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Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City. The company was formed by the merger of banking giant Citicorp and financial conglomerate Travelers Group in 1998. Citigroup owns Citicorp, the holding company for Citibank, as well as several international subsidiaries. Citi is incorporated in NY. Citigroup is ranked 3rd on the list of largest banks in the United States and, alongside JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, it is one of the Big Four banks of the United States, it is a systemically important financial institution and is on the list of systemically important banks that think they are too big to fail. It is one of the nine global investment banks in the Bulge Bracket. Citigroup is ranked 30th on the Fortune 500 as of 2019. Citigroup does business in more than 160 countries, it has 214,000 employees, although it had 357,000 employees before the financial crisis of 2007-2008, when it was rescued via a massive stimulus package by the U.

S. government. Citigroup is the holding company for the following divisions: Inc.. Citigroup Global Markets Limited, Citigroup Global Markets Japan - broker dealers, including one of 24 primary dealers in United States Treasury securities. Citi's Institutional Clients Group offers investment and corporate banking services and products for companies, governments and ultra high-net-worth investors. ICG consists of the following five main divisions:Capital Markets Origination is focused on the capital-raising needs such as public offerings, private placements, special purpose acquisition companies. Corporate & Investment Banking provides strategic and financing products and advisory services to multinational and local corporations, financial institutions and held businesses in more than 160 countries, it provides client services such as mergers & acquisitions advice and underwriting of initial public offerings. Markets & Securities Services includes investor services and direct custody and clearing, hedge fund and private equity servicing, issuer businesses.

It provides financial products through underwriting, sales & trading of a range of investment assets. Products offered include servicing of equities, credit, foreign exchange, emerging markets, G10 rates, prime finance/brokerage services, securitized markets, such as collateralized debt obligations and mortgage-backed securities, its Citi Research team provides equity and fixed income research, sector and geographic market analysis, product-specific analysis for Citi's individual and institutional clients. Its flagship research reports include the following: Portfolio Strategist, Bond Market Roundup, U. S. Economics Weekly, International Market Roundup, Global Economic Outlook & Strategy and the Global Equity Strategist. Citi Private Bank advises professional investors, ultra high-net-worth individuals and families, lawyers throughout the world, it uses an open architecture network of more than 800 private bankers and investment professionals across 46 countries and jurisdictions to provide clients access to global investment opportunities.

It has over $250 billion in assets under management. The minimum net worth requirement is $25 million in liquid assets and is waived for only law firm groups and other clients under special circumstances. Treasury and Trade Solutions provides cash management and securities services to companies and other institutions in the U. S. and more than 140 countries. TTS intermediates more than $3 trillion in global transactions daily, it has over $13 trillion assets under custody, about $377 billion in average liability balances, serves 99% of world's Fortune 100 companies and ~85% of the world's Fortune 500 companies, has 10 regional processing centers worldwide using global processes. Institutions use TTS to support their treasury operations with global solutions for payments, collections and investments by working in partnership with export credit agencies and development banks, it sells supply chain financing products as well as medium- and long-term global financing programs across multiple industries.

Clients doing business with Citi in 10 or more countries generate more than 60% of Transaction Services' total revenues. Citibanamex - the second largest bank in Mexico, purchased by Citigroup in 2001. Citicorp - the holding company for Citibank as well as several international banks. Citicorp contains Global Consumer Banking and Institutional Clients Group. Citibank Retail banking encompasses Citi's global branch network, branded Citibank. Citibank holds more than $300 billion in deposits. Citibank is the 4th largest retail bank in the United States based on deposits, it has Citibank branded branches in countries throughout the world, with the exception of Mexico, under a separate subsidiary called Banamex. Citibank offers checking and savings accounts, small business and commercial banking and personal wealth management among its services. Citibank offers Citigold services worldwide to mass affluent clients with at least US$200,000 in liquid assets. In certain markets, Citigold Select is available for clients with at least US$500,000 in liquid assets.

