The Citroën 2CV is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork—initially corrugated for added strength without added weight; the 2CV featured low cost, simplicity of overall maintenance, an serviced air-cooled engine, low fuel consumption, an long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached to the car's rear bumper. Michelin introduced and first commercialised the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988, more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes.
Citroën offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami. In total, Citroën manufactured 9 million 2CVs and variants. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other"; the motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism to succeed as a car", a car of "remorseless rationality". In 1934, family-owned Michelin, as the largest creditor, took over the bankrupt Citroën company; the new management commissioned a market survey, conducted by Jacques Duclos. France at that time had a large rural population. In fuel economy, the car would use no more than 3 l/100 km. One design parameter required that customers be able to drive eggs across a freshly ploughed field without breakage. In 1936, Pierre-Jules Boulanger, vice-president of Citroën and chief of engineering and design, sent the brief to his design team at the engineering department.
The TPV was to be developed in secrecy at Michelin facilities at Clermont-Ferrand and at Citroën in Paris, by the design team who had created the Traction Avant. Boulanger monitored all decisions relating to the TPV, proposing reduced target weights, he created a department to weigh and redesign each component, to lighten the TPV without compromising function. Boulanger placed engineer André Lefèbvre in charge of the TPV project. Lefèbvre raced Grand Prix cars; the first prototypes were bare chassis with rudimentary controls and roof. By the end of 1937 20 TPV experimental prototypes had been tested; the prototypes had only one headlight, all, required by French law at the time. On 29 December 1937, Pierre Michelin was killed in a car crash. By 1939 the TPV was deemed ready, after 47 technically different and incrementally improved experimental prototypes had been built and tested; these prototypes used aluminium and magnesium parts and had water-cooled flat twin engines with front-wheel drive. The seats were hammocks hung from the roof by wires.
The suspension system, designed by Alphonse Forceau, used front leading arms and rear trailing arms, connected to eight torsion bars beneath the rear seat: a bar for the front axle, one for the rear axle, an intermediate bar for each side, an overload bar for each side. The front axle was connected to its torsion bars by cable; the overload bar came into play when the car had three people on board, two in the front and one in the rear, to support the extra load of a fourth passenger and fifty kilograms of luggage. In mid-1939 a pilot run of 250 cars was produced and on 28 August 1939 the car received approval for the French market. Brochures were printed and preparations made to present the car, renamed the Citroën 2CV, at the forthcoming Paris Motor Show in October 1939. One innovation included from the beginning of production was Michelin's new radial tyre, first commercialised with the introduction of the 2CV; this radial design is an integral part of the design of the 2CV chassis. On 3 September 1939, France declared war on Germany following that country's invasion of Poland.
An atmosphere of impending disaster led to the cancellation of the 1939 motor show less than a month before it was scheduled to open. The launch of the 2CV was abandoned. During the German occupation of France in World War II Boulanger refused to collaborate with German authorities to the point where the Gestapo listed him as an "enemy of the Reich", under constant threat of arrest and deportation to Germany. Michelin and Citroën managers decided to hide the TPV project from the Nazis, fearing some military application as in the case of the future Volkswagen Beetle
The migratory woodland caribou refers to two herds of Rangifer tarandus that are included in the migratory woodland ecotype of the subspecies Rangifer tarandus caribou or woodland caribou that live in Nunavik, Québec, Labrador: the Leaf River caribou herd and the George River caribou herd south of Ungava Bay. Rangifer tarandus caribou is further divided into three ecotypes: the migratory barren-ground ecotype, the mountain ecotype or woodland and the forest-dwelling ecotype. According to researchers, the "George River herd which morphologically and genetically belong to the woodland caribou subspecies, at one time represented the largest caribou herd in the world and migrating thousands of kilometres from boreal forest to open tundra, where most females calve within a three-week period; this behaviour is more like barren-ground caribou subspecies." They argued that "understanding ecotype in relation to existing ecological constraints and releases may be more important than the taxonomic relationships between populations."
