Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena, the historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nations most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008, Siena is famous for its cuisine, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year. Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was first settled in the time of the Etruscans when it was inhabited by a called the Saina. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the site in the time of the Emperor Augustus, the first document mentioning it dates from AD70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe called the Senones, according to local legend, Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus and thus nephews of Romulus, after whom Rome was named. Supposedly after their fathers murder by Romulus, they fled Rome, taking them the statue of the she-wolf suckling the infants.
Additionally they rode white and black horses, giving rise to the Balzana, some claim the name Siena derives from Senius. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan family name Saina, Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited near any major roads and lacked opportunities for trade and its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to, the oldest aristocratic families in Siena date their line to the Lombards surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. This ultimately resulted in the creation of the Republic of Siena, the Republic existed for over four hundred years, from the late 11th century until the year 1555. During the golden age of Siena before the Black Death in 1348, in the Italian War of 1551–59, the republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown.
After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, the new Spanish King Felipe II, owing huge sums to the Medici, ceded it to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century. A Republican government of 700 Sienese families in Montalcino resisted until 1559, the picturesque city remains an important cultural centre, especially for humanist disciplines. The city lies at 322 m above sea level, the Siena Cathedral, begun in the 12th century, is a masterpiece of Italian Romanesque-Gothic architecture. Its main façade was completed in 1380, the original plan called for an ambitiously massive basilica, the largest in the world, with, as was customary, an east-west nave. However, the scarcity of funds, in due to war and plague, truncated the project
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Vilhelm Klein was a Danish architect who adopted the Historicist approach, frequently emulating the so-called Rosenborg style and the Italian Renaissance style. Born in Copenhagen, he first trained as a stonemason before studying at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts where he was awarded the silver medal in 1856. From 1851 to 1856, he worked as a draftsman for Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll who he considered to have been his main instructor. From 1857 to 1862, he worked as a designer for Ferdinand Meldahl who influenced his style. He worked for Johan Daniel Herholdt during the construction of Selchausdal Manor in Kalundborg, Klein was particularly fond of the Rosenborg style based on the Dutch Renaissance trends under Christian IV, crediting Bindesbøll for its prominent place in Danish architecture. From 1866 to 1872, he undertook substantial extensions to Bindesbølls Lægeforeningens boliger social housing development in Copenhagens Østerbro, vilhelm Klein is listed in the Danish Culture Canon together with Michael Gottlieb Bindesbøll in connection with the social housing development in Lægeforeningens boliger—Brumleby
Vesterbrogade is the main shopping street of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The 1.5 km long street runs from the City Hall Square in the east to Pile Allé in Frederiksberg in the west where it turns into Roskildevej, on its way, it passes Copenhagen Central Station as well as the small triangular square Vesterbros Torv. It is one of four such -bro streets, the other being Nørrebrogade, Østerbrogade and Amagerbrogade, vesterbroghade originates in the 12th-century country road that led in and out of Copenhagens Western City Gate. The road passed Sankt Jørgens Bæk on its way to Valby, on 20 August 1624, Christian IV ordered that the road be cobbled, first to Vernedamsvej and all the way to Valby. The road was at this point called Alvejen (The Public Road= or Adelvejen and it is one of four such -bro streets. New buildings began to long the street in the 1850s. In 1866–67, Vesterbrogade was extended in a line from Tivoli to the Haymarket. The first section of the street, between the Vity Hall Square and the new Central Central Station, was out as a broad.
Among the buildings that were built along it, including Industriforeningens new Exhibition Building from 1872, at the turn of the 20th century, Vesterbros Passage was the backbone in a westward expansion of Copenhagens city centre. Most of the old buildings were replaced by new and larger ones over the course of the next decades, industriens Hus is the headquarters of the Confederation of Danish Industries. An expansion and complete make-over of the building was completed in 2013, next to the building is the main entrance of Tivoli Gardens. Saxo Towers, a complex consisting of four interconnected culinders, is currently under construction on the other side of the street. Axelborg, originally a building, now contains the headquarters of the Danish Agriculture. The former SAS Royal Hotel, now operated by Radison Blu, was designed by Arne Jacobsen and his Egg and Swan chairs were designed for the building. AArbejdernes Landsbank has their headquarters in the so-called Panoptikon Building at No.5, the small Savoy Hotel, known as Løvenborg, is one of the earliest examples of the art nouveau style in Copenhagen.
The building was designed by Anton Rosen who a few years designed the two buildings that flank thDet Ny Teater in the same style. The Association of Danish Law Firms is based at No.32, the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Societys former main building at No.59 is from 1780s. It now houses the Museum of Copenhagen, the former Vesterbro Pharmacy was built in 1853 to design by P. C
Some types of bars, such as pubs, may serve food from a restaurant menu. The term bar refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served, bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are often referred to as music bars, live venues, types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment often accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a happy hour to encourage off-peak-time patronage, bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours. Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons. Such bars often feature entertainment, which may be a band, comedian. The term bar is derived from the counter on which drinks are served. Patrons may sit or stand at the bar and be served by the bartender, depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two.
The back bar is a set of shelves of glasses and bottles behind that counter, in some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. There have been different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States taverns were an important meeting place, during the 19th century saloons were very important to the leisure time of the working class. Today, even when an establishment uses a different name, such as tavern or saloon, the sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called speakeasies, blind pigs, laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, in some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron who is already intoxicated.
Cities and towns usually have restrictions on where bars may be located. Some bars may have a license to serve beer and wine, in some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a liability for the conduct of patrons who they serve. A bars owners and managers choose the name, décor, drink menu, lighting
Industriens Hus is the home of the Confederation of Danish Industries. The building is located at the corner of H. C, andersens Boulevard and Vesterbrogade, opposite the City Hall Square, in Copenhagen, Denmark. It contains a showroom for green technologies, House of Green, as well as a series of flagship stores. The building was designed by Vilhelm Klein, in 1878, the Association for Industrial Enterprises acquired the site and converted the building into their new headquarters. A glazed extension on Vester Boulevard was constructed in 1898 and it was designed by Ludvig Clausen and was the result of an architectural competition. It closed in 1933 and its premises were converted into a Ford showroom, the Palladium Cinema opened in another part of the building in 1838. The old building became more and more outdated and it was therefore decided to replace it with a new one. An architectural competition was won by Arne Jacobsen in 1965 but his proposal was met with opposition and was never realized.
After Jacobsens death in 1971, Jørgen Buschardt was charged with the task of designing the building, first alone and in association with Erik Møller, in the end, a third proposal, created by Erik Møller alone, was finally approved. The old building was demolished in 1977 and the new one completed in 1979, the ground floor contained a shopping arcade, Rådhusarkaden. A glass pyramid was constructed in the central courtyard and it was used for exhibitions and concerts. In 2010, the building had again become too small. It was won by the small Danish architectural firm Transform, the new building was inaugurated in March 2013. The renovation of Industriens Hus only retained the concrete decks and pillars of the original building, two floors were added so that the building now reaches eight storeys towards the street while it gradually drops towards Tivoli Gardens to reduce the impact on the historic premises. The glazed façade consists of 3,331 5-square metres pieces of glass, the building has been criticized for its monotonous appearance in the daytime.
House of Green is a centre that showcases Danish green technologies. It was inaugurated on 5 September 2013
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities. In many countries the rewards are generally in the form of money but other such as food. Street performance is practiced all over the world by men and children, People engaging in this practice are called street performers or buskers. Performances are anything that people find entertaining, the term busking was first noted in the English language around the middle 1860s in Great Britain. The verb to busk, from the word busker, comes from the Spanish root word buscar, the Spanish word buscar in turn evolved from the Indo-European word *bhudh-skō. It was used for many acts, and title of a famous Spanish book about one of them. Today, the word is used in Spanish but mostly relegated for female street sex workers. There have been performances in places for gratuities in every major culture in the world. For many musicians street performance was the most common means of employment before the advent of recording and personal electronics.
Prior to that, a person had to any music or entertainment, save for a few mechanical devices such as the barrel organ, the music box. Organ grinders were commonly found busking in the old days, Busking is common among some Romani people, who are called gypsies, a description that is no longer socially acceptable in some societies. Romantic mention of Romani music and fortune tellers are found in all forms of poetry, prose. The Roma brought the word busking to England by way of their travels along the Mediterranean coast to Spain and the Atlantic Ocean and up north to England, in medieval France buskers were known by the terms troubadours and jongleurs. In northern France they were known as trouveres, in old German buskers were known as Minnesingers and Spielleute. In obsolete French it evolved to busquer for seek and was used to describe prostitutes. In Russia buskers are called skomorokh and their first recorded history appears around the 11th century, Mexican bands that play a style of music by the same name, frequently busk when they perform while traveling through streets and plazas, as well as in restaurants and bars.
Around the mid-19th century Japanese Chindonya started to be using their skills for advertising. Another Japanese street performance form dating from the Edo period is Nankin Tamasudare, in the United States, medicine shows proliferated in the 19th century
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen (/ˈhɑːnz ˈkrɪstʃən ˈændərsən/, often referred to in Scandinavia as H. C. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues and poems, Andersens popularity is not limited to children, his stories, called eventyr in Danish, express themes that transcend age and nationality. Some of his most famous fairy tales include The Emperors New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Snow Queen, The Ugly Duckling and his stories have inspired ballets and live-action films and plays. Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Andersens father, considered himself related to nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a social class. A persistent theory suggests that Andersen was a son of King Christian VIII. Andersens father, who had received an education, introduced Andersen to literature. Andersens mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was uneducated and worked as a washerwoman following his fathers death in 1816, she remarried in 1818.
Andersen was sent to a school for poor children where he received a basic education and was forced to support himself, working as an apprentice for a weaver and, later. At 14, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor, having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet, taking the suggestion seriously, Andersen began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, felt a great affection for Andersen and sent him to a school in Slagelse. Andersen had already published his first story, The Ghost at Palnatokes Grave, though not a keen pupil, he attended school at Elsinore until 1827. He said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life, at one school, he lived at his schoolmasters home. There he was abused and was told that it was to improve his character and he said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general, causing him to enter a state of depression.
A very early fairy tale by Andersen, called The Tallow Candle, was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012, the story, written in the 1820s, was about a candle who did not feel appreciated. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to a benefactor, in 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story A Journey on Foot from Holmens Canal to the East Point of Amager. Its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat, Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, and a short volume of poems