SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Citi Field

Citi Field is a baseball park located in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in New York City. Completed in 2009, it is the home field of the New York Mets of the National League division of Major League Baseball; the stadium was built as a replacement for the adjacent Shea Stadium, which opened in 1964 next to the site of the 1964 New York World's Fair. Citi Field was designed by Populous, is named after Citigroup, a New York financial services company which purchased the naming rights; the $850 million baseball park was funded with $615 million in public subsidies, including the sale of New York City municipal bonds which are to be repaid by the Mets plus interest. The payments will offset property taxes for the lifetime of the park; the Mets are receiving $20 million annually from Citibank in exchange for naming the stadium Citi Field. The first game at Citi Field was on March 29, 2009, with a college baseball game between St. John's and Georgetown; the Mets played their first two games at the ballpark on April 3 and 4, 2009 against the Boston Red Sox as charity exhibition games.

The first regular season home game was played on April 2009, against the San Diego Padres. Citi Field hosted the 2013 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, marking the second time the Mets have hosted the event. Since the 1990s, the Mets were looking to replace Shea Stadium, it had been built as a multi-purpose stadium in 1964. While it had been retrofitted as a baseball-only stadium after the NFL's New York Jets left for Giants Stadium after the 1983 season, it was still not optimal for baseball, with seating located farther away from the playing field compared to other major league ballparks; the team unveiled a preliminary model of the ballpark in 1998. The Mets considered moving to Mitchel Field or Belmont Park in Nassau County, Long Island. In December 2001, shortly before leaving office, New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani announced "tentative agreements" for both the Mets and the New York Yankees to build new stadiums. Of the $1.6 billion sought for the stadiums and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.

The plan said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams. The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, would get low-cost electricity from New York state. Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city. Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor, exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Mets and Yankees. Bloomberg said that, unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Mets and Yankees to leave the city on 60 days notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement. At the time, Bloomberg said.

Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements. Bloomberg called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare." Giuliani had been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. The final plans for what is now Citi Field were created as part of the unsuccessful New York City 2012 Olympic bid. After plans for a West Side Stadium fell through, New York looked for an alternate stadium to host the opening and closing ceremonies and track and field; the Olympic Stadium project on the West Side was estimated to cost $2.2 billion, with $300 million provided by New York City and an additional $300 million from New York State. If New York had won the bid, Citi Field would have been expanded to Olympic events while the Mets would have played at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx for the 2012 season.

The projected cost of the new ballpark and other infrastructure improvements is $610 million, with the Mets picking up $420 million of that amount. The agreement includes a 40-year lease that will keep the Mets in New York until 2049; the Mets own the stadium through Queens Ballpark Company. On March 18, 2006, the New York Mets unveiled the official model for the new ballpark. By July 2006, initial construction of the new park was underway in the parking lot beyond Shea Stadium's left-field, with a projected finish of late March ahead of Opening Day 2009. By April 13, 2008, all of the structure for the Jackie Robinson Rotunda was in place with the arched windows receiving their paneling and glass. By September 2008, most of the Citi Field signage had been installed. By December 1, 2008, all of the seats and the playing field had been installed. During the 2010 off-season, the bullpen area in right-center field underwent a complete renovation; when the edifice opened in time for the start of the 2009 MLB season, the Mets' bullpen was in front of the visiting bullpen, leading to an obstructed view of the field from the visiting bullpen, which the San Diego Padres complained about during the Mets' first regular-season home series.

The bullpens were turned 90°

Tin Woodman

The Tin Woodman known as the Tin Man or-- mistakenly-- the "Tin Woodsman," is a character in the fictional Land of Oz created by American author L. Frank Baum. Baum's Tin Woodman first appeared in his classic 1900 book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and reappeared in many other subsequent Oz books in the series. In late 19th-century America, men made out of various tin pieces were used in advertising and political cartoons. Baum, editing a magazine on decorating shop windows when he wrote The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, was inspired to invent the Tin Woodman by a figure he had built out of metal parts for a shop display. An ordinary man by the name of Nick Chopper, the Tin Woodman used to make his living chopping down trees in the forests of Oz, as his father had before him; the Wicked Witch of the East enchanted his axe to prevent him from marrying his sweetheart, after being bribed by the lazy old woman who kept the Munchkin maiden as a servant, did not wish to lose her. The enchanted axe chopped off one by one.

Each time he lost a limb, Ku-Klip the tinsmith replaced it with a prosthetic limb made of tin. Nothing was left of him but tin. However, Ku-Klip neglected to replace his heart. Once Nick Chopper was made of tin, he was no longer able to love the lady he had fallen for. In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Dorothy Gale befriends the Tin Woodman after they find him rusted in the forest, as he was caught in rain, use his oil can to release him, he follows her to the Emerald City to get a heart from The Wizard. They are joined on their adventure by the Cowardly Lion; the Wizard sends her friends to the Winkie Country to kill the Wicked Witch of the West. The Tin Woodman's axe proves useful in this journey, both for chopping wood to create a bridge or raft as needed, for chopping the heads off animals that threaten the party; when the Winged monkeys are sent by the Witch of the West against the group, they throw the Tin Woodman from a great height, damaging him badly. However Winkie Tinsmiths are able to repair him after the death of the Witch.