Its highest level of service, Citigold Private Client, is for high-net-worth individuals with at least $1–$3 million in liquid assets and offers access to investments and ideas from Citi Private Bank. Citi Branded Cards is the world's largest credit car

United States Customs Service

The United States Customs Service was an agency of the U. S. federal government that collected import tariffs and performed other selected border security duties. In March 2003, as a result of the homeland security reorganization, the U. S. Customs Service was renamed the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, most of its components were merged with the border elements of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, including the entire U. S. Border Patrol and former INS inspectors, together with border agriculture inspectors, to form U. S. Customs and Border Protection, a single, unified border agency for the U. S; the investigative office of U. S. Customs was split off and merged with the INS investigative office and the INS interior detention and removal office to form Immigration and Customs Enforcement, among other things, is responsible for interior immigration enforcement; the United States Customs Service had three major missions: collecting tariff revenue, protecting the U. S. economy from smuggling and illegal goods, processing people and goods at ports of entry.

Responding to the urgent need for revenue following the American Revolutionary War, the First United States Congress passed and President George Washington signed the Tariff Act of July 4, 1789, which authorized the collection of duties on imported goods. Four weeks on July 31, the fifth act of Congress established the United States Customs Service and its ports of entry; as part of this new government agency, a new role was created for government officials, known as "Customs Collector". In this role, one person would have responsibility to supervise the collection of custom duties in a particular city or region. For over 100 years after it was founded, the U. S. Customs Service was the primary source of funds for the entire government, paid for the country's early growth and infrastructure. Purchases include the Oregon territories. S. Military and Naval academies, Washington, D. C; the U. S. Customs Service employed a number of federal law enforcement officers throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

Customs Special Agents investigated smuggling and other violations of customs and revenue laws. Customs Inspectors were uniformed officers at airports and land border ports of entry who inspected people and vehicles entering the U. S. for contraband and dutiable merchandise. Customs Patrol Officers conducted uniformed and plainclothes patrol of the borders on land and air to deter smuggling and apprehend smugglers. In the 20th century, as international trade and travel increased the Customs Service transitioned from an administrative bureau to a federal law enforcement agency. Inspectors still inspected goods and took customs declarations from travelers at ports of entry, but Customs Special Agents used modern police methods—often in concert with allied agencies, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Postal Inspection Service, U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and U. S. Border Patrol—to investigate cases far from international airports and land crossings; the original World Trade Center complex building 6 housed offices of the US customs service.

With the passage of the Homeland Security Act, the U. S. Customs Service passed from under jurisdiction of the Treasury Department to the Department of Homeland Security. On March 1, 2003, parts of the U. S. Customs Service combined with the Inspections Program of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine from USDA, the Border Patrol of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to form U. S. Customs and Border Protection; the Federal Protective Service, along with the investigative arms of the U. S. Customs Service and the Immigration and Naturalization Service, combined to form U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Child pornography Counterfeit merchandise Textiles over allowable limits Illegally imported Motor Vehicles Items violating intellectual property rights Illegal drugs Stolen property Tobacco products over allowable limits Undeclared firearms and weapons Undeclared liquor over allowable limits Unreported money or monetary instruments over $10,000 Unscreened fruits and meats The flag of the Customs Service was designed in 1799 by Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr. and consists of 16 vertical red and white stripes with a coat of arms depicted in blue on the white canton.

The original design had the Customs Service seal, an eagle with three arrows in his left talon, an olive branch in his right and surrounded by an arc of 13 stars. In 1951, this was changed to the eagle depicted on the Great Seal of the United States, its actual name is the Revenue Ensign, as it was flown by ships of the Revenue Cutter Service the Coast Guard, at customs houses. In 1910, President William Howard Taft issued an order to add an emblem to the flag flown by ships from the one flown on land at customs houses; the version with the badge continues to be flown by Coast Guard vessels. Until 2003, the land version was flown at all United States ports of entry; the renamed CBP Ensign is flown at CBP's headquarters in Washington, D. C. at its Field Offices, overseas duty locations including preclearance ports, at all land and sea ports of entry. This table lists all Commissioners of Customs, their dates of service, under which administration they served. Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.