The migratory George River caribou herd travel thousands of kilometres moving from wintering grounds to calving grounds near the Inuit hamlet of Kangiqsualujjuaq, Nunavik. In Nunavik and Labrador, the caribou population varies with their numbers peaking in the decades of each of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. In 1984, about 10,000 caribou of the George River herd drowned during their bi-annual crossing of the Caniapiscau River during the James Bay Hydro Project flooding operation; the most recent decline at the turn of the 20th century caused much hardship for the Inuit and Cree communities of Nunavik, who hunt them for subsistence. While the woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal woodland caribou or boreal caribou, sedentary, was assessed in May 2002 as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, not all herds and populations are endangered. For example, the Gros Morne National Park sedentary herd in insular Newfoundland is not endangered; the subspecies of caribou, a medium-sized ungulate, inhabit boreal and Arctic environments and "exhibit tremendous variation in ecology, genetics and morphology."
Most are found in Canada. Current classifications of Rangifer tarandus, either with prevailing taxonomy on subspecies, designations based on ecotypes, or natural population groupings, fail to capture "the variability of caribou across their range in Canada" needed for effective species conservation and management. "Across the range of a species, individuals may display considerable morphological and behavioural variability reflective of both plasticity and adaptation to local environments."In eastern North America caribou are classified into three ecotypes – "the mountain caribou, found south of the St. Lawrence River, the barren-ground caribou which calves in the tundra, in between, the forest-dwelling ecotype which lives all year long in the boreal forest."In west-central Alberta there are two ecotypes – boreal and mountain. In Québec there are three ecotypes with specific habitats and behaviour – the migratory barren-ground ecotype, the mountain ecotype and the forest-dwelling ecotype.
In British Columbia caribou are classified into three ecotypes – mountain and boreal. In Ontario caribou are classified into two ecotypes – forest-dwelling woodland caribou and forest-tundra woodland caribou. In Newfoundland and Labrador, woodland caribou are classified as part of the boreal population of caribou, subdivided into two ecotypes: the migratory forest-tundra and the sedentary forest-dwelling ecotype; the species taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The subspecies taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. According to the then-Canadian Wildlife Service Chief Mammalogist, Frank Banfield, in his often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer, R. t. caboti, R. t. osborni and R. t. terraenovae were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid suggesting that they are quite distinct. In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agree with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that this range includes several subspecies.
Geist argued that the "true woodland caribou, the uniformly dark, small-manned type with the frontally emphasized, flat-beamed antlers", "scattered thinly along the southern rim of North American caribou distribution" has been incorrectly classified. He affirms that the "true woodland caribou is rare, in great difficulties and requires the most urgent of attention."In 2005, an analysis of mtDNA found differences between the caribou from Newfoundland, southwestern Canada and southeastern Canada, but maintained all in R. t caribou. Mallory and Hillis argued that, "Although the taxonomic designations reflect evolutionary events, they do not appear to reflect current ecological conditions. In numerous instances, populations of the same subspecies have evolved different demographic and behavioural adaptations, while populations from separate subspecies have evolved similar demographic and behavioural patterns..."nderstanding ecotype in relation to existing ecological constraints and releases may be more important than the taxonomic relationships between populations."
All caribou of the province of Québec were assigned to the same subspecie
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski was a Polish-born polymath and inventor with 50 patents to his credit. He was a civil and industrial engineer by profession, educated in Poland and the United States, he was a writer on Polish and European history, author of historical atlases, a lexicographer. Pogonowski was born in Poland. After the invasion of Poland in World War II, in December 1939 Pogonowski, aged 18, left Warsaw with the intent of joining the Polish Armed Forces in the West, he was arrested in Dukla by the German authorities on suspicion of aiming to join the resistance. He was moved between camps for five years thereafter. Interned at the Krosno, Jasło, Tarnów prisons among others, he was sent with 500 prisoners to Auschwitz, from there, several months to Oranienburg-Sachsenhausen, he survived the camps and was liberated on 2 May 1945. Pogonowski summarized his horrific experiences at the German concentration camps in a three-page article popularized in Richard C. Lukas' Out of the Inferno. In 1954 he graduated in Civil Engineering at the Catholic University: Institute Superieur de Commerce in Antwerp.
He moved to the United States and in the following years worked as project engineer in the oil industry. Pogonowski published an illustrated history of Poland, historical atlases and a work on Polish heraldry. Pogonowski's Jews in Poland was praised by M. K. Dziewanowski, who called the book a "pioneering attempt'encompass' Jews within the Polish discourse, a rarity in American scholarship and in the discourse about Jews." He was criticized by Piotr Wrobel and Joanna Michlic, who believes him to represent the ethnonationalist trend in historiography. Pogonowski compiled several Polish-English, English-Polish dictionaries which have appeared since 1981, including his Unabridged Polish-English Dictionary and the Polish-English, English-Polish Standard Dictionary, his journalistic work includes broadcasts for the Polish far-right Radio Maryja and columns for its sister publication, Nasz Dziennik. He has written columns in the Polish-American biweekly, Gwiazda Polarna. Practical Polish-English Dictionary, Hippocrene Books, 1981.
Polish-English, English-Polish Standard Dictionary, Hippocrene Books, 1985. Compact Polish-English Dictionary, Hippocrene Books, 1985. Polish Phrasebook and Dictionary: Complete Phonetics for English Speakers, 103 pp. 1991. Unabridged Polish-English Dictionary, 3 volumes, New York, Hippocrene Books, 1997. Poland: A Historical Atlas, revised edition, New York, Hippocrene Books, 1989; the Jews in Poland: A Documentary History. Świat po amerykańsku, Fundacja'Nasza Przyszłość', 2004. Heraldyka – Heraldry, CD-ROM, published by Juliusz Ostrowski, 2002. Poland: An Illustrated History, Hippocrene Books, 2000. Jews in Poland: A Documentary History, New York, Hippocrene Books, 1998. Historyczny Atlas Polski, Wydawnictwo Baran i Suszczyński, 1995. Poland: A Historical Atlas, New York, Hippocrene Books, 1987. Hegemonia – On US Foreign Policy, Poznań, WERS, 2008; the First Democracy in Modern Europe: Million Free Citizens in Poland during the Renaissance, 2010. List of lexicographers List of Poles Richard C. Lukas, Out of the Inferno, pp. 139–42.
The Collation and Annotation of Saṃyuktāgama Early Buddhism evolved schools 100 years after the parinirvana of the Buddha, was transmitted far southwards and northwards in the period of Ashoka. Theravada and Sarvastivada were most influential throughout the south to Sri Lanka, north to China. Yijing has said in his A Record of the Buddhist Religion as practised in India and the Malaya Archipelago: All, spreading in South India and Sinhala is Theravada, in North India and South Sea States is Sarvastivada; the prevailing of these two sects at that time can be seen. The Chinese Samyuktagama is an early version of Sarvastivada, brought from Sri Lanka by Faxian, translated by the eminent Indian monk Gunabhadra. It's the only one from Sanskrit among the northern four Agamas, deemed to be the words of the Buddha, closest to the texts of pre-sectarian Buddhism. Correspondingly, the southern Pali version Samyutta Nikaya retains the original state of the Theravada's texts 2300 years ago, the earliest version among the extant Buddhist texts.
Such a rare edition has been downgraded because of its "Hinayana" status since coming to China. After thousands of years, its sequence was disarranged, scrolls were lost and became incomplete, coupled with wrong transcribing and wrong complement, which made it difficult to read. Before modern times, Lucheng and other progenitors did a lot of pioneering research work on it. Just on the base of their work, this set of books represents arduous efforts to extend the exploration in order to reach the truth. There are three major achievements in this set of books: Categories were compiled and the lost were retrieved. According to the styles recorded in Xuanzang and Yijing's translations, the categories were recompiled and the order of scrolls was restored. Using Tripitaka Koreana as master copy, Fangshan Stone carving Tripitaka, Zhaocheng Jin Tripitaka and so on with about ten block-printed editions as proofreading copies, together with other scriptures and treatises both in Chinese and Pali, the whole text was collated, two lost scrolls from Pali Canon were translated to make the text more complete.
The Chinese version was collated with the Pali Canon. Southern Pali Tripitaka, Northern Matika, the offprints and the various editions of Agama, Sarvastivada Abhidharma, Sarvastivada Vinayapitaka, etc. were collected for cross-reference and variorum gloss, without ignoring or omitting, integrating them all into the dictionary. Southern versions were compared with the northern. Early texts of Pali Canon and Chinese versions were studied and and corresponding sutras were complemented and corrected, while recording all the traces and evidences which demonstrate the northern Agama and the southern Nikaya are from the same source; the words and sentences, the grammar and meaning of contemporary texts prove each other while texts are far less reliable. Through collation and addendum, the whole text consists of 4 parts, 7 chapters, 56 samyuktas and 8491 sutras, divided into 3 categories: sutra and vyakarana; the compiling of this set of books is a complex project. This set of books is collated and punctuated translated and annotated in detail, not only restoring Samyuktāgama to the original, clearing out all the obstacles in texts, but outlining and sharpening the frame of early Buddhism, making this rare ancient edition, ignored for thousands of years and dignified again.
Dedicated to the memory of the 2500th Anniversary of Buddha’s Nirvana and the First Buddhist council at Rajgir —the publication of the Collation and Annotation of Samyuktāgama in July 2014. This work is a funded project by Shanghai Publishing Funds in 2013, the first prize winners both of the National Excellent Ancient Book Award and the Excellent Ancient Book Award in East China in 2014, the first prize winner of the 14th Shanghai Book Award.. About the author Wang Jianwei and Jin Hui, graduated from East China Normal University, learned the Pāli Canon from Ven. Prof. Dhammadinna at University of Kelaniya Sri Lanka, made a comparative study of the thought and history between Southern Buddhism and Northern Buddhism. Since the beginning of 2000, besides concentrating on the research of Samyuktāgama and the relevant original Sutra and Abhidharma in Chinese and Pāli, they established Āgamārāma, completed the Collation and Annotation of Samyuktāgama, have a number of their other works and translations published in China and abroad, including Chronicle of Zen Master Laiguo, the True Meaning of Life, etc
Willard Anderson Hanna was an American author of Southeast Asian history and works of fiction as well as a teacher. Hanna wrote politics and historical fiction, he wrote Bali Chronicles with Adrian Vickers. Hanna co-authored Turbulent Times Past in Ternate and Tidore on the history of the Maluku Islands and Banda Neira with Des Alwi, he was from Cross Creek and graduated from the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio, in 1932. He traveled to China and taught English for four years in Shanghai and Hangzhou before returning to the United States and achieving a master's degree from Ohio State University in 1937 and a Ph. D. from the University of Michigan in 1939. He joined the Navy in early 1942 and served at the military's Japanese language school at the University of Colorado and at a military program at Columbia University, he was part of the landings on Okinawa on April 1, 1945 as a lieutenant commander, remained in Okinawa for more than a year. His work there included helping establish schools.
He continued his career at the U. S. State Department for seven years, working in Manila and Jakarta, where he established the United States Information Services offices which he ran until 1952. In Washington, D. C. he graduated from the National War College in 1953 and was deployed to the United States Embassy in Tokyo as an information officer. He resigned from the State Department in 1954 and worked for the American Universities Field Staff in Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur and Hong Kong before he retired in 1976, he married Marybelle Bouchard. Hanna died in Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1993 at the age of 82. Destiny Has Eight Eyes Harper & Brothers, a novel set in China at the outbreak of World War II Bali Profile: People, Circumstances 1001-1976 The Formation of Malaysia Eight Nation Makers Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its aftermath in the Nutmeg Islands The Berkshire-Litchfield legacy: Litchfield, Salisbury, Lenox by Hikayat Jakarta Turbulent times past in Ternate and Tidore Bali Chronicles: A Lively Account of the Island's History from Early Times to the 1970's by Willard A. Hanna and Adrian Vickers
North Arapaho Peak is the highest summit of the Indian Peaks in the northern Front Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 13,508-foot thirteener is located in the Indian Peaks Wilderness, 7.8 miles west-southwest of the Town of Ward, United States, on the Continental Divide separating Roosevelt National Forest and Boulder County from Arapaho National Forest and Grand County. Between North Arapaho Peak and neighboring South Arapaho Peak sits Arapaho Glacier, owned by the City of Boulder as part of its water supply. West of these peaks is Arapaho Pass. Arapaho Peak North Arapaho Peak List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado