Latticework is an openwork framework consisting of a criss-crossed pattern of strips of building material, typically wood or metal. The design is created by crossing the strips to form a network, latticework can be purely ornamental, or can be used as a truss structure such as a lattice girder bridge. Latticework in stone or wood from the period is called transenna. In India, the house of a rich or noble person may be built with a baramdah or verandah surrounding every level leading to the living area. The upper floors often have balconies overlooking the street that are shielded by jalis carved in stone latticework that keeps the area cool, brise soleil Jali Lattice tower Lattice truss bridge Lattice stool Mashrabiya Mesh Pergola Trellis Truss Wattle
Four-wheel drive, 4×4, and 4WD, is a form of drivetrain capable of providing power to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously. It may be full-time, or on-demand, and is linked via a transfer case which provides an additional output drive-shaft. When a four-wheeled vehicle has power supplied to axles, this is described as all-wheel drive. However, four-wheel drive typically refers to a set of components and functions, and/or intended offroad application. 4×4/4WD/AWD systems were developed in different markets and used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures, the terms used by various manufactures often reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. Four-by-four refers to the class of vehicles. The first figure represents the total wheels, and the second, syntactically, 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine power to only two axle-ends, the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive.
Alternatively, a 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which power to two wheel ends each. Four wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing power to four wheel ends, in the North American market the term generally refers to a system that is optimized for off-road driving conditions. The term 4WD is typically designated for vehicles equipped with a transfercase which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically. All wheel drive historically was synonymous with four-wheel drive on four-wheeled vehicles, and six-wheel drive on 6×6s, today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles. Typical AWD systems work well on all surfaces, but are not intended for more extreme off-road use, some all wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles. An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, individual-wheel drive was coined to identify those electric vehicles whereby each wheel is driven by its own individual electric motor.
This system essentially has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available power to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels, for example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Two wheels fixed to the same turn at the same speed as a vehicle goes around curves
The coconut tree is a member of the family Arecaceae and the only species of the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit. The spelling cocoanut is a form of the word. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning head or skull, coconuts are known for their great versatility, as evidenced by many traditional uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. They form a part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits for their quantity of water. When mature, they can be used as seed nuts or processed to give oil from the kernel, charcoal from the hard shell, the endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. As development continues, cellular layers of endosperm deposit along the walls of the coconut, when dried, the coconut flesh is called copra. The oil and milk derived from it are used in cooking and frying, as well as in soaps. The husks and leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating, the coconut has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals.
Cocos nucifera is a palm, growing up to 30 m tall, with pinnate leaves 4–6 m long. Coconuts are generally classified into two types and dwarf. On fertile soil, a coconut palm tree can yield up to 75 fruits per year. Given proper care and growing conditions, coconut palms produce their first fruit in six to ten years, the coconut fruit is a drupe, not a true nut. Like other fruits, it has three layers, the exocarp and endocarp, the exocarp and mesocarp make up the husk of the coconuts. Coconuts sold in the shops of nontropical countries often have had the exocarp removed, the mesocarp is composed of a fiber, called coir, which has many traditional and commercial uses. The shell has three germination pores or eyes that are visible on its outside surface once the husk is removed. A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.44 kg and it takes around 6,000 full-grown coconuts to produce a tonne of copra
Postage stamp may refer to a formatting artifact in the display of film or video, Windowbox. A postage stamp is a piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special paper, show a national designation and a denomination on the front. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover the customer wishes to send, the item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark, sometimes known as a cancellation mark, is usually applied in overlapping manner to stamp and cover. This procedure marks the stamp as used to prevent its reuse, in modern usage, postmarks generally indicate the date and point of origin of the mailing. The mailed item is delivered to the address the customer has applied to the envelope or parcel. Postage stamps have facilitated the delivery of mail since the 1840s, before then and hand-stamps, usually made from wood or cork, were often used to frank the mail and confirm the payment of postage.
