006" is the eleventh episode in the tenth season of the American animated television series South Park. The 150th episode of the series overall, it aired on Comedy Central in the United States on October 25, 2006; the episode was directed by series co-creator Trey Parker. The episode revolves around Satan having a huge party on Earth, no one will be admitted without a wristband. Satan is busy checking the R. S. V. P. List and deciding what costume to wear to the big event; every detail must be perfect for the prince of darkness, but Satan can't foresee everything. Meanwhile, Butters summons Biggie Smalls; this episode parodies the television series My Super Sweet 16 and the comedy group The Three Stooges. The episode received positive responses from critics. Satan announces his plans to throw a huge Halloween costume party on Earth at the W hotel the Cecil hotel. Among other things, Satan decides upon a cake the size and shape of a Ferrari Enzo, which three notorious serial killers—Ted Bundy, Jeffrey Dahmer, John Wayne Gacy—are entrusted with bringing to the party.

Cardinal Roger Mahony and other Roman Catholic Church officials of Los Angeles, angered that Satan does not invite them to the party, plan to call the fire marshal the night of the party to complain, thus ruining it. When they are unable to do so after discovering that the fire marshal was invited to the party, the clergy decide to crash it. However, Satan's security make sure. Meanwhile, Stan, Token and Butters experiment with a Bloody Mary-type ritual to summon Biggie Smalls. Butters succeeds in summoning him. However, Biggie keeps being summoned back to South Park mid-journey, first by Kyle and by Randy Marsh, further angering him; the three serial killers ineptly destroy the cake and kill each other while attempting to make a new one. Satan's assistant Demonius finds a cake the exact size and shape of an Acura TSX as a last-minute substitute. Satan is infuriated; when Demonius points out that his guests are having fun regardless, Satan flies into a rage. The guests get upset and start to leave, Satan realizes that, in trying to have a party like the girls on My Super Sweet 16, he became like one of them, until he's reassured that he, Satan, is not that bad.

He tells the crowd that he is sorry and invites everyone into the party, including the Catholic priests. Having arrived in Los Angeles, Butters uses a make-up mirror to summon Biggie Smalls to the party, who asks Butters to come in with him as thanks. Trey Parker and Matt Stone described the episode as being a "last minute" one; the idea of having Satan throw a big party on Earth was what the episode was produced around, it wasn't until in the production that the idea to parody the television series My Super Sweet 16 was implemented. Parker and Stone chose to parody that series because they felt that it was the "most disgusting, foul show made", describing the people featured on it as "evil" and "horrible"; the episode opened with the scene where the boys are in the bathroom, rather than the scene in Hell. Parker decided to have the scenes switched at the last minute, felt that it was a bad idea in hindsight; the episode features the song "Oh Yeah" by Yello when the three killers pick up Satan's Ferrari cake, similar to the song's usage in the film Ferris Bueller's Day Off.

The episode received positive reviews. IGN's Dan Iverson criticized the episode for the lack of storyline development, but stated that "the storylines were humorous enough that we were able to put aside that there was no real social commentary, but instead madcap comedy, funny based on silly humor alone". Iverson praised the episode for illustrating Satan as a spoiled child and for the Three Stooges scenes involving the killers, concluded that "although isn't as good as a couple of South Park's other Halloween episodes, it is still a funny episode". Adam Finley of TV Squad stated that although he thought "Hell on Earth 2006" was a "great episode", it was "most guaranteed to offend somebody". Judge Keefer of DVD Verdict described the episode as "a great installment with a wincing joke", graded the episode with an A. Chris Longo of Den of Geek listed "Hell on Earth 2006" as the series' best Halloween episode. One of the guests appearing at Satan's party is Steve Irwin, who has a stingray protruding from his chest.

Satan, upon being informed that said guest is offending some of the others, goes to confront him, but does not realize that it is Irwin at first, thinking instead that it is someone else in a costume, tells him that it is in bad taste to wear such a costume so soon after Irwin's death. Finding out it is Irwin, Satan kicks him out of the party for not wearing a costume; the scene sparked controversy among the media for parodying Irwin's death so soon after its occurrence. The controversy was because of the airing of the episode so close to Irwin's death, since an earlier parody of Irwin in a 1999 South Park episode entitled "Prehistoric Ice Man", did not spark controversy. A friend of Terri Irwin, Steve Irwin's widow, has issued a statement about the episode: Terri is devastated Steve is being mocked in such a cru