City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities: as of 2014, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland. The holding of city status gives a settlement no special rights; this appellation carries its own competition for the status is hard-fought. The status does not apply automatically on the basis of any particular criteria, though in England and Wales it was traditionally given to towns with diocesan cathedrals; this association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established in the early 1540s when King Henry VIII founded dioceses in six English towns and granted them city status by issuing letters patent. City status in Ireland was granted to far fewer communities than in England and Wales, there are only two pre-19th-century cities in present-day Northern Ireland. In Scotland, city status did not explicitly receive any recognition by the state until the 19th century.
At that time, a revival of grants of city status took place, first in England, where the grants were accompanied by the establishment of new cathedrals, in Scotland and Ireland. In the 20th century, it was explicitly recognised that the status of city in England and Wales would no longer be bound to the presence of a cathedral, grants made since have been awarded to communities on a variety of criteria, including population size; the abolition of some corporate bodies as part of successive local-government reforms, beginning with the Municipal Corporations Act 1840, has deprived some ancient cities of their status. However, letters patent have been issued for most of the affected cities to ensure the continuation or restoration of their status. At present and Elgin are the only former cities in the United Kingdom; the name "City" does not, in itself, denote city status. A number of large towns in the UK are bigger than some small cities, but cannot legitimately call themselves a city without the royal designation.
The initial cities of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities", mentioned by Gildas and listed by Nennius. In the 16th century, a town was recognised as a city by the English Crown if it had a diocesan cathedral within its limits, for which 22 dioceses existed in England & Wales; this association between having a cathedral and being called a city was established when Henry VIII founded new dioceses in six English towns and granted them city status by issuing letters patent, demonstrating these were discrete procedures. Some cities today are small because they were granted city status in or before the 16th century were unaffected by population growth during the Industrial Revolution—notably Wells and St Davids. After the 16th century, no new dioceses were created until the 19th century in England. A long-awaited resumption of creating dioceses began in 1836 with Ripon.
Ripon Town Council assumed that this had elevated the town to the rank of a city, started referring to itself as the City and Borough of Ripon. The next diocese formed was Manchester and its Borough Council began informally to use the title city; when Queen Victoria visited Manchester in 1851, widespread doubts surrounding its status were raised. The pretension was ended when the borough petitioned for city status, granted by letters patent in 1853; this forced Ripon to regularise its position. From this year Ripon bore city status whilst the expanding conurbation of Leeds – in the Ripon diocese – did not; the Manchester case established a precedent that any municipal borough in which an Anglican see was established was entitled to petition for city status. Accordingly, Truro, St Albans, Newcastle upon Tyne and Wakefield were all designated as cities between 1877 and 1888; this was not without opposition from the Home Office, which dismissed St Albans as "a fourth or fifth rate market town" and objected to Wakefield's elevation on grounds of population.
In one new diocese, Southwell, a city was not created, because it was a village without a borough corporation and therefore could not petition the Queen. The diocese covered the counties of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, the boroughs of Derby and Nottingham were disappointed that they would not be able to claim the title of city; the link with Anglican dioceses was broken within England in 1889 when Birmingham petitioned for city status on the grounds of its large population and history of good local government. At the time of the grant, Birmingham lacked an Anglican cathedral, although the parish church became a cathedral in 1905; this new precedent was followed by other large municipalities: Leeds and Sheffield became cities in 1893, Bradford, Kingston upon Hull and Nottingham were honoured on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897. The last three had been the largest county boroughs outside the London area without city status. Between 1897 and 1914, applications were received fr
ABIRD is an American electronic rock band from New Jersey. Adam Bird signed to Mint 400 Records in 2017, under the moniker aBIRD. Bird was the singer of the grunge group Those Mockingbirds, who disbanded in 2017. In an interview with James Damion in Jersey Beat, Bird notes that Those Mockingbirds "were going to run the risk of diluting what we had accomplished in our own eyes," adding that "I started to get into more electronic based music bands like Massive Attack, Air and LCD Soundsystem were all pivotal in opening my eyes." Their first release was a rendition of the song "Very Ape," for the tribute album Mint 400 Records Presents Nirvana In Utero. He performed at the North Jersey Indie Rock Festival on 23 September 2017, the song "A Cool Island Song" appears on the compilation, NJ / NY Mixtape. ABIRD made a rendition of the song "Playground Love" with CK Vibes for the compilation At the Movies. ABIRD released the debut album, Hard Times in Two Dimensions, on 30 November 2018. Adam Bird – vocals and guitar Nick Ivory – keys and bass AlbumsHard Times in Two Dimensions Appearing onThe 3rd Annual 24 Hour Songwriting Challenge Mint 400 Records Presents Nirvana In Utero The 4th Annual 24 Hour Songwriting Challenge At the Movies NJ / NY Mixtape Citations Bibliography Media related to aBIRD at Wikimedia Commons Official website
For information on all Lamar University sports, see Lamar Cardinals and Lady CardinalsThe 2015 Lamar Cardinals baseball team represents Lamar University in the 2015 NCAA Division I baseball season. The Cardinals play their home games at Vincent–Beck Stadium and are members of the Southland Conference; the team is coached by Jim Gilligan in his 39th season at Lamar. In 2014, the Cardinals finished the season 8th in the Southland with a record of 31–25, 16–14 in conference play, they qualified for the 2014 Southland Conference Baseball Tournament and were eliminated in the first round. They failed to qualify for the 2014 NCAA Division I Baseball Tournament; the Cardinals were predicted to finish 8th in the Southland in the preseason Coaches and Sports Information Director polls. On February 5, three Cardinals were named to Southland Conference All-Conference teams. Brandon Provost, playing catcher for the Cardinals, was named as a 1st Team All-Conference member, Reed Seeley, as third baseman, Kyle Markhum, as designated hitter, were named as 2nd Team All-Conference members.
Head coach Jim Gilligan achieved his 1,300th career win in the February 13 season opener pitting the Cardinals against the New Mexico State Aggies. He joined five other active college coaches with 1,300 or more career wins; the Cardinals opened March play with a non-conference loss to Texas–Pan American in Edinburg, TX. The month closed with the Cardinals losing another non-conference game against the Rice Owls; the Cardinals began conference play in March with series against Northwestern State, Central Arkansas, New Orleans building a conference record of 3–6. The Cardinals played two other conference foes during the month, Nicholls State and Abilene Christian, but those games were scheduled as non–conference games; the team had a 7–11 overall record during the month of March with a 13–15 for the season to date. The Cardinals opened; the month closed with a home loss to Texas Southern. The Cardinals split all four of the conference series only winning the series against Texas A&M–Corpus Christi.
At the end of April, the team finished with a 5–7 conference record for the month and an 8–13 season to date conference record. In non-conference play, the Cardinals recorded one victory against Grambling State and had losses to LSU, Texas Southern; the team had a 6–10 overall record during the month of April with a 19–25 for the season to date. The Cardinals opened; the team ended the month with a record of 2-6 and were eliminated as a possible contender in postseason play on May 9. The team ended the season with a 21–31 overall record and a 10–19 record in conference play; the Cardinals ended the season in 12th place in Southland Conference play. Note: Nicholls State and Abilene Christian series games were scheduled as non-conference games