The first adhesive postage stamp, commonly referred to as the Penny Black, was issued in the United Kingdom in 1840, there are varying accounts of the inventor or inventors of the stamp. The postage stamp resolved this issue in a simple and elegant manner, concurrently with the first stamps, the UK offered wrappers for mail. S. Postal service for priority or express mailing, the postage stamp afforded convenience for both the mailer and postal officials, more effectively recovered costs for the postal service, and ultimately resulted in a better, faster postal system. With the conveniences stamps offered, their use resulted in greatly increased mailings during the 19th and 20th centuries, as postage stamps with their engraved imagery began to appear on a widespread basis and collectors began to take notice. The study of stamps and their use is referred to as philately. Stamp collecting can be both a hobby and a form of study and reference, as government-issued postage stamps. The postage for the item was prepaid by the use of a hand-stamp to frank the mailed item.
Though this stamp was applied to a letter instead of a piece of paper it is considered by many historians as the worlds first postage stamp. Rowland Hill The Englishman Sir Rowland Hill began interest in postal reform in 1835, in 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, provided Hill with numerous books and documents, which Hill described as a half hundred weight of material. Hill commenced a study of these documents, leading him to the 1837 publication of a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform its Importance
A currency in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use, under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, and European euros are examples of currency. These various currencies are recognized stores of value and are traded between nations in exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance, other definitions of the term currency are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money. The latter definition, pertaining to the systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two systems, fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the value. Some currencies are legal tender in certain jurisdictions, which means they cannot be refused as payment for debt.
Others are simply traded for their economic value, digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet. Currency evolved from two basic innovations, both of which had occurred by 2000 BC, originally money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities and this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. Trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military and it is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse, possibly produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves.
African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many various forms of barter still apply. These factors led to the metal itself being the store of value, first silver, now we have copper coins and other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins and this was to assure the individual taking the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but they created a new unit of account. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins, using a mix of copper, gold coins were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities, they were more often used as measures of account than physical coins
Ambushes have been used consistently throughout history, from ancient to modern warfare. The use by humans of the ambush may date as far back as two million years when anthropologists have recently suggested that ambush techniques were used to hunt large game. One example from ancient times is the Battle of the Trebia river, hannibal encamped within striking distance of the Romans with the Trebia River between them, and placed a strong force of cavalry and infantry in concealment, near the battle zone. When the Roman infantry became entangled in combat with his army, the result was slaughter and defeat for the Romans. Nevertheless, the battle displays the effects of good tactical discipline on the part of the ambushed force, although most of the legions were lost, about 10,000 Romans cut their way through to safety, maintaining unit cohesion. This ability to discipline and break out or maneuver away from a kill zone is a hallmark of good troops. Another famous ambush was sprung by Germanic warchief Arminius against the Romans at Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.
This particular ambush was to affect the course of Western history, the Germanic forces demonstrated several principles needed for a successful ambush. They took cover in difficult forested terrain, allowing the warriors time and they had the element of surprise, and this was aided by the defection of Arminius from Roman ranks prior to the battle. They sprang the attack when the Romans were most vulnerable, when they had left their fortified camp, the Germans made use of blocking obstacles, erecting a trench and earthen wall to hinder Roman movement along the route of the killing zone. The result was slaughter of the Romans, and the destruction of three legions. The Germanic victory caused a limit on Roman expansion in the West, ultimately, it established the Rhine as the boundary of the Roman Empire for the next four hundred years, until the decline of the Roman influence in the West. The Roman Empire made no further concerted attempts to conquer Germania beyond the Rhine, according to Muslim tradition Islamic Prophet Muhammad made use of ambush tactics in his military campaigns.
His first such use was during the Caravan raids, in the Kharrar caravan raid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas was ordered to lead a raid against the Quraysh and his group consisted of about twenty Muhajirs. This raid was done about a month after the previous, with his soldiers, set up an ambush in the valley of Kharrar on the road to Mecca and waited to raid a returning Meccan caravan from Syria. But the caravan had already passed and the Muslims returned to Medina without any loot, arab tribes during Muhammads era made use of ambush tactics. One example retold in Muslim tradition is said to have taken place during the First Raid on Banu Thalabah, Muhammad ibn Maslama pretended to be dead. A Muslim who happened to pass that way found him and assisted him to return to Medina, in modern warfare, an ambush is most often employed by ground troops up to platoon size against enemy targets, which may be other ground troops, or possibly vehicles
Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk
The Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk is a four-bladed, twin-engine, medium-lift utility helicopter manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft. Sikorsky submitted the S-70 design for the United States Armys Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System competition in 1972, the Army designated the prototype as the YUH-60A and selected the Black Hawk as the winner of the program in 1976, after a fly-off competition with the Boeing Vertol YUH-61. Named after the Native American war leader Black Hawk, the UH-60A entered service with the U. S. Army in 1979 and this was followed by the fielding of electronic warfare and special operations variants of the Black Hawk. Improved UH-60L and UH-60M utility variants have been developed, Modified versions have been developed for the U. S. Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard. In addition to U. S. Army use, the UH-60 family has been exported to several nations, Black Hawks have served in combat during conflicts in Grenada, Iraq, the Balkans and other areas in the Middle East. In the late 1960s, the United States Army began forming requirements for a helicopter to replace the UH-1 Iroquois, the Army initiated the development of a new, common turbine engine for its helicopters that would become the General Electric T700.