His desire for a heart notably contrasts with the Scarecrow's desire for brains, reflecting a common debate between the relative importance of the mind and the emotions. This occasions philosophical debate between the two friends as to why their own choices are superior. Symbolically, because they remain with Dorothy throughout her quest, she is provided with both and need not select; the Tin Woodman states unequivocally that he has neither heart nor brain, but cares nothing for the loss of his brain. Towards the end of the novel, Glinda praises his brain as not quite that of the Scarecrow's; the Wizard turns out to be a "humbug" and can only provide a placebo heart made of silk and filled with sawdust. However, this is enough to please the Tin Woodman, with or without a heart, was all along the most tender and emotional of Dorothy's companions; when he accidentally crushes an insect, he is grief-stricken and claims that he must be careful about such things, while those with hearts do not need such care.

This tenderness remains with him throughout the series, as in The Patchwork Girl of Oz, where he refuses to let a butterfly be maimed for the casting of a spell. When Dorothy returns home to her farm in Kansas, the Tin Woodman returns to the Winkie Country to rule as emperor, he has his subjects construct a palace made of tin — from the architecture all the way down to the flowers in the garden. Baum emphasized that the Tin Woodman remains alive, in contrast to the windup mechanical man Tik-Tok Dorothy meets in a book. Nick Chopper was not turned into a machine, but rather had his flesh body replaced by a metal one. Far from missing his original existence, the Tin Woodman is proud of his untiring tin body. A recurring problem for the Tin Woodman in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and afterward was his tendency to rust when exposed to rain, tears, or other moisture. For this reason, in The Marvelous Land of Oz the character has himself nickel-plated before helping his friend the Scarecrow fight to regain his throne in the Emerald City.

So, the Tin Woodman continues to worry about rusting throughout the Oz series. This is inaccurate, in; this may reflect the usage where an object made of iron or steel but coated with tin is called a "Tin" object, as a "tin bath", a "tin toy", or a "tin can". One passage in The Road to Oz, by Baum himself, wherein the Woodman attends Ozma's birthday party accompanied by a Winkie band playing a song called "There's No Plate Like Tin," implies that this is the case. Another explanation may be that the Woodman is chiefly made with iron joints. In Alexander Volkov's Russian adaptation of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, Volkov avoided this problem by the translation of "The Tin Woodman" as the "Iron Woodchopper"; the Tin Woodman appeared in most of the Oz books. He is a major character in the comic page Baum wrote with Walt McDougall in 1904-05, Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz. In Ozma of Oz, he commands Princess Ozma's army, is turned into a tin whistle. In Dorothy and

Great Northern Mall (Ohio)

Great Northern Mall, is a single-level enclosed shopping mall in North Olmsted, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland. Its anchor stores are Dillard's, Sears, J. C. Penney and Dick's Sporting Goods. A small outdoor shopping center was opened by Saul Biskind in 1958 on what was a field of strawberries; the plaza contained a Sears, F. W. Woolworth Company, a Pick-N-Pay grocery store, along with a small-scale J. C. Penney and other stores. A freestanding May Company Cleveland store was built to the east of the original plaza in 1965; the enclosed mall was opened in 1976 and attached to the east end of the existing May Company building. It featured new, larger J. C. Sears stores. In 1980, Hexalon Real Estate—an affiliate of what is now Unibail-Rodamco—became an investor in the mall; the 1980s saw the opening of the Plaza South attached to the original strip and the 1987 addition of the award-winning South Court to the mall. Additionally, 2 mid-level hotels and several office facilities, such as Corporate Center and Technology Park, were built proximal to the retail facilities.

These served to feed customers into the Mall and Plazas, as did the strategic location near Lorain Road, Brookpark Road, Great Northern Boulevard, Interstate 480. In 1991, Hexalon bought out the remaining Biskind stake in the mall and undertook a significant upgrade and remodel in 1992, it hired The Edward J. DeBartolo Corporation as its management company until 2000, when Rodamco's Urban Shopping Centers assumed management; the Biskind family, which had retained the Plazas sold them to DDR Corp. in 1997. May Company Cleveland was renamed Kaufmann's in 1993, became Macy's in 2006; the Westfield Group acquired the shopping center in early 2002, renamed it "Westfield Shoppingtown Great Northern." Dillard's was added on March 2003, expanding the South Court into a full-fledged new wing. Westfield dropped "Shoppingtown" from the mall's name in June 2005, around the time that a newly built 84,000 square foot Dick's Sporting Goods opened; the original food court, located between Sears and J. C. Penney, was moved adjacent to Dick's in 2011.

In March 2013, construction began at site of the original food court for a 10-screen Regal Entertainment Group movie theater, three new restaurants, extra renovations. The mall was sold to Starwood Retail Partners, a subsidiary of Starwood Capital Group, in the midst of construction. Official Great Northern Mall website