City University of New York

The City University of New York is the public university system of New York City. It is the largest urban university system in the United States, comprising 26 campuses: eleven senior colleges, seven community colleges, one undergraduate honors college, seven post-graduate institutions. While its constituent colleges date back as far as 1847, the City University was established in 1961; the university enrolls more than 275,000 students, counts thirteen Nobel Prize winners and twenty-four MacArthur Fellows among its alumni. In 1960 John R. Everett became the first Chancellor of the Municipal College System of the City of New York, to be renamed CUNY, for a salary of $25,000. CUNY was created in 1961, by New York State legislation, signed into law by Governor Nelson Rockefeller; the legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", created by New York State legislation in 1926.

By 1979, the Board of Higher Education had become the "Board of Trustees of the CUNY". The institutions that were merged in order to create CUNY were: The Free Academy – Founded in 1847 by Townsend Harris, it was fashioned as "a Free Academy for the purpose of extending the benefits of education gratuitously to persons who have been pupils in the common schools of the city and county of New York." The Free Academy became the City College of New York. The Female Normal and High School – Founded in 1870, renamed the Normal College, it would be renamed again in 1914 to Hunter College. During the early 20th century, Hunter College expanded into the Bronx, with what became Herbert Lehman College. Brooklyn College – Founded in 1930. Queens College – Founded in 1937. CUNY has served a diverse student body those excluded from or unable to afford private universities, its four-year colleges offered a high quality, tuition-free education to the poor, the working class and the immigrants of New York City who met the grade requirements for matriculated status.

During the post-World War I era, when some Ivy League universities, such as Yale University, discriminated against Jews, many Jewish academics and intellectuals studied and taught at CUNY. The City College of New York developed a reputation of being "the Harvard of the proletariat."As New York City's population—and public college enrollment—grew during the early 20th century and the city struggled for resources, the municipal colleges began adopting selective tuition known as instructional fees, for a handful of courses and programs. During the Great Depression, with funding for the public colleges constrained, limits were imposed on the size of the colleges' free Day Session, tuition was imposed upon students deemed "competent" but not academically qualified for the day program. Most of these "limited matriculation" students enrolled in the Evening Session, paid tuition. Additionally, as the population of New York grew, CUNY was not able to accommodate the demand for higher education. Higher and higher requirements for admission were imposed.

This helped to ensure that the student population of CUNY remained white and middle-class. Demand in the United States for higher education grew after World War II, during the mid-1940s a movement began to create community colleges to provide accessible education and training. In New York City, the community-college movement was constrained by many factors including "financial problems, narrow perceptions of responsibility, organizational weaknesses, adverse political factors, other competing priorities."Community colleges would have drawn from the same city coffers that were funding the senior colleges, city higher education officials were of the view that the state should finance them. It was not until 1955, under a shared-funding arrangement with New York State, that New York City established its first community college, on Staten Island. Unlike the day college students attending the city's public baccalaureate colleges for free, the community college students had to pay tuition fees under the state-city funding formula.

Community college students paid tuition fees for 10 years. Over time, tuition fees for limited-matriculated students became an important source of system revenues. In fall 1957, for example, nearly 36,000 attended Hunter, Brooklyn and City Colleges for free, but another 24,000 paid tuition fees of up to $300 a year. Undergraduate tuition and other student fees in 1957 comprised 17 percent of the colleges' $46.8 million in revenues, about $7.74 million. Three community colleges had been established by early 1961, when New York City's public colleges were codified by the state as a single university with a chancellor at the helm and an infusion of state funds, but the city's slowness in creating the community colleges as demand for college seats was intensifying and had resulted in mounting frustration on the part of minorities, that college opportunities were not available to them. In 1964, as New York City's Board of Higher Education moved to take full responsibility for the community colleges, city officials extended the senior colleges' free tuition policy to them, a change, included by Mayor Robert F. Wagner Jr. in his budget plans and took effect with the 1964–65 academic year.

Calls for greater access to public higher education from the Black and Puerto Rican communities in New York in Brooklyn, led to the founding of "Community College Number 7," Medgar Evers College, in 1966-1967. In 1969

Myoporum tenuifolium

Myoporum tenuifolium is a plant in the figwort family, Scrophulariaceae and it is endemic to New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. It can be distinguished from Myoporum crassifolium, by its thin leaves and its glabrous flowers. Myoporum tenuifolium is an erect shrub growing to a height of 10 metres which has flattened branches, its leaves are arranged alternately and are 50–70 millimetres long, 9–16 millimetres wide with a stalk about 3–10 millimetres long. They have a distinct mid-vein on the lower surface; the flowers are borne in groups of 1 to 4 in the axils of leaves on a flattened stalk 6–12.5 millimetres long. The flowers have 5 petals, joined at their bases to form a bell-shaped tube; the petals are white and the tube is 2–4.5 millimetres long with the lobes shorter than the tube. The tube and its lobes are glabrous and there are 4 stamens which extend beyond it; the fruit is a reddish to brown drupe, oval shaped and about 3.5–7 millimetres long. Myoporum tenuifolium was first formally described in 1786 by Georg Forster in Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus in 1810.

The specific epithet is derived from Latin tenuis, "slender" and folium, "leaf". Myoporum tenuifolium is found on Grande Terre, the main island of New Caledonia and on Maré Island and Ouvéa in the Loyalty Island group, it grows in scrub and forest on steep hillsides. This species has become naturalised on the southern coast of South Africa. Myoporum tenuifolium is a common garden plant in eastern Spain

Bradford Girls' Choir

The Bradford Catholic Girls' Choir was formed in 2006. It has 35 members of girls aged between 10 and 18 from Keighley and Bradford schools under the direction of Thomas Leech, it is part of the Leeds Diocese Schools Singing Programme, the largest choir outreach programme in Britain. The girls have performed twice at the Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod, finishing 5th in 2009 as the highest-placed UK choir; the choir was awarded the Music for Youth Senior choirs' award for their outstanding musicianship in Birmingham in July 2009. The girls have appeared on Songs of Praise on the BBC as well as numerous radio performances. Together with the Bradford Catholic Boys' Choir, the choir has recorded Jubilate Deo; the choir performed several concerts in France in June 2008, performing in Paris and Lourdes and again in France at the 9èmes Rencontres Internationales de Choeurs d'Enfants Festival in April 2010. In July 2014, they will compete in the World Choir Games, held in Latvia. Diocese of leeds, Music department David Knights, "Pope Choir in Concert", Keighley News, retrieved 2010-06-14 David Knights, "Holy Family girls on top voice", Keighley News, retrieved 2009-08-27 Dan Webber, "Girls head off to take on the world", Bradford Telegraph and Argus, retrieved 2009-08-26 The Diocese of Leeds Music Department