Based on experience in Vietnam, the Army required significant performance, the Army released its UTTAS request for proposals in January 1972. The RFP included air transport requirements, Transport aboard the C-130 limited the UTTAS cabin height and length. Four prototypes were constructed, with the first YUH-60A flying on 17 October 1974, prior to delivery of the prototypes to the US Army, a preliminary evaluation was conducted in November 1975 to ensure the aircraft could be operated safely during all testing. Three of the prototypes were delivered to the Army in March 1976, for evaluation against the rival Boeing-Vertol design, the YUH-61A, the Army selected the UH-60 for production in December 1976. Deliveries of the UH-60A to the Army began in October 1978, after entering service, the helicopter was modified for new missions and roles, including mine laying and medical evacuation. An EH-60 variant was developed to conduct electronic warfare and special operations aviation developed the MH-60 variant to support its missions, due to weight increases from the addition of mission equipment and other changes, the Army ordered the improved UH-60L in 1987.
The new model incorporated all of the made to the UH-60A fleet as standard design features. The UH-60L featured more power and lifting capability with upgraded T700-GE-701C engines and its external lift capacity increased by 1,000 lb up to 9,000 lb. The UH-60L incorporated the automatic control system from the SH-60 for better flight control due to handling issues with the more powerful engines. Production of the L-model began in 1989, Development of the next improved variant, the UH-60M, was approved in 2001, to extend the service life of the UH-60 design into the 2020s. The UH-60M incorporates upgraded T700-GE-701D engines, improved rotor blades, and state of the art electronic instrumentation, flight controls and aircraft navigation control. After the U. S. DoD approved low-rate initial production of the new variant, manufacturing began in 2006, after an initial operational evaluation, the Army approved full-rate production and a five-year contract for 1,227 helicopters in December 2007
Molasses, or black treacle, is a viscous by-product of refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. Molasses varies by amount of sugar, method of extraction, sugarcane molasses is agreeable in taste and aroma, and is primarily used for sweetening and flavoring foods in U. S. Canada and elsewhere, while sugar beet molasses is foul-smelling and unpalatable, so it is used as an animal feed additive in Europe and Russia. It is a component of fine commercial brown sugar. Sweet sorghum syrup may be colloquially called sorghum molasses in the southern United States, similar products include treacle, maple syrup, corn syrup, and invert syrup. Most of these alternative syrups have milder flavors, cane molasses is a common ingredient in baking and cooking. To make molasses, sugar cane is harvested and stripped of leaves and its juice is extracted, usually by cutting, crushing, or mashing. The juice is boiled to concentrate it, promoting sugar crystallization, the result of this first boiling is called first syrup, and it has the highest sugar content.
First syrup is usually referred to in the Southern states of the U. S. as cane syrup, second molasses is created from a second boiling and sugar extraction, and has a slightly bitter taste. The third boiling of the sugar syrup yields dark, viscous blackstrap molasses, the majority of sucrose from the original juice has crystallized and been removed. The caloric content of blackstrap molasses is mostly due to the remaining sugar content. Blackstrap is a source of potassium. Blackstrap molasses has long been sold as a dietary supplement, blackstrap molasses is significantly more bitter than regular molasses. It is sometimes used in baking or for producing ethanol, as an ingredient in cattle feed, the term black-strap or blackstrap is an Americanism dating from 1875 or before. Its first known use is in a book by detective Allan Pinkerton in 1877, Molasses made from sugar beets differs from sugarcane molasses. Only the syrup left from the final stage is called molasses. Intermediate syrups are called high green and low green, and these are recycled within the plant to maximize extraction.
Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, beet molasses is limited in biotin for cell growth, hence, it may be supplemented with a biotin source
Gunpowder, known as black powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It is a mixture of sulfur and potassium nitrate, the sulfur and charcoal act as fuels, and the saltpeter is an oxidizer. Black powder firearms are in limited use today in hunting, Black powder has been replaced for most industrial uses by high explosives such as dynamite. Black powder is assigned the UN number UN0027 and has a class of 1. 1D. It has a point of approximately 427–464 °C. The specific flash point may vary based on the composition of the gunpowder. Gunpowders specific gravity is 1. 70–1.82 or 1. 92–2.08, Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its relatively slow decomposition rate and consequently low brisance. Low explosives deflagrate at subsonic speeds, whereas high explosives detonate, ignition of the powder packed behind a bullet must generate enough pressure to force it from the muzzle at high speed, but not enough to rupture the gun barrel. Gunpowder thus makes a good propellant, but is suitable for shattering rock or fortifications.
Gunpowder was widely used to fill artillery shells and in mining and civil engineering to blast rock until the half of the 19th century. Black powder is used as a delay element in various munitions where its slow-burning properties are valuable. The spread of gunpowder across Asia from China is widely attributed to the Mongols, the earliest record of a written formula for gunpowder appears in the 11th century Song dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao. This discovery led to the invention of fireworks and the earliest gunpowder weapons in China, in the centuries following the Chinese discovery, gunpowder weapons began appearing in the Muslim world and Europe. The technology spread from China through the Middle East or Central Asia, the earliest Western accounts of gunpowder appear in texts written by English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century. The most ardent protagonists were Nathaniel Halhad, Johann Backmann, Quintin Craufurd, due to lack of sufficient proof, these theories have not been widely accepted. A major problem confronting the study of the history of gunpowder is ready access to sources close to the events described.
The translation difficulty has led to errors or loose interpretations bordering on artistic licence, early writings potentially mentioning gunpowder are sometimes marked by a linguistic process where old words acquired new meanings. For instance, the Arabic word naft transitioned from denoting naphtha to denoting gunpowder, saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpeter and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations
It was the royal residence of King Henri I of Haiti, Queen Marie-Louise and their two daughters. It was the most important of nine palaces built by the king, as well as fifteen châteaux, numerous forts, construction of the palace started in 1810 and was completed in 1813. Its name translated from French means carefree, the nearest airport and large city is Cap-Haitien. Before the construction of Sans-Souci, Milot was a French plantation that Christophe managed for a period during the Haitian Revolution, many of Henri Christophes contemporaries noted his ruthlessness, and it is unknown how many laborers died during the palaces construction. Under his reign, the palace was the site of opulent feasts and it had immense gardens, artificial springs, and a system of waterworks. Though Sans-Souci is now an empty ruin, at the time its splendor was noted by foreign visitors. One American physician remarked that it had the reputation of having one of the most magnificent edifices of the West Indies. The impressiveness of Sans-Souci was part of Henri Christophes program to demonstrate to foreigners, particularly Europeans and Americans, Christophes reign drew heavily on European monarchical signs of prestige.
He established a hereditary nobility, along with coats of arms, close to the Palace is the renowned mountaintop fortress, the Citadelle Laferrière, built under decree by Henri Christophe to repel a feared French invasion that never occurred. It is reached by continuing on the trail behind the Palace, the former colonial power in Haiti, recognized Haitis independence in 1825 when Haiti agreed to pay a ruinous indemnity of 150 million francs in return for diplomatic and economic relations. Crippled by a stroke, King Henri I committed suicide on the grounds of the palace on October 8,1820, according to Haitian legend, he shot himself with a silver bullet. He was subsequently buried in the Citadelle and his son and heir, Jacques-Victor Henry, Prince Royal of Haiti was bayoneted to death by revolutionaries at the Palace on October 18,1820. Incidentally, the palace shares its name with another Haitian revolutionary leader and he was an African slave who may have taken his name from the quartier near the parish of Grande Rivière where he first led troops in guerrilla fighting against the French in 1791.
