British Kaffraria was a British colony/subordinate administrative entity in present-day South Africa, consisting of the districts now known as King Williams Town and East London. The British Kaffraria was established in 1847 when the British colonisers occupying South Africa invaded the Transkei region between the Keiskamma and Great Kei rivers and declared it a Crown Colony. Just 17 years it was incorporate into the Cape Colony after the Xhosa people suffered from a great famine following the Xhosa cattle-killing movement of 1856-7 and required relief from the colonisers’ government; the term Kaffraria stems from the now offensive word "Kaffir", used as a term for the Black African inhabitants of southern Africa. The word is derived from the Arabic kafir, translated into English as "disbeliever" or "non-believer", i.e. a non-Muslim or "one without religion". The word was applied to non Muslims in general, therefore to non-Muslim black peoples encountered along the Swahili coast by Arab traders.
The word "Kaffraria" came to refer to the Xhosa lands in what is now the Eastern Cape. The western Xhosa lands which fell under British rule came to be known as "British Kaffraria", while the independent Xhosa territory to the east was known as "Kaffraria", it was inhabited by the Ngqika people, the major branch of the Rharhabe Xhosa. A subsection of British Kaffraria was reconstituted by the Apartheid regime as the semi-independent homeland of Ciskei. Similar to elsewhere in southern Africa, the aboriginal inhabitants of the area were the Khoisan hunter gatherers and herders. Early on, these peoples were displaced by the Bantu expansion, when it crossed the Kei river from the north; the area was consolidated under the rule of a branch of the Xhosa people. The native Xhosa were ruled by the Ngqika Chiefs: Ngqika ka Rarabe, 1797 – 13 November 1829 Mgolombane Sandile, 13 November 1829 – 1 June 1878 The territory came under British rule in the 19th century. However, there was great disagreement on how it should be governed, with the Cape Colony being reluctant to take responsibility for its administration.
Its status therefore changed several times before it became part of the Cape Colony. The territory’s administration was handled by a British military officer, appointed as the chief commissioner; each administrative chief was assisted by assistant commissioners who acted as magistrates and arbitrators among the several Xhosa tribes. The authority of the Xhosa chiefs was recognised to a limited degree since their decisions were subject to review by the colonial administration. Any decisions made by the Xhosa chiefs could be reversed if they were contrary to the British colonisers’ agenda; the Xhosa Chiefs had to acknowledge the Queen of England and recognise their own subordination to the appointed British military commander. British commander Harry Smith arrived in the Cape Of Good Hope in 1828 to lead the British army, he led a British force in the Sixth Xhosa War of 1834-36. He returned from India in 1847 to become the governor of the Cape Colony, he attempted to unseat Chief Sandile of the Ngqika people in British Kaffraria when the Mlanjeni War erupted in 1850.
The war lasted until 1853 after Smith was recalled. After the 6th Frontier War, on 10 May 1835, the area was seized by the British Governor Sir Benjamin d'Urban, annexed to the Cape Colony as Queen Adelaide Province, it was established when the Xhosa people were driven across the Kei River and a new buffer zone was established with white settlers maintaining the new order. The province was divided into small chiefdoms that were controlled by magistrates who lived in the various chiefs’ Great Places. A location for the new province's government was selected, named King William's Town; the province was declared to be for the settlement of loyal African tribes, those rebel tribes who agreed to replace their leadership, the Fengu, who had arrived fleeing from the Zulu armies and had been living under Xhosa subjection. Magistrates were appointed to administer the territory in the hope that they would with the help of missionaries, undermine tribal authority; the area was named after Queen Adelaide, the wife of King William IV.
When the brutality of the annexation was reported to the colonial office in England, authorities were expressed their disapproval of D’Urban’s processes. The British government, along with the rest of Europe, was in the wake of the Romantic Age in 1835 and prescribed to a philanthropic approach. Lord Glenelg, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, stressed that the horrors of the war created by the British invaders in South Africa brought dishonour to the British name and "Queen Adelaide Province” would no longer be the name of the territory. Only a few months after its forcible joining to the Cape Colony, on 5 December 1835, the Cape Colony disallowed the annexation; the province's creation was condemned by London, as being uneconomical and unjust. Queen Adelaide was formally disannexed in December 1836, the Cape's border was re-established back at the Keiskamma river, new treaties were made with the chiefs responsible for order beyond the Fish River; the area was now renamed Queen Adelaide Land district, with Grahamstown as its capital.
