The term, the diminutive form of war in Spanish, is usually translated as little war, and the word, has been used to refer to the concept since the 18th century, and perhaps earlier. In correct Spanish usage, a person who is a member of a guerrilla is a guerrillero if male, the term guerrilla was used in English as early as 1809, to refer to the fighters, and to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the style of warfare. The use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number, guerrillas usually carries positive connotations, and is often used by such fighters themselves and by their sympathizers, while their foes in many cases call them terrorists. Making an objective definition of the difference between a guerrilla and a terrorist has proven a difficult task, the strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare tend to focus around the use of a small, mobile force competing against a larger, more unwieldy one. The Guerrilla focuses on organizing in small units, depending on the support of the local population, the guerrilla army would avoid any confrontation with large units of enemy troops, but seek and eliminate small groups of soldiers to minimize losses and exhaust the opposing force.
Not limiting their targets to personnel, enemy resources are preferred targets. All of that is to weaken the strength, to cause the enemy eventually to be unable to prosecute the war any longer. It is often misunderstood that guerrilla warfare must involve disguising as civilians to cause enemy troops to fail in telling friend from foe, this is not a primary feature of a guerrilla war. This type of war can be practiced anywhere there are places for combatants to cover themselves, at least one author credits the ancient Chinese work The Art of War with providing instruction in such tactics to Mao. The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare and this directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, socialism, because of the innovative tactics he used during his command, he made himself the name of Terror Romanorum. A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency operation involves actions taken by the government of a nation to contain or quell an insurgency taken up against it.
Counter-insurgency operations are common during war and armed rebellions, the two most influential of scholars of counter-insurgency have been Westerners whose job it had been to fight insurgents. Robert Thompson fought during the Malayan Emergency and David Galula fought during the Algerian War, together these officers advocated multi-pronged strategies to win over the civilian population to the side of the counter-insurgent. The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson, counter-insurgency expert of the Malayan Emergency, thompsons underlying assumption was that the counter-insurgent was committed to improving the rule of law and bettering local governance
Spanish colonization of the Americas
The Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by its administrators and missionaries. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions and it is estimated that during the colonial period, a total of 18.6 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era. Spains loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas, the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created a single Spanish monarchy. Even though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, the Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West. The funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile, in the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery and settlement resided in the monarchy.
Columbus made four voyages to the West Indiesas the monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories and he founded La Navidad on the island named Hispaniola, in what is present day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, in 1496 his brother, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area. The local Taíno people continued to resist, refusing to plant crops, the first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, the Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509 but abandoned it within the year. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién, the Spanish conquest of Mexico is generally understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire which was the base for conquests of other regions.
Later conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than conquest of the Aztecs, but not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire was led by Hernán Cortés, the victory over the Aztecs was relatively quick, from 1519 to 1521, and aided by his Tlaxcala and other allies from indigenous city-states or altepetl. These polities allied against the Aztec empire, to which they paid tribute following conquest or threat of conquest, leaving the political hierarchy. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was a longer campaign, from 1551 to 1697, against the Maya peoples in the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico. When Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz and founded the Spanish city there on April 22,1519, Spain colonized and exerted control of Alta California through the Spanish missions in California until the Mexican secularization act of 1833.
It was the first step in a campaign that took decades of fighting to subdue the mightiest empire in the Americas. In the following years Spain extended its rule over the Empire of the Inca civilization, in the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region
Magdalena is a department of Colombia, located to the north of the country by the Caribbean Sea. The capital of the Magdalena Department is Santa Marta and was named after the Magdalena River and it inherited the name of one of the original nine states of the United States of Colombia that its current territory integrated. The Department of Magdalena is located on the North Coast of the Colombian Caribbean Region, on the north it borders the Caribbean Sea. On the northeast it borders the La Guajira Department, being divided by the Palomino River, on the east it borders with the Cesar Department, which is in part divided by the Guaraní River. On the west, it is divided by the Magdalena River, and it borders the departments of Atlantico in the Northwest, the territory of the Department of Magdalena is formed by four drainage basins which are very different in composition and importance. Sierra Nevada’s Northern Slope The drainage basin of the Sierra Nevada’s western slope is located in the part of the department.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta creates different rivers that run mainly through the municipality of Santa Marta, and that finally end up draining into the Caribbean Sea. Magdalena Basin The Magdalena River Basin is the largest drainage basin in the department, it is formed by the Magdalena River and its tributaries that feed on to the river and the Marsh. The Mompóx Depression is found within this basin, this runs from the Zapatosa Marsh to the delta of the Magdalena River. This depression collects the most water in the department as its where the Cauca River, Cesar River, marshes The department of Magdalena is characterized by its many marshes and extensive marshland valleys. The whole western side of the department its dotted with marshes and lakes due to the Magdalena River that borders the department on this side, most of this marshes are located in the northwestern side. The permanent marshes are, Chilloa, La Rinconada, Pijiño, Juan Criollo, Playa Afuera, Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, and Zapatosa.
It is located in the northwest of the department and is separated from the sea by a thin margin of land. It has an extension of 4,280 km², of whitch 730 km² are just water mirrors with a depth of 2 to 6 meters. The Zapatosa Marsh, located in the municipality of El Plato in the southernmost part of the department, it is shared with the Cesar Department and it has an extension of 310 km² and at its deepest it reaches about 8m. In it many rivers of different importance merge, the Zapatosa Marsh drains into the Magdalena River by an arm of about 16 km of length. The Department of Magdalena, because of its terrain, and proximity to the sea has an unstable weather and its Climate is mainly dictated by its global positioning, and because the department of Magdalena is located on the Intertropical Convergence Zone it possess an inter-tropical climate. Temperature in the department is affected by currents and atmospheric pressure, it mainly has a hot temperatures with high humidity
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia. The Sierra Nevada encompasses about 17,000 km2 and serves as the source of 36 rivers, the range is in the Departments of Magdalena, Cesar and La Guajira. SRTM data and local topographic maps show that their true elevations are approximately 5,700 m, the Sierra Nevada is a compact group, relatively small in area, and completely surrounded by lands with elevations below 200 m. Although it is associated with the Tropical Andes, the backbone of the Andes cannot be reached from the Sierra Nevada without dropping below this level. This makes its highest point the worlds fifth most prominent summit, several peaks in the Sierra Nevada are intervisible with Cerro Paramillo, a 3,730 m peak in Antioquia Department. This implies a direct line of sight of just over 500 km. It is calculated that the average rainfall is 4,000 mm at elevations of 500 m to 1,500 m. The temperature varies between 0 °C and 27 °C, the tropical rainforest is made up of perennial trees, with a canopy reaching between 30 m to 40 m.
There is a variety and large populations of epiphytes and lianas. The indigenous peoples made an alcoholic beverage from fruits of the palm Attalea maripa found at the lower elevations, of Colombias 340 endemic species,44 are found in the park, for example seven species of endemic hummingbirds. Of the 3,057 endangered species,44 are found here, the area is home to 440 species of birds, including black-fronted wood-quail, king vulture, Andean condor, Santa Marta warbler and Santa Marta parakeet. Mammals found in the include, cougar, squirrel, Transandinomys talamancae, otter. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is home to a number of ecoregions, the Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub region lies near the Caribbean seacoast to the north of the range. The Sinú Valley dry forests cover the lower slopes, up to an elevation of 500 m. The Santa Marta montane forests lie above 500 m to 800 m, the montane forests are separated from other moist forests by the lower-elevation dry forests and xeric shrublands, and have large numbers of endemic species.
Above 900 m is a transitional forest zone of smaller trees, the Santa Marta Páramo, a high altitude belt of montane grasslands and shrublands interspersed with marshes and acid bogs, occupies the zone between 3,300 m and 5,000 m. The Santa Marta Páramo is the northernmost enclave of Páramo in South America, above 5,000 m meters lies the permanent snow cap. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National Natural Park is Colombias second oldest national park and it is located in the Cordillera Oriental range, between the departments of La Guajira and Cesar, in the mountain range of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
It is the fifth-largest city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is the fifth-largest urban area in the country, economic activities include the maritime and petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism. The city was founded on June 1,1533, and named after Cartagena, settlement in the region around Cartagena Bay by various indigenous people dates back to 4000 BC. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire and it was a center of political and economic activity due to the presence of royalty and wealthy viceroys. In 1984, Cartagenas colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC.
The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga cultures use of the art of pottery and to have developed an economy of agriculture. The Monsú peoples diet was based mostly on shellfish and fresh, the development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many derived from the Karib, Malibu. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more precisely the Mocanae sub-family. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence, rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500-01. On 14 Feb.1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosas voyage to Uraba, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, before he could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area.
They preferred the better known Hispaniola and Cuba, De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, and that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia invaded the Bay of Cartagena with three ships,150 men, and 22 horses, on 14 Jan.1533 and he soon found the village of Calamari abandoned. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan de la Cosa had been mortally wounded 13 years earlier, using India Catalina as a guide, Heredia embarked on a three month exploration expedition. He returned to Calamari in April 1533 with gold pieces, including a gold porcupine weighing 132 pounds. In expeditions, Heredia raided the Sinú tombs and temples of gold and his rule as governor of Cartagena lasted 22 years, before perishing on his return to Spain in 1544. Cartagena was founded on June 1,1533 by the Spanish commander, Pedro de Heredia, the town was named after Cartagena, where most of Heredias sailors had resided
National Liberation Army (Colombia)
The National Liberation Army is an armed group involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict, which has existed in Colombia since 1964. The ELN advocate a composite communist ideology of Marxism and liberation theology and they conduct military operations throughout the national territory of Colombia, in 2013, it was estimated that the ELN forces consisted of between 1,380 and 3,000 guerrillas. According to former ELN national directorate member Felipe Torres, one fifth of ELN supporters have taken up arms, the ELN has been classified as a terrorist organization by the governments of Colombia, United States and the European Union. Most notable was the Priest Camilo Torres Restrepo, a university professor who was openly critical of the grossly unequal distribution of income among the social classes of Colombia. From the late 1970s, The Priest Pérez presided over the National Liberation Army as one of its most recognized figures, President López Michelsen helped the ELN in the hope of initiating peace negotiations with them in order to end the civil war.
The U. S. State Department has listed the ELN as a Foreign Terrorist Organization, ostensibly because of its reputation for ransom kidnappings, in April 2004, the European Union added the ELN to its list of terrorist organizations for those actions and its breaches of humanitarian law. There were occasional joint actions by the FARC-EP and the ELN, in mid-2006, mutual rivalries between local FARC and ELN forces escalated into hostilities in Arauca, along the border with Venezuela. According to the BBC, the FARC have for some years moved to take over ELN territory near the Venezuelan border, a statement posted on FARCs homepage accused the ELN of attacks that we only expected from the enemy. The ELNs main source of income are businesses and middle class civilians in its areas of operation, to enforce these taxes, they frequently take civilians captive to use as leverage. While the ELN uses the war taxes and retentions for these actions, critics insist they constitute extortion. According to Claudia Calle, spokesperson for País Libre, a Colombian foundation for victims of abductions, according to País Libre, ELN abducted over 3,000 people between 2000 and 2007 and currently still holds 240 people captive.
On December 7,200818 ELN guerillas surrendered to the Colombian army in the province of Chocó. Previous contacts continued during the days of the Álvaro Uribe Vélez government but eventually were severed. Only in mid-2004 the ELN and the government began to make a series of moves that, with the mediation of the Vicente Fox government of Mexico. On July 24,2004 the ELN apparently abducted Misael Vacca Ramírez, the Bishop was subsequently released by ELN members, in good health, on July 27, after his kidnapping had been condemned by Amnesty International and Pope John Paul II, among others. As far as is known, he did not have any message to announce on behalf of the ELN. This led the Mexican government to end its participation and this was considered the direct result of three months of previous consultations with representatives of different sectors of public society through the figure of a House of Peace. Representatives from Norway and Switzerland joined both parties at the talks as observers, the talks ended by December 22 and both parties agreed to meet again in January 2006
The Tairona people formed one of the two principal linguistic groups of the Chibcha family, the other being the Muisca. Genetic and archaeological evidence shows a relatively dense occupation of the region by at least 200 BCE, pollen data compiled by Luisa Fernanda Herrera in the 1980 shows considerable deforestation and the use of cultigens such as yuca and maiz since possibly 1200 BCE. However, occupation of the Colombian Caribbean coast by sedentary or semi-sedentary populations have been documented to have occurred by c.4000 BCE and this movement allowed them to evade the worst of the Spanish colonial system during the 17th and 18th centuries. The indigenous Kogi, Wiwa and Kankuamo people who live in the area today are believed to be descendants of the Tairona. Initially it was used to refer to the inhabitants of a valley, but by the 16th century, the Spanish used it for the whole group of complex chiefdoms in the area. The groups in the northern and western Sierra Nevada were largely indistinguishable to the Spaniards, the archaeological sequence of the region spans from approximately 200 BCE to the 17th century CE when the Tairona were forcibly integrated into the Spanish Encomienda system.
Knowledge sources about the pre-Columbian Tairona civilization are limited to archaeological findings, one of the first descriptions of the region was written by Pedro Martyr d Anghiera and was published in 1530. The area was described by explorers who visited the region between 1505 and 1524. Anghiera portrays the Tairona valleys as densely populated, with extensive fields irrigated in the way as those in Tuscany. Many villages were dedicated to fishing and traded their goods for the rest of their needs with those living inland. Anghiera describes how they aggressively repelled the Spanish when they attempted to take women and children as slaves in the first contacts, one of the best-known Tairona nucleated villages and archaeological sites is known as Ciudad Perdida. It was a city, about 13 hectares in the core. It was discovered by looters in 1975 but is now under the care of the Colombian Institute of Anthropology, there are many other sites of similar or greater size. A larger site, Pueblito is located near the coast, according to Reichel-Dolmatoffs research, it contains at least 254 terraces and had a population of about 3,000 people.
Archaeological studies in the show that even larger nucleated villages existed towards the western slope of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, like Posiguieca. Smaller villages and hamlets were part of a very robust exchange network of specialized communities, villages that specialized in salt production and fishing, like Chengue in the Parque Tairona, are evidence of a robust Tairona political economy based on specialized staple production. Chengue contains at least 100 terraces and was inhabited by about 800 to 1,000 people in 15 hectares by 1400, the Tairona are known to have built stone terraced platforms, house foundations, sewers and bridges. Use of pottery for utilitarian and ornamental or ceremonial purposes was developed as a result of fairly specialized communities
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—Peoples Army was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict since 1964. It was known to employ a variety of tactics in addition to more unconventional methods. The FARC-EP, which formed during the Cold War period as a Marxist–Leninist peasant force, in 2013 it was reported that 26,648 FARC and ELN members had decided to demobilize since 2002. However, the FARC and the ELN lost control of much of the territory, especially in areas, forcing them to relocate to remote areas in the jungle. In 1964, the FARC–EP was established as the wing of the Colombian Communist Party. The FARC were a violent non-state actor whose recognition as legitimate belligerent forces is disputed by some organizations. In 2008, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez recognized the FARC–EP as a proper army, in February 2008, millions of Colombians demonstrated against the FARC. In 2012, the FARC made 239 attacks on the energy infrastructure, the FARC have shown signs of fatigue.
As of 2014, the FARC are not seeking to engage in combat with the army. Meanwhile, from 2008 to 2017, the FARC opted to attack police patrols with home-made mortars, sniper rifles and this followed the trend of the 1990s during the strengthening of Colombian government forces. In June 2016, the FARC signed an accord with the President of Colombia. This accord was seen as a step to ending the war that has gone on for fifty years. The referendum failed with 50. 24% voting against, the Colombian government and the FARC on November 24 signed a revised peace deal, which the Colombian Congress approved on November 30. On February 18,2017, FARC rebels moved into transition zones, in Colombian history and culture, the killings are known as La Violencia, most of the people killed were peasants and laborers in rural Colombia. In 1957–1958, the leadership of the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party agreed to establish a bipartisan political system known as the National Front. The pact was ratified as an amendment by a national plebiscite on 1 December 1957 and was supported by the Roman Catholic Church as well as Colombias business leaders.
The initial power-sharing agreement was effective until 1974, with modifications, the AED policy came at the expense of the small-scale family farms that only yielded food supplies for local consumption. In 1961, the dispossession of farmland had produced 40,000 landless families, by 1970, the latifundio type of industrial farm occupied more than 77 per cent of arable land in the country
National Army of Colombia
The National Army of Colombia is the land military force of Colombia and the largest branch of the Colombian Armed Forces. It is responsible for carrying out land-based military operations along with the Colombian Naval Infantry, after their triumph against the Spanish, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army. On July 20 of 1810, Colombia declared its independence from the Spanish Empire, the junta declared themselves sovereign from each other as result of the lack of communications between many provinces and cities due to Colombias complicated mountain terrain. This prevented a full establishment of an army, and it would take 9 years before a truly national army would be formed. This gave a rise to a period of instability and Spanish were able to take advantage of this with Spanish crown sending General Pablo Morillo. The Greater Colombian Army was consolidated on August 7,1819, since the Colombian Army has been the biggest organization in Colombia.
There upon the Gran Colombian Army was formed, in 1828 a war broke out with Peru and the Gran Colombian Army was called upon to defend the nations sovereignty. The war lasted into 1829 with a Peruvian naval victory, the war ended in a stalemate. After the dissolution in 1830 of Gran Colombia and the death of Bolivar and its officers were not well trained or technically skilled. The government addressed this by founding and organizing military schools and colleges, in 1839 General Tomas Cipriano de Mosquera hired Italian Colonel Agustin Códazzi as an inspector of the army. As a consequence of civil wars over partisan affairs, the chiefs. The need to professionalize and retrain the army prompted the creation of a military school, in order to reorganize the army, the government hired a French military mission. Its mission was fruitful and the organization along French lines based on divisions and this civil war lasted until 1903. With the ending of the Thousand Days War, General Rafael Reyes Prieto was elected President of Colombia with many plans to reorganize and professionalize the army.
The first thing he did was to reduce troop numbers drastically, in 1907 a military reform was carried out by President Rafael Reyes Prieto right in the aftermath of the Thousand Days War which had devastated the country economically and morally. The ministry of war hired a Chilean military mission to advise the ministry on how to professionalize the army and this led to the creation of the Colombian Military Academy in June 1907. This military reform allowed the Colombian army to become professionalized and a truly National army was established, the army remained under the influence of the Chilean military mission until the mission left in 1914. In 1926 the Colombian Government hired another military mission, this time from Switzerland, as a result of this new combined brigades were implemented