Oxford City Council
Oxford City Council provides local government for the city of Oxford in England. Between the 2004 local elections, 2010 the council was in minority administration, first by councillors from the Labour Party, with the Liberal Democrats being the official opposition. In 2006 these roles were reversed, although two years the council returned to being run by a minority Labour administration. Before they took full control in 2010. Despite the stereotypical view of Oxford as a conservative city, there are no elected Conservatives on the city council; the Independent Working Class Association was represented for a decade between 2002 and 2012. Since 2002, elections have been held for Oxford City Council in years, with each councillor serving a term of four years; each electoral ward within Oxford is represented by two councillors, thus all wards elect one councillor at each election. Prior to 2002, the City Council was elected by thirds. In early 2003, the Oxford City Council submitted a bid to become a unitary authority.
This was subsequently rejected. Since 2008, Oxford City Council has been undergoing a programme of Business Transformation which has now been delivered in to the City Council. Oxford City Council contains all of the Oxford East parliamentary constituency, won by Labour in the 2010 General Election with an increased majority but was until a marginal seat with the Liberal Democrats. Labour massively increased its majority following the collapse of the Liberal Democrat vote at the 2015 general election; the Council covers part of the Oxford West and Abingdon parliamentary constituency, won from the Conservatives by the Liberal Democrats at the 2017 General Election. In 2016, Oxfordshire County Council put forward a'One Oxfordshire' proposal which would see Oxford City Council and the four other district councils in Oxfordshire abolished and replaced with a single unitary county council for Oxfordshire. In 2017, Oxford City Council voiced their opposition to the proposal and it was subsequently dropped.
In 2018, the electoral ward boundaries were changed due to population shifts in the city. Therefore all 48 councillors will be elected as opposed to half of them; the system of halves will return from 2022 onwards. Partisan compositionPartisan control Oxford City Council became the first UK authority to divest from fossil fuel companies in September 2014. In 2011, Oxford City Council had reduced their carbon footprint by 25% and continues to reduce carbon emissions from its own estate by 5% year on year. In 2014, Oxford City Council was named'Most Sustainable Local Authority' in the Public Sector Sustainability Awards. Oxford City Council leads the Low Carbon Oxford network – a collaboration of over 40 organisations working together to reduce emissions in the city by 40% by 2020. Oxford City Council leads on delivering the annual Low Carbon Oxford Week festival, which uses culture and community to inspire local people to take action on climate change. In 2015, the festival saw over 60 local organisations partner to deliver over 100 events across the city and attract over 40,000 visitors.
Energy Superhub Oxford is a power optimisation project. It will include a lithium-ion battery of 48/50MWh, a flow battery of 2/5MWh, 20 ultra-rapid electric vehicle chargers for public use and ground-source heat pumps for residential properties. Oxford local elections Oxford Town Hall Oxford City Council website
Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria, called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until in Victoria's reign; the styles included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and Regency architecture, was succeeded by Edwardian architecture. During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, such buildings as Fonthill Abbey were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component.
Paxton continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years, its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture and everyday life in a meaningful way.
Jacobethan Renaissance Revival Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival Second Empire Queen Anne Revival Scots Baronial British Arts and Crafts movement While not uniquely Victorian, part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae. Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire became established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers; some chose the United States, others went to Canada and New Zealand. They applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, improving transport and communications meant that remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion.
Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield and Jacob Wrey Mould; the Victorian period flourished in Australia and is recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated: The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915. During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology and the Galle Face Hotel. In the United States,'Victorian' architecture describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most includes Second Empire, Stick-Eastlake, Folk Victorian, Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Shingle; as in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate continued to be constructed during this period, are therefore sometimes called Victorian.
Some historians classify the years of Gothic Revival as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style; the names of architectural styles varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not distinguishable as one particular style or another. In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt during this era include Alameda, Albany, Troy, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Rochester, Columbus, Eureka, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, Angelino Heigh
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Department of Energy and Climate Change
The Department of Energy and Climate Change was a British government department created on 3 October 2008, by Prime Minister Gordon Brown to take over some of the functions related to energy of the Department for Business and Regulatory Reform, those relating to climate change of the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs. It was led at time of closure by the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, Amber Rudd MP. Following Theresa May's appointment as Prime Minister in July 2016, the department was disbanded and merged with the Department for Business and Skills, to form the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy under Greg Clark MP; the Department plans. The majority of DECC's budget was spent on managing the historic nuclear sites in the United Kingdom, in 2012/13 this being 69% of its budget spent through the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority; the costs to the government of nuclear decommissioning are expected to increase when the last of the United Kingdom's Magnox reactors are shut down and no longer produce an income.
Ed Miliband Chris Huhne Ed Davey Amber Rudd Mike O'Brien Joan Ruddock Charles Hendry John Hayes Michael Fallon Matthew Hancock Andrea Leadsom Permanent Secretary Stephen Lovegrove. Acting Permanent Secretary Phil Wynn Owen. Chief Scientific Advisor John Loughhead. MacKay. In July 2014, a private member's bill was proposed in Parliament, sponsored by Conservative MP Peter Bone, to abolish the Department of Energy and Climate Change and absorb its portfolio into the Department for Business and Skills. In the House of Commons, it was scheduled for a second reading on 6 March 2015. However, as a private members bill, it was unlikely to be passed without government support, which in the event it failed to get. Mr Bone reintroduced his Bill on 29 June 2015, it did not progress beyond its first reading. However, the proposed disbanding and merger did occur, shortly after the appointment of Theresa May as Prime Minister; the devolution of energy policy varies around the United Kingdom. Key reserved and excepted energy matters are as follows: Scotland electricity oil and gas coal climate change nuclear energy energy efficiencyNorthern Ireland Nuclear energy is excepted.
The Department of Enterprise and Investment is responsible for general energy policy. Wales Under the Welsh devolution settlement, specific policy areas are transferred to the National Assembly for Wales rather than reserved to Westminster. Climate change in the United Kingdom Energy and Climate Change Select Committee Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Department of Energy and Climate Change
St Sepulchre's Cemetery
St Sepulchre's Cemetery is located in Jericho, central Oxford, England. This cemetery was opened in Walton Street, Oxford in 1848 as a parish cemetery for four of the twelve parishes of Oxford. All the existing Oxford churchyards were overcrowded after many hundreds of years of burials, two other cemeteries Osney Cemetery and Holywell Cemetery. Were opened in the same year to cater for the other eight Oxford parishes. In 1855, new burials were forbidden in all Oxford city churchyards, apart from in existing vaults; the cemetery was surrounded on two sides by the Lucy factory, the former Eagle Ironworks, but this industrial site has now been redeveloped for housing. St Sepulchre's Cemetery itself became overcrowded in Victorian times; the cemetery is now unused and had become overgrown, so the Friends of St Sepulchre's Cemetery group was formed who meet to clear vegetation from the grounds, making it a more hospitable open space and protecting the memorials from damage. Before the cemetery was created, Walton Manor Farm used to be on this site.
Access to the cemetery is through iron gates attached to a Gothic lodge off Walton Street. The cemetery is listed Grade II on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. People buried here include: Edward Caird, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. John Cavell, proprietor of what was once Oxford's leading department store, Elliston & Cavell, mayor of Oxford. Thomas Combe, an early Superintendent of the Oxford University Press and benefactor of St Barnabas Church, both nearby. Benjamin Jowett, a Victorian Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University and Master of Balliol College. George Uglow Pope popularly known as Rev. G. U. Pope or just G. U. Pope, a Christian missionary who spent many years in Tamil Nadu and translated many Tamil texts into English. Henry John Stephen Smith mathematician John O. Westwood and archaeologist. Holywell Cemetery Osney Cemetery Wolvercote Cemetery Friends of St Sepulchre's Cemetery, with biographies of many people buried here Oxford Guide information Jericho Echo information
Cowley Road, Oxford
Cowley Road is an arterial road in the city of Oxford, running southeast from near the city centre at The Plain near Magdalen Bridge, through the inner city area of East Oxford, to the industrial suburb of Cowley. The central shopping is at 51.746°N 1.232°W / 51.746. Cowley Road, like most of Oxford, has an economically diverse population; this includes significant, long-standing South Asian and Afro-Caribbean communities, who have been joined more by East European and African arrivals. Alongside these ethnic groups, East Oxford plays host to many members of the city's academic population, both undergraduate and academic staff, is home to many politically active groups. Cowley Road has high levels of both road traffic and pedestrian traffic, space for both is limited. In 2005, Oxfordshire County Council invested about £1,000,000 from central government to re-model the busiest part of Cowley Road; the carriageway has been realigned and colourfully resurfaced, the pavements have been repaved, cycle lanes have been enhanced in some places and removed from others and in one section the speed limit has been reduced to 20 miles per hour.
The Cowley Road area has played a prominent part in the Oxford music scene. A number of successful bands made their formative performances in local venues such as the O2 Academy Oxford, The Bullingdon. Famous Oxford bands have included Supergrass and Ride. Cowley Road is home to the Cowley Road Carnival, an annual event when the road is pedestrianised, which features live music, static sound systems, a parade, food from around the world. Cowley Road Carnival has become an integral part of contemporary Oxford. Held on the first Sunday in July it celebrates the multicultural diversity of the city and attracts around 50,000 visitors. Cowley Road Carnival CowleyRoad.org - an open access visual archive of the road Ultimate Picture Palace, James Street, off Cowley Road Attlee, James. Isolarion: A Different Oxford Journey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-03093-7. Sherwood, Jennifer. Oxfordshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 0 14 071045 0. Skinner, Annie. Cowley Road: A History.
Signal Books. ISBN 1-904955-10-X
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf