Ferrovías S. A. C. is a owned company which, on 1 April 1994, took over the concession, granted by the Argentine government as part of railway privatisation during the presidency of Carlos Menem, for the operation of the 1,000 mm Belgrano Norte Line commuter rail service in Buenos Aires, Argentina. From 2004 to 2014 the company formed part of UGOFE, a consortium with Metrovías and Trenes de Buenos Aires, which took over the running of commuter rail services on the Belgrano Sur and San Martín lines in Buenos Aires after concessions granted to Metropolitano S. A. for the operation of these services were revoked. UGOFE was dissolved in 2013. Ferrovías operated the Puerto Madero Tramway, in the Puerto Madero district of Buenos Aires, from July 2007 until its closure in October 2012. Outside of Argentina, the company operates the Lima Metro in Peru. By the end of the 1980s all the railway system in Argentina was privatized by the national government; the metropolitan services were privatized since March 1991.
A new company – Ferrocarriles Metropolitanos S. A. – was established to operate the suburban services until the railway lines were given in concession to their respective operators. On April 1, 1994, Ferrovías S. A. C. took over the Línea Belgrano Norte. During the first year of operation, the line carried 14,800,000 passengers; the main plan of the concession were based on 3 objectives: To improve the infrastructure of track and level crossings and signal system and traffic control in all the stations of the line. The maintenance of locomotives and coaches in good conditions. To reduce travel time between head stations, increasing the number of coaches. Due to the investments, the number of passengers carried increased to 36 million during 1999 and 2000. In 2008 it was increased to 45,830,200 passengers; the General Auditing Office released a report indicating that the subsidies given by the State to Ferrovías were misappropriated to other companies of the holding which received them as "loans".
In 2011 Ferrovías received subsidies for a total of A$368,3 million. Official website
The Alerce is an Argentine railcar produced by the Emepa Group in Chascomús, Buenos Aires Province. As of 2015, the units are produced for the General Belgrano Railway's narrow gauge network and are used on commuter rail services, though a broad gauge variant is in the works, they are designed to be converted into Electric Multiple Units, though thus far only diesel variants have been produced. The Alerce's namesake is a type of coniferous tree native to Chile; the first prototype of the Alerce began circulating the Belgrano Norte Line on test runs in 2012 from Boulogne Sur Mer to Retiro Belgrano railway station and the National Government decided to purchase 20 trains from Emepa for use on the line. Each train has a capacity for 240 passengers and feature intelligent doors, air conditioning, security cameras, disabled access and Wi-Fi; the Alerce's engine is located between the two carriages on its own articulated bogie with an access corridor between the two carriages. The trains use 90% of its parts from Argentine origin, with the remaining 10% being specialised parts imported from abroad, such as the German brakes and Austrian intelligent doors.
The trains are designed to be converted into Electric Multiple Units should the lines they run on be electrified. In June 2015 it was announced that Emepa would produce a broad gauge variant of the Alerce for use on local service on the General Roca Railway; the narrow gauge variant of the Alerce is used for differential services on the Belgrano Norte Line commuter rail service in Buenos Aires. The service stops at Retiro Belgrano railway station, the University of Buenos Aires' Ciudad Universitaria campus, Aristóbulo del Valle and Del Viso with prices ranging from AR$1.50-17 with a SUBE card and AR$3-34 without a SUBE card. The journey time between Retiro and Del Viso is 65 minutes. Unlike the rest of the line operated by Ferrovías, the service is operated by the state-owned Trenes Argentinos; the service was going to have a stop at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport, however this station was cancelled with the Ministry of the Interior and Transport citing the station causing a possible increase in security concerns at the airport as the reason for its cancellation.
The broad gauge variant of the Alerce will be used on the General Roca Railway between Constitución railway station and Dolores on a rural service which will stop at all stations between the two termini. Rail transport in Argentina Materfer CMM 400-2 - another Argentine-built DMU Trenes Argentinos - primary operator Belgrano Norte Line
The peso is the currency of Argentina, identified by the symbol $ preceding the amount in the same way as many countries using dollar currencies. It is subdivided into 100 centavos, its ISO 4217 code is ARS. Since the late 20th century, the Argentine peso has experienced a substantial rate of devaluation, reaching 25% year-on-year inflation rate in 2017; the official exchange rate for the United States dollar hovered around 3:1 from 2002 to 2008, climbing to 6:1 between 2009 and 2013. By August 2018, the rate had risen to 40:1. Amounts in earlier pesos were sometimes preceded by a "$" sign and sometimes in formal use, by symbols identifying that it was a specific currency, for example $m/n100 or m$n100 for pesos moneda nacional; the peso introduced in 1992 is just called peso, is written preceded by a "$" sign only. Earlier pesos replaced currencies called peso, sometimes two varieties of peso coexisted, making it necessary to have a distinguishing term to use, at least in the transitional period.
The peso was a name used for the silver Spanish eight-real coin. Following independence, Argentina began issuing its own coins, denominated in reales and escudos, including silver eight-real coins still known as pesos; these coins, together with those from neighbouring countries, circulated until 1881. In 1826, two paper money issues began. One, the peso fuerte was a convertible currency, with 17 pesos fuertes equal to one Spanish ounce of 0.916 fine gold. It was replaced by the peso moneda nacional at par in 1881; the non-convertible peso moneda corriente was introduced in 1826. It depreciated with time. Although the Argentine Confederation issued 1-, 2- and 4-centavo coins in 1854, with 100 centavos equal to 1 peso = 8 reales, Argentina did not decimalize until 1881; the peso moneda nacional replaced the earlier currencies at the rate of 1 peso moneda nacional = 8 reales = 1 peso fuerte = 25 peso moneda corriente. One peso moneda nacional coin was made of silver and known as patacón. However, the 1890 economic crisis ensured.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Argentine peso was one of the most traded currencies in the world. The Argentine gold coin from 1875 was the gold peso fuerte and two-thirds of a gram of gold of fineness 900, equivalent to one and a half grams of fine gold, defined by law 733 of 1875; this unit was based on that recommended by the European Congress of Economists in Paris in 1867 and adopted by Japan in 1873. The monetary system before 1881 has been described as "anarchistic". Law 1130 of 1881 put an end to this. Gold coins of 5 and 2.5 pesos were to be used, silver coins of one peso and 50, 20, 10 and 5 centavos, copper coins of 2 and 1 centavos. The depreciated peso moneda corriente was replaced in 1881 by the paper peso moneda nacional at a rate of 25 to 1; this currency was used from 1881 until January 1, 1970 The design was changed in 1899 and again in 1942. The peso m$n was convertible, with a value of one peso oro sellado. Convertibility was maintained off and on, with decreasing value in gold, until it was abandoned in 1929, when m$n 2.2727 was equivalent to one peso oro.
The peso ley 18.188 replaced the previous currency at a rate of 1 peso ley to 100 pesos moneda nacional. The peso argentino replaced the previous currency at a rate of 1 peso argentino to 10,000 pesos ley; the currency was born just before the return of democracy, on June 1, 1983. However, it lost its purchasing power and was devalued several times, was replaced by a new currency called the austral in June 1985; the austral replaced the peso argentino at a rate of 1 austral to 1000 pesos. During the period of circulation of the austral, Argentina suffered from hyperinflation; the last months of President Raul Alfonsín's period in office in 1989 saw prices move up with a consequent fall in the value of the currency. Emergency notes of 10,000, 50,000 and 500,000 australes were issued, provincial administrations issued their own currency for the first time in decades; the value of the currency stabilized. The current peso replaced the austral at a rate of 1 peso = 10,000 australes, it was referred to as peso convertible since the international exchange rate was fixed by the Central Bank at 1 peso to 1 U.
S. dollar and for every peso convertible circulating, there was a US dollar in the Central Bank's foreign currency reserves. After the various changes of currency and dropping of zeroes, one peso convertible was equivalent to 10,000,000,000,000 pesos moneda nacional. However, after the financial crisis of 2001, the fixed exchange rate system was abandoned. Since January 2002, the exchange rate fluctuated, up to a peak of four pesos to one dollar; the resulting export boom produced a massive inflow of dollars into the Argentine economy, which helped lower their price. For a time the administration stated and maintained a strategy of keeping the excha
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Belgrano, Buenos Aires
Belgrano is a leafy, northern barrio or neighborhood of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The barrio of Palermo is to the southeast. Belgrano was named after Manuel Belgrano, a politician and military leader who created the national flag of Argentina. In 1820, at Belgrano's death, Buenos Aires' legislature introduced a law to name the next town to be founded after him; this happened in 1855, when the Buenos Aires government, fearful that relatives of Juan Manuel de Rosas would dispute the governmental decision to expropriate Rosas' lands, laid down a new town on part of it and named it Belgrano. The town was declared a city shortly thereafter, due to its booming growth, in 1880 it became the nation's capital for a few weeks, because of the dispute between the national government and Buenos Aires province for the status of the city of Buenos Aires, it was in Belgrano. In 1887, the federal district was enlarged by the annexation of the towns of Flores. Belgranodeutsch or Belgrano-Deutsch is a mixture of German and Spanish spoken in Buenos Aires in the neighborhood of Belgrano.
Belgrano is an upper-middle-class neighborhood that can be divided into Belgrano R, Belgrano C, central Belgrano, Lower Belgrano. The heart of the barrio pulses with life on its main thoroughfare, Avenida