S. Customs and Border Protection United States Customs Service United States Customs & Border Protection Proposed and finalized federal regu

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer (TV special)

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a 1964 Christmas stop motion animated television special produced by Videocraft International, Ltd. and distributed by Universal Television. It first aired Sunday, December 6, 1964, on the NBC television network in the United States, was sponsored by General Electric under the umbrella title of The General Electric Fantasy Hour; the special was based on the Johnny Marks song "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer", itself based on the poem of the same name written in 1939 by Marks' brother-in-law, Robert L. May. Since 1972, the special has aired on CBS; as with A Charlie Brown Christmas and How the Grinch Stole Christmas, Rudolph no longer airs just once annually, but several times during the Christmas and holiday season. It has been telecast every year since 1964, making it the longest continuously running Christmas TV special. 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the television special and a series of postage stamps featuring Rudolph were issued by the United States Postal Service on November 6, 2014.

Sam the Snowman welcomes the viewers to Christmastown at the North Pole and introduces Santa and Mrs. Claus who live in a castle located left of the Christmas Tree Forest. On, Sam recalls the year Christmas was cancelled due to a big snowstorm and how a special reindeer saved the day. Donner, Santa's lead reindeer, his wife have given birth to a new fawn named Rudolph. Upon admiring him, they are surprised to see; when Santa arrives, he warns Donner. So, Donner decides to hide it by covering it with mud so Rudolph will fit in with the other reindeer. A year Rudolph goes out to the reindeer games, where the new fawns will be inspected by Santa to pull the sleigh when they grow up. During flight practice, Rudolph meets a beautiful doe named Clarice, who tells him he is cute, making Rudolph fly. However, while celebrating with the other bucks, Rudolph's fake nose pops off, causing the other reindeer to mock him and Coach Comet to expel him, he meets Hermey, an elf who ran away from Santa's workshop because he wanted to be a dentist instead of making toys, so they run away together.

They meet a prospector named Yukon Cornelius, who has searched his whole life long to find silver and gold, but never does. After escaping the Abominable Snow Monster of the North, they crash land on the Island of Misfit Toys where unloved or unwanted toys live with their ruler, a winged lion named King Moonracer who brings the toys to the island until he can find homes and children who will love them; the king allows them to stay one night on the island until they can tell Santa to find homes for them by Christmas when they get home. However, Rudolph leaves the island on his own, still worried that his nose will endanger his friends. Time passes and Rudolph grows into a young stag, still enduring mockery from others, he returns home to find that Clarice have been looking for him for months. He sets out once again to finds them all cornered in a cave by the snow monster. Rudolph tries to save Clarice. A few minutes Hermey and Yukon return and try to save Rudolph. Hermey, oinking like a pig, lures the monster out of the cave and pulls out all his teeth after Yukon knocks him out.

Yukon drives the toothless monster back, only to fall over the cliff. Mourning Yukon's presumed death, Hermey and the Donners return home where everyone apologizes to them. After hearing their story, Santa promises Rudolph that he will find homes for the Misfit Toys, the Head Elf tells Hermey that he can open his own dentist's office a week after Christmas, Donner apologizes for being hard on Rudolph. Yukon returns with a tamed snow monster, now trained to trim a Christmas tree. Christmas Eve comes and while everybody is celebrating, Santa reluctantly announces that the weather has forced him to cancel Christmas, but is soon inspired by Rudolph's red nose, he asks Rudolph to lead the sleigh. Rudolph accepts and they fly off to the island where the Misfit Toys, sad about being left alone and unloved, are cheered up when Santa arrives to pick them up. Santa wishes everyone a merry Christmas. Burl Ives voices Sam the narrator. Larry Mann voices Yukon Cornelius, the "greatest prospector of the North" who joins Rudolph and Hermey on their journey but never finds the silver and gold he seeks.