When Henri Christophe and other leaders split from the French, they asked Sans Souci to join their ranks, but he declined. About ten years before the construction of his palace, the future Haitian king sent Colonel Sans Souci a conciliatory message inviting him to his headquarters at Grand Pré, when Sans Souci arrived at the plantation, Christophes guards bayoneted him and his small band of guards to death. A severe earthquake in 1842 destroyed a part of the palace and devastated the nearby city of Cap-Haïtien. The palace was acknowledged by many to be the Caribbean equivalent of the Palace of Versailles in France, UNESCO designated it—and the Citadelle—World Heritage Sites in 1982. However, the area is peaceful and easily accessible from the city of Cap-Haïtien
Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic, the region was originally inhabited by the indigenous Taíno people. Spain discovered the island on 5 December 1492 during the first voyage of Christopher Columbus across the Atlantic, when Columbus initially landed in Haiti, he had thought he had found India or Asia. On Christmas Day 1492, Columbus flagship the Santa Maria ran aground north of what is now Limonade, the island was named La Española and claimed by Spain, which ruled until the early 17th century. Competing claims and settlements by the French led to the portion of the island being ceded to France. The development of plantations, worked by slaves brought from Africa. Upon his death in a prison in France, he was succeeded by his lieutenant, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the Haitian Revolution lasted just over a dozen years, and apart from Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic, all the first leaders of government were former slaves.
The Citadelle Laferrière is the largest fortress in the Americas, Henri Christophe – former slave and first king of Haiti, Henri I – built it to withstand a possible foreign attack. It has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas, most recently, in February 2004, a coup détat originating in the north of the country forced the resignation and exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A provisional government took control with security provided by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti, the name Haïti comes from the indigenous Taíno language which was the native name given to the entire island of Hispaniola to mean, land of high mountains. The h is silent in French and the ï in Haïti, is a mark used to show that the second vowel is pronounced separately. In English, this rule for the pronunciation is often disregarded, the name Haïti was restored by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors.
The Taíno name for the island was Haiti. The people had migrated over centuries into the Caribbean islands from South America, genetic studies show they were related to the Yanomami of the Amazon Basin. They originated in Central and South America, after migrating to Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed into the northeast Caribbean islands by the Caribs. In the Taíno societies of the Caribbean islands, the largest unit of organization was led by a cacique, or chief. The caciquedoms were tributary kingdoms, with payment consisting of harvests, Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in several locations in the country. These have become symbols of Haiti and tourist attractions
A dungeon is a room or cell in which prisoners are held, especially underground. Dungeons are generally associated with medieval castles, though their association with torture probably belongs more to the Renaissance period, an oubliette or bottle dungeon is a form of dungeon which is accessible only from a hatch or hole in a high ceiling. The word dungeon comes from French donjon, which means keep, the first recorded instance of the word in English was near the beginning of the 14th century when it held the same meaning as donjon. The proper original meaning of keep is still in use for academics, although in popular culture it has been largely misused, though it is uncertain, both dungeon and donjon are thought to derive from the Middle Latin word dominio, meaning lord or master. In French, the term still refers to a keep. Donjon is therefore a false friend to dungeon, an oubliette was a form of prison cell which was accessible only from a hatch or a hole in a high ceiling. Few Norman keeps in English castles originally contained prisons, though they were common in Scotland.
Imprisonment was not a punishment in the Middle Ages, so most prisoners were awaiting trial. Noble prisoners were not generally held in dungeons, but lived in comfort in castle apartments. Purpose-built prison chambers in castles became more common after the 12th century, some castles had larger provision for prisoners, such as the prison tower at Caernarvon Castle. Dungeons, in the plural, have come to be associated with underground complexes of cells, as a result, the number of true dungeons in castles is often exaggerated to interest tourists. Many chambers described as dungeons or oubliettes were in fact storerooms, an example of what might be popularly termed an oubliette is the particularly claustrophobic cell in the dungeon of Warwick Castles Caesars Tower, in central England. The access hatch consists of an iron grille, even turning around would be nearly impossible in this tiny chamber. A bottle dungeon is sometimes another term for an oubliette. It has an entrance at the top and sometimes the room below is even so narrow that it is impossible to lie down.
The identification of dungeons and rooms used to hold prisoners is not always a straightforward task, Alnwick Castle and Cockermouth Castle, both near Englands border with Scotland, had chambers in their gatehouses which have often been interpreted as oubliettes. These underground rooms were built without latrines, and since the gatehouses at Alnwick, an alternative explanation was proposed, suggesting that these were strong-rooms where valuables were stored. Oubliettes and dungeons were a topic of nineteenth century gothic novels or historical novels