Indigenous rule by and large re-established itself in much of the territory and the land remained a separate entity until 1847. After the 7th Frontier War, on 17 December 1847, the area was again seized by the new British Governor Ha
Makhanda is a town of about 70,000 people in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. It is situated about 110 kilometres northeast of Port Elizabeth and 130 kilometres southwest of East London. Grahamstown is the largest town in the Makana Local Municipality, the seat of the municipal council, it hosts Rhodes University, the Eastern Cape Division of the High Court, The South African Library for the Blind and a diocese of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa and 6 South African Infantry Battalion. The name change to Makhanda was gazetted on 29 June 2018 and the town was renamed to Makhanda in order to "rightfully" immortalise the memory of Xhosa warrior and prophet Makhanda ka Nxele. Grahamstown was founded in 1812 as a military outpost by Lieutenant-Colonel John Graham as part of the effort to secure the eastern frontier of British influence in the Cape Colony against the Xhosa, forcibly pushed out to the lands that lay just to the east on the Fish River; the brutal expulsion of some 20 000 Xhosa people, including their leader Ndlambe ka Rharhabe, from the Zuurveld and the adoption of a "scorched earth" tactic by Graham and his forces to destroy Xhosa crops to prevent their return was part of the 4th "Frontier" War.
On 22 April 1819, a large number of Xhosa warriors, under the leadership of Nxele, launched an attack against the British colonial forces. The Xhosas had warned Colonel Willshire, the commanding officer, of their planned attack on Grahamstown, it was one of countless attacks launched on the nascent colony by the Xhosas. During the course of the battle, the British were running low on ammunition. A woman, by the name of Elizabeth Salt, risked her life by walking into the battle carrying weapons and ammunition to the British troops, she disguised ammunition as an infant whom she was cradling. The Xhosa warriors were reluctant to attack a woman and child and so allowed her to pass and resupply the troops; the Xhosas, with a force of 10,000 troops under the overall command of Ndlambe's warrior son Mdushane, were unable to overpower the colonial garrison of some 300 men. Nxele was taken captive and imprisoned on Robben Island. On Christmas Day, 1819 he tried to escape, drowned. Grahamstown grew during the 1820s as many 1820 Settlers and their families left farming to establish themselves in more secure trades.
In 1833, Grahamstown was described as having "two or three English merchants of considerable wealth, but scarcely any society in the ordinary sense of the word. The Public Library is a wretched affair"; as of 1833, it was estimated that the population of Grahamstown was 6,000. In a few decades it became the Cape Colony's largest town after Cape Town, it became a bishopric in 1852. It was traditionally the capital and cultural centre of the Albany area, a former traditionally English-speaking district with a distinctive local culture. In 1872, the Cape Government Railways began construction of the railway line linking Grahamstown to Port Alfred on the coast, to the developing national railway network inland; that was completed and opened on 3 September 1879. Grahamstown was the location of the testing of the first diamond. In 1904, Rhodes University College was established in Grahamstown through a grant from the Rhodes Trust. In 1951 it became Rhodes University. Arts and Culture Minister Nathi Mthethwa announced the name change from Grahamstown in the Government Gazette no. 641 of 29 June 2018.
The purpose of gazetting was to publicise the Minister's decision for objections or comments by 28 July 2018. Prompted by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission recommendation that geographic features, including geographical names, be renamed as a "symbolic reparation" to address an unjust past, it is proposed that the town be renamed after Makhanda, the prophet and military man, who led a failed attack against the British garrison in Grahamstown in 1819. On 2 October 2018, Grahamstown was renamed to Makhanda in order to "rightfully" immortalise the memory of Makhanda ka Nxele. St. Michael and St. George Cathedral is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Grahamstown. Makhanda has Roman Catholic, Ethiopian Episcopal, Baptist, Pinkster Protestante, Dutch Reformed, Charismatic and Pentecostal churches. There are meeting places for Hindus, Quakers, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Muslims. For historic reasons the vibrancy of evangelism during Grahamstown's heyday, the City is home to more than forty religious buildings, the nickname the "City of Saints" has become attached to the town.