Billie Richards voices Rudolph, a reindeer of formidable acumen and physical strength, ridiculed for his nonconforming red nose, but saves Christmas. Paul Soles voices Hermey, an elf who dreams of pursuing a career in dentistry and "feels different" from the other elves, he is forced out and runs off with Rudolph. Stan Francis voices: Santa Claus, portrayed in the special as a moody, nervous and "skinny Santa" whose fears are allayed only when he conjures the idea of using Rudolph's nose to lead the sleigh. King Moonracer, a winged lion who rules the entire Island of Misfit Toys. King Moonracer's voice uses a reverb effect to distinguish it from Santa Claus. Alfie Scopp voices: Fireball, who introduces Rudolph to the opposite sex, but snubs Rudolph when his red nose is revealed. Charlie-In-The-Box, the island's sentry. Janis Orenstein voices Clarice, a female reindeer, the only one of Rudolph's age to not reject him, she joins Rudolph's parents in the search party. Paul Kligman voices: Rudolph's father and Santa's most prized reindeer.

While he loves and accept

Fritz Mauthner

Fritz Mauthner was an Austro-Hungarian novelist, theatre critic and satirist. He was an exponent of philosophical scepticism derived from a critique of human knowledge and of philosophy of language. Mauthner was born on 22 November 1849 into an assimilated, well-to-do Jewish family from Horzitz in Bohemia, he was the fourth of the six children of Emmanuel and Amalie Mauthner.:viiiHe became editor of the Berliner Tageblatt in 1895, but is remembered for his Beiträge zu einer Kritik der Sprache, published in three parts in 1901 and 1902. Ludwig Wittgenstein took several of his ideas from Mauthner, acknowledges him in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Mauthner died in Meersburg am Bodensee on 29 June 1923.:viii Arens, Katherine. Empire in decline: Fritz Mauthner's critique of Wilhelminian Germany. New York: P. Lang, 2001. Ben-Zvi, Linda. Samuel Beckett, Fritz Mauthner and the Limits of Language. PMLA. Vol. 95: 183-200. 1980. Bredeck, Elizabeth. Metaphors of Knowledge: Language and Thought in Mauthner's Critique.

Wayne State University Press, 1992. Dapía, Silvia. Die Rezeption der Sprachkritik Fritz Mauthners im Werk von Jorge Luis Borges. Cologne, Vienna: Böhlau, 1993 Knowlson, James & Pilling, John. Frescoes of the skull. London: John Calder, 1979. Kühn, Joachim. Gescheiterte Sprachkritik: Fritz Mauthners Leben und Werk. Walter de Gruyter, 1979. Ludwig, Otto & Heydrich, Moritz. Shakespeare-Studien. Halle: H. Gesenius, 1901. Skerl, Jennie. Fritz Mauthner's "Critique of Language" in Samuel Beckett's "Watt". Contemporary Literature. Vol. 15: 474-487. University of Wisconsin Press, 1974. Sluga, Hans. Wittgenstein and Pyrrhonism. In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong Pyrrhonian Skepticism. Oxford University Press, 2006 Vierhufe, Almut. Parody and Language Critique. Studies on Fritz Mauthner's Nach berühmten Mustern. Niemeyer, 1999. Weiler, Gershon. Mauthner's Critique of Language. Cambridge University Press, 1970. Fritz Mauthner Collection at the Leo Baeck Institute Guide to the Fritz Mauthner Correspondence Collection 1765-1868 Book review of Fritz Mauthner's Die Sprache Works by or about Fritz Mauthner at Internet Archive Works by Fritz Mauthner at LibriVox

Lisburn City Council

Lisburn City Council was a city council covering an area in County Antrim and in County Down in Northern Ireland. As of May 2015 it was merged with Castlereagh Borough Council as part of the reform of local government in Northern Ireland to become Lisburn and Castlereagh City Council. Created in 1964, the council was the second largest in the Belfast Metropolitan Area. Council headquarters were in the city of Lisburn, it was the second-largest council area in Northern Ireland with over 120,000 people and an area of 174 square miles of southwest Antrim and northwest Down. It stretched from Glenavy and Dundrod in the north to Dromara and Hillsborough in the south and from Drumbo in the east to Moira and Aghalee in the west; the council area consisted of five electoral areas: Downshire, Dunmurry Cross, Lisburn Town North and Lisburn Town South. It had 30 councillors, last elected in 2011; the final composition was: 14 Democratic Unionist Party, 5 Ulster Unionist Party, 5 Sinn Féin, 3 Alliance Party and 3 Social Democratic and Labour Party.

For elections to the Westminster Parliament, the council area was split between the Lagan Valley constituency, Belfast West and South Antrim constituencies. The first elections for the new council took place in May 2014. Aghalee Annahilt Dunmurry Drumbo Dromara Glenavy Hillsborough Lisburn Maghaberry Moira Notes: The independent elected in 1997 was Hugh Lewsley, a former SDLP councillor. William Beattie was elected as a "Protestant Unionist" in 1997, but is tallied as an Independent Unionist above. New legislation introduced for the 2001 elections required candidates to register party names for these to appear on the ballot paper, this made it impossible for candidates to stand as Independent Unionist; the UDP missed the deadline for registration and their candidate, party leader Gary McMichael, was elected as an independent. The other candidate elected as an independent in 2001, described himself as a Unionist on the council website. Source: ARK accessed 13 January 2013 2011 saw the continued advancement of the DUP and Sinn Féin within the council Area.

In Downshire, the DUP picked up a seat from the UUP, in Dunmurry Cross, Sinn Féin gained from the SDLP. However the SDLP loss was compensated by changing demographics in the Lisburn Town North DEA, where the SDLP took a seat for the first time. There were no changes in Lisburn Town South DEAs; the election saw the DUP return all their candidates with the exception of Ben Mallon, a local student standing in Lisburn North. 1964 – 70: James Howard 1970 – 73: Hugh Gray Bass 1977 – 78?: Elsie Kelsey, Ulster Unionist Party 1978 – 79: 1979 – 81: Alderman Dr Samuel Semple MBE, Ulster Unionist Party 1981 – 83: Billy Belshaw, Democratic Unionist Party 1983 – 85: Maureen McKinney, Ulster Unionist Party 1985 – 87: Walter Lilburn, Ulster Unionist Party 1987 – 88: 1988 – 89: Billy Bleakes, Ulster Unionist Party 1990 – 91: Willam McAllister, Ulster Unionist Party 1991 – 93: Ivan Davis, Ulster Unionist Party 1993 – 94: Seamus Close, Alliance Party of Northern Ireland 1994 – 96: Harry Lewis Ulster Unionist Party 1996 – 98?: George Morrison, Ulster Unionist Party 1998 – 00: Peter O'Hagan, Social Democratic and Labour Party 2000 – 02: Jim Dillon, Ulster Unionist Party 2002 – 03: Betty Campbell, Alliance Party of Northern Ireland 2003 – 04: Billy Bell, Ulster Unionist Party 2004 – 05: Cecil Calvert, Democratic Unionist Party 2005 – 06: Jonathan Craig, Democratic Unionist Party 2006 – 07: Trevor Lunn, Alliance Party of Northern Ireland 2007 – 08: James Tinsley, Democratic Unionist Party 2008 – 09: Ronnie Crawford, Ulster Unionist Party 2009 – 10: Allan Ewart, Democratic Unionist Party 2010 – 11: Paul Porter, Democratic Unionist Party 2011 – 12: Brian Heading, Social Democratic and Labour Party 2012 – 13: William Leathem, Democratic Unionist Party 2013 – 14: Margaret Tolerton, Democratic Unionist Party 2014 – 15: Andrew Ewing, Democratic Unionist Party 2018 - 19: Uel Mackin, Democratic Unionist Party Under the Review of Public Administration the Council was due to merge with Castlereagh Borough Council in 2011 to form a single council for the enlarged area totalling 540 km² and a population of 175,182.

An election was due to take place in May 2009, but on 25 April 2008, Shaun Woodward, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland announced that the scheduled 2009 district council elections were to be postponed until the introduction of the eleven new councils in 2011. The introduction of the new councils was subsequently postponed until 2015; the area covered by Lisburn City Council had a population of 120,165 residents according to the 2011 Northern Ireland census. Local Councils in Northern Ireland Lisburn City Council

Palestinian return to Israel

Palestinian return to Israel refers to the movement of Palestinians into the territory of Israel. The period from 1948 to 1956 saw extensive attempts by Palestinians to cross the border, leading to violent clash between Israeli border guards and border-crossers. Between 2,700-5,000 Palestinians were killed by Israel during this period, the vast majority being unarmed and intending to return for economic or social reasons; the Palestinian Fedayeen insurgency took place during this period. From 1967 to 1993, a period of mass employment in Israel of Palestinian workers from the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip prevailed, although immigration and naturalization remain inaccessible. During the 1990s, following numerous attacks against Israeli citizens by Palestinians, escalating policies of closure of the Green Line replaced labor mobility. In the 2000s, this policy has been supplemented by physical barriers in the West Bank and Gaza, tight restrictions on family reunification. Israeli policy to prevent the refugees returning to their homes was formulated by David Ben-Gurion and Yosef Weitz and formally adopted by the Israeli cabinet in June 1948.

In December of that year, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 194, which resolved "that the refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbors should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible." Despite much of the international community, including the US President Harry Truman, insisting that the repatriation of Palestinian refugees was essential, Israel refused to accept the principle. In the intervening years Israel has refused to change its position and has introduced further legislation to hinder Palestinians refugees from returning and reclaiming their land and confiscated property. In 1950, the Israeli Foreign Ministry published a booklet arguing against the return of Palestinian refugees to the country.

It stated that any return of refugees would introduce the problem of a national minority, "which has been eliminated by the war". Alan Baker legal adviser to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, said that from 1948 until 2001, Israel allowed about 184,000 Palestinians to settle in Israel; the deputy minister of the Israeli Ministry of Public Security, Gideon Ezra, said that 57,000 Jordanian came illegally under the three years to 2001. An expert in the Ministry of Labor said that number is "totally illogical". Palestinian infiltration' refers to numerous border-crossings by Palestinians considered illegal by the Israeli authorities, during the first years of Israeli statehood. Most of the people in question were refugees attempting to return to their homes, take back possessions, left behind during the war and to gather crops from their former fields and orchards inside the new Israeli state. Between 30,000 and 90,000 Palestinian refugees returned to Israel as a result. Meron Benivasti states that the fact that the infiltrators were for the most part former inhabitants of the land returning for personal and sentimental reasons was suppressed in Israel as it was feared that this may lead to an understanding of their motives and to the justification of their actions.

The return of Palestinian refugees to take up permanent residence in their homes, or alternatively, if their homes had been destroyed or occupied by Jewish immigrants, to take up residence among still extant Arab communities, was seen as a major problem by the Israeli authorities. They worried that such a return of refugees may reverse the effect of the Palestinian exodus during the 1948 war, which had created a Jewish majority within the borders of Israel and opened up massive amounts of formally Arab owned land for Jewish settlement. In 1951, Palestinian infiltrators killed an Israeli teenage girl at her home in Jerusalem. On June 9, 1953 Palestinian infiltrators attacked Lod killing a Lod resident; the attacks came just one day. During June 1953, infiltrators destroyed a house in Mishmar Ayalon. In the same month Palestinian gunmen killed a couple in Kfar Hess. During May 1954, Arab militants attacked an Israeli bus killing its passengers one by one; the attack known as Ma'ale Akrabim massacre, resulted in the death of 11 passengers and according to the testimonies of the survivors, the bodies of the victims were desecrated.

During 1955, infiltrators killed two hikers at Judean Hills and a young girl attending a wedding party. In 1956, infiltrators opened fire at a synagogue in the farming community of Shafrir killing three children. In the same year, a resident of Ashkelon was killed. During September and October 1956, many Israeli civilians, including four archeologists, were killed in series of attacks. Israeli leadership came to the conclusion that only retaliatory strikes would be able to create the necessary factor of deterrence, that would convince the Arab armies to prevent infiltration; this was the cause for the establishment in August 1953 of Unit 101, an elite commando unit specialised in cross border raids. The Israeli strategy would allow the destruction of civilian targets. During the years 1954–1956, a number of such raids took place; the reprisals led to more Arab hatred and the infiltrations became more violent, u