However, there is another story. It is said that in about 1846 there were Royal Engineers stationed in Grahamstown who were in need of building tools, they sent a message to Cape Town requesting a vice to be forwarded to them from the Ordnance Stores. A reply came back,'Buy vice locally'; the response was, "No vice in Grahamstown". According to the 2011 census the population of Grahamstown was 67,264, of whom 78.9% described themselves as "Black African", 11.3% as "Coloured" and 8.4% as "White". Since 1994, there has been a considerable influx of Black people from the former Ciskei Xhosa homeland, which lies just to the east; the first language of 72.2% of the population is Xhosa, while 13.7% speak Afrikaans and 10.8% speak English Makhanda is home to many schools, Rhodes University, several institutes, most the South African National Library for the Blind, the National English Literary Museum, the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, the Intern
The Xhosa people are an ethnic group of people of Southern Africa found in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa, in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. There is a small but significant Xhosa community in Zimbabwe, their language, IsiXhosa, is recognised as a national language; the Xhosa people are divided into several tribes with distinct heritages. The main tribes are the AmaGcaleka, AmaRharhabe, ImiDange, ImiDushane, AmaNdlambe. In addition, there are other tribes found near or amongst the Xhosa people such as AbaThembu, AmaBhaca, AbakoBhosha and AmaQwathi that are distinct and separate tribes which have adopted the Xhosa language and the Xhosa way of life; the name "Xhosa" comes from that of a legendary leader and King called uXhosa. There is a fringe theory that, in fact the King's name which has since been lost amongst the people was not Xhosa, but that "xhosa" was a name given to him by the San and which means "fierce" or "angry" in Khoisan languages.
The Xhosa people refer to themselves as the AmaXhosa, to their language as isiXhosa. Presently 8 million Xhosa are distributed across the country, the Xhosa language is South Africa's second-most-populous home language, after the Zulu language, to which Xhosa is related; the pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied Xhosas South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely. Many Xhosa live in Cape Town, East London, Port Elizabeth; as of 2003 the majority of Xhosa speakers 5.3 million, lived in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West, the Northern Cape, Limpopo. The Xhosa are part of the South African Nguni migration which moved south from the region around the Great Lakes; these tribes lived peacefully together until the frontier wars. Xhosa people were well established by the time of the Dutch arrival in the mid-17th century, occupied much of eastern South Africa from around the Port Elizabeth area to lands inhabited by Zulu-speakers south of the modern city of Durban.
The Xhosa and white settlers first encountered one another around Somerset East in the early 18th century. In the late 18th century Afrikaner trekboers migrating outwards from Cape Town came into conflict with Xhosa pastoralists around the Great Fish River region of the Eastern Cape. Following more than 20 years of intermittent conflict, from 1811 to 1812, the Xhosas were forced east by the British Empire in the Third Frontier War. In the years following, many tribes found in the north eastern parts of South Africa were pushed west into Xhosa country by the expansion of the Zulus in Natal, as the northern Nguni put pressure on the southern Nguni as part of the historical process known as the mfecane, or "scattering"; the Xhosa-speaking people received these scattered tribes and assimilated them into their cultural way of life and followed Xhosa traditions. The Xhosa called these various tribes AmaMfengu, meaning wanderers, were made up of tribes such as the amaBhaca, amaBhele, amaHlubi, amaZizi and Rhadebe.
These newcomers are sometimes considered to be Xhosa. Xhosa unity and ability to resist colonial expansion was to be weakened by the famines and political divisions that followed the cattle-killing movement of 1856–1858. Historians now view this movement as a millennialist response, both directly to a lung disease spreading among Xhosa cattle at the time, less directly to the stress to Xhosa society caused by the continuing loss of their territory and autonomy; some historians argue that this early absorption into the wage economy is the ultimate origin of the long history of trade union membership and political leadership among Xhosa people. That history manifests itself today in high degrees of Xhosa representation in the leadership of the African National Congress, South Africa's ruling political party. Xhosa is an agglutinative tonal language of the Bantu family. While the Xhosas call their language "isiXhosa", it is referred to as "Xhosa" in English. Written Xhosa uses a Latin alphabet–based system.
Xhosa is spoken by about 18% of the South African population, has some mutual intelligibility with Zulu Zulu spoken in urban areas. Many Xhosa speakers those living in urban areas speak Zulu and/or Afrikaans and/or English. Traditional healers of South Africa include diviners; this job is taken by women, who spend five years in apprenticeship. There are herbalists and healers for the community; the Xhosas have a strong oral tradition with many stories of ancestral heroes. One of Xhosa's descendents named Phalo gave birth to two sons, Gcaleka kaPhalo, the heir, Rarabe ka Phalo, a son from the Right Hand house. Rarabe was a great warrior and a man of great ability, much loved by his father. Gcaleka was a meek and listless man who did not possess all the qualities befitting of a future king. Matters were complicated by Gcaleka's initiation as a diviner, a forbidden practice for members of the royal family. Seeing the popularity of his brother and fearing that he might one day challenge him for the throne, Gcaleka attempted to usurp the throne from his father, but Rarabe would come to his father's aid and quell the insurrection.
With the blessing of
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, the Orange River Colony, it included the territories that were a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Following the First World War, the Union of South Africa was granted the administration of South West Africa as a League of Nations mandate, it became treated in most respects as another province of the Union, but it never was formally annexed. Like Canada and Australia, the Union of South Africa was a self-governing autonomous dominion of the British Empire, its independence from the United Kingdom was confirmed in the Balfour Declaration 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931. It was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with the Crown being represented by a governor-general; the Union came to an end with the enactment of the constitution of 1961, by which it became a republic and temporarily left the Commonwealth.
The Union of South Africa was a unitary state, rather than a federation like Canada and Australia, with each colony's parliaments being abolished and replaced with provincial councils. A bicameral parliament was created, consisting of the House of Assembly and Senate, with members of the parliament being elected by the country's white minority. During the course of the Union, the franchise changed on several occasions always to suit the needs of the government of the day. Parliamentary supremacy was a convention of the constitution, inherited from the United Kingdom. Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria, Parliament would be in Cape Town, the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein. Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg were given financial compensation; the Union remained under the British Crown as a self-governing dominion of the British Empire.
With the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, the Union and other dominions became equal in status to the United Kingdom and it could no longer legislate on behalf of them. The Monarch was represented in South Africa by a Governor-General, while effective power was exercised by the Executive Council, headed by the Prime Minister. Louis Botha a Boer general, was appointed first Prime Minister of the Union, heading a coalition representing the white Afrikaner and English-speaking British diaspora communities. Prosecutions before courts were instituted in the name of the Crown and government officials served in the name of the Crown. An entrenched clause in the Constitution mentioned Dutch and English as official languages of the Union, but the meaning of Dutch was changed by the Official Languages of the Union Act, 1925 to include both Dutch and Afrikaans. Most English-speaking whites in South Africa supported the United Party of Jan Smuts, which favoured close relations with the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.
Unlike the Afrikaans-speaking National Party, which had held anti-British sentiments, was opposed to South Africa's intervention in the Second World War. Some Nationalist organisations, like the Ossewa Brandwag, were supportive of Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Most English-speaking South Africans were opposed to the creation of a republic, many of them voting "no" in the 5 October 1960 referendum, but due to the much larger number of Afrikaans-speaking voters, the referendum passed, leading to the establishment of a republic in 1961. The Afrikaner-dominated Government withdrew South Africa from the Commonwealth. Following the results of the referendum, some whites in Natal, which had an English-speaking majority, called for secession from the Union. Five years earlier, some 33,000 Natalians had signed the Natal Covenant in opposition to the plans for a republic. Subsequently, the National Party government had passed a Constitution that repealed the South Africa Act; the features of the Union were carried over with little change to the newly formed Republic.
The decision to transform from a Union to Republic was narrowly decided in the referendum. The decision together with the South African Government's insistence on adhering to its policy of apartheid resulted in South Africa's de facto expulsion from the Commonwealth of Nations; the South Africa Act dealt with race in two specific provisions. First it entrenched the liberal Cape Qualified Franchise system of the Cape Colony which operated free of any racial considerations; the Cape Prime Minister at the time, John X. Merriman, fought hard, but unsuccessfully, to extend this system of multi-racial franchise to the rest of South Africa. Second it made "native affairs" a matter for the national government; the practice therefore was to establish a Minister of Native Affairs. According to Stephen Howe, colonialism in some cases—most among white minorities in South Africa—meant that these violent settlers wanted to maintain more racial inequalities than the colonial empire found just. Several previous unsuccessful attempts to unite the colonies were made, with proposed political models ranging from unitary, to loosely federal.
Sir George Grey, the Governor of Cap
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
J. B. M. Hertzog
General James Barry Munnik Hertzog, better known as Barry Hertzog or J. B. M. Hertzog, was a South African politician and soldier, he was a Boer general during the second Anglo-Boer War who became Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa from 1924 to 1939. Throughout his life he encouraged the development of Afrikaner culture, determined to protect the Afrikaners from Britain's influences, he is the only South African Prime Minister to have served under three British Monarchs. Hertzog first studied law at Victoria College in Cape Colony. In 1889 he went to the Netherlands to read law at the University of Amsterdam, where he prepared a dissertation on the strength of which he received his doctorate in law on 12 November 1892. Hertzog had a law practice in Pretoria from 1892 until 1895, when he was appointed to the Orange Free State High Court. During the Boer War of 1899–1902 he rose to the rank of general, becoming the assistant chief commandant of the military forces of the Orange Free State.
Despite some military reverses, he gained renown as a daring and resourceful leader of the guerilla forces continuing to fight the British. Convinced of the futility of further bloodshed, he signed the May 1902 Treaty of Vereeniging. With South Africa now at peace, Hertzog entered politics as the chief organiser of the Orangia Unie Party. In 1907, the Orange River Colony gained self-government and Hertzog joined the cabinet as Attorney-General and Director of Education, his insistence that Dutch as well as English be taught in the schools met bitter opposition. He was appointed national Minister of Justice in the newly formed Union of South Africa, he continued in office until 1912. His antagonism to imperialism and Premier Botha led to a ministerial crisis. In 1913 he led a secession of the Old Boer and anti-imperialist section from the South African Party. At the outbreak of the South African rebellion in 1914, Hertzog remained neutral. In the years following the war, he headed the opposition to the government of General Smuts.
In the general election of 1924, his National Party defeated the South African Party of Jan Smuts and formed a coalition government with the South African Labour Party, which became known as the Pact Government. In 1934, the National Party and the South African Party merged to form the United Party, with Hertzog as Prime Minister and leader of the new party; as prime minister, Hertzog presided over the passage of a wide range of social and economic measures which did much to improve conditions for working-class whites. According to one historian, “The government of 1924, which combined Hertzog’s NP with the Labour Party, oversaw the foundations of an Afrikaner welfare state.”A Department of Labour was established while the Wages Act laid down minimum wages for unskilled workers, although it excluded farm labourers, domestic servants, public servants. It established a Wage Board that regulated pay for certain kinds of work, regardless of racial background; the Old Age Pensions Act provided retirement benefits for white workers.
Coloureds received the pension, but the maximum for Coloureds was only 70% that of whites. The establishment of the South African Iron and Steel Industrial Corp in 1930 helped to stimulate economic progress, while the withdrawal of duties on imported raw materials for industrial use encouraged industrial development and created further employment opportunities, but at the cost of a higher cost of living. Various forms of assistance to agriculture were introduced. Dairy farmers, for instance, were aided by a levy imposed on all butter sales, while an increase in import taxes protected farmers from international competition. Farmers benefited from preferential railway tariffs and from the widening availability of loans from the Land Bank; the government assisted farmers by guaranteeing prices for farm produce, while work colonies were established for those in need of social salvage. Secondary industries were established to improve employment opportunities, which did much to reduce white poverty and enabled many whites to join the ranks of both semi-skilled and skilled labour.
An extension of worker's compensation was carried out, while improvements were made in the standards specified under a contemporary Factory Act, thus bringing the Act into line with international standards with regard to the length of the working week and the employment of child labour. A law on miners' phthisis was overhauled, increased protection of white urban tenants against eviction was introduced at a time when houses were in short supply; the civil service was opened up to Afrikaners through the promotion of bilingualism, while a widening of the suffrage was carried out, with the enfranchisement of white women. The pact instituted ‘penny postage’, automatic telephone exchanges, a cash-on-delivery postal service, an experimental airmail service, made permanent; the Department of Social Welfare was established in 1937 as a separate governmental department to deal with social conditions. Increased expenditure was made on education for both whites and coloureds. Spending on coloured education rose by 60%, which led to the number of coloured children in school grow by 30%.
Grants for the blind and the disabled were introduced in 1936 and 1937 while unemployment benefits were introduced in 1937. That same year, the coverage of maintenance grants was extended. Although the social and economic policies pursued by Hertzog and his ministers did much to improve social and economic conditions for whites, they did not benefit the majority of South Africans, who found themselves the targets of discriminatory lab
Apartheid was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap, which encouraged state repression of Black African and Asian South Africans for the benefit of the nation's minority white population; the economic legacy and social effects of apartheid continue to the present day. Broadly speaking, apartheid was delineated into petty apartheid, which entailed the segregation of public facilities and social events, grand apartheid, which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had emerged in the form of minority rule by White South Africans and the enforced separation of Black South Africans from other races, which extended to pass laws and land apportionment. Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the election of the National Party at the 1948 general election.
A codified system of racial stratification began to take form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the late-eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between Dutch colonists and a creolised, ethnically diverse slave population. With the rapid growth and industrialisation of the British Cape Colony in the nineteenth century, racial policies and laws became rigid. Cape legislation that discriminated against Black South Africans began appearing shortly before 1900; the policies of the Boer republics were racially exclusive. The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines; the Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.
Places of residence were determined by racial classification. From 1960–1983, 3.5 million Non-White South Africans were removed from their homes and forced into segregated neighbourhoods, in one of the largest mass evictions in modern history. Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the Black population to ten designated "tribal homelands" known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states; the government announced that relocated persons would lose their South African citizenship as they were absorbed into the bantustans. Apartheid sparked significant international and domestic opposition, resulting in some of the most influential global social movements of the twentieth century, it was the target of frequent condemnation in the United Nations and brought about an extensive arms and trade embargo on South Africa. During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.
Some reforms of the apartheid system were undertaken, including allowing for Indian and Coloured political representation in parliament, but these measures failed to appease most activist groups. Between 1987 and 1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress, the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule. In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison. Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, pending democratic, multiracial elections set for April 1994. Apartheid is an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart" "apart-hood", its first recorded use was in 1929. Under the 1806 Cape Articles of Capitulation the new British colonial rulers were required to respect previous legislation enacted under Roman Dutch law and this led to a separation of the law in South Africa from English Common Law and a high degree of legislative autonomy.
The governors and assemblies that governed the legal process in the various colonies of South Africa were launched on a different and independent legislative path from the rest of the British Empire. In the days of slavery, slaves required passes to travel away from their masters. In 1797 the Landdrost and Heemraden of Swellendam and Graaff-Reinet extended pass laws beyond slaves and ordained that all Khoikhoi moving about the country for any purpose should carry passes; this was confirmed by the British Colonial government in 1809 by the Hottentot Proclamation, which decreed that if a Khoikhoi were to move they would need a pass from their master or a local official. Ordinance No. 49 of 1828 decreed that prospective black immigrants were to be granted passes for the sole purpose of seeking work. These passes were to be issued for Coloureds and Khoikhoi, but not for other Africans, who were still forced to carry passes; the United Kingdom's Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire and overrode the Cape Articles of Capitulation.
To comply with the act the South African legislation was expanded to include Ordinance 1 in 1835, which changed the status of slaves to indentured labourers. This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa, little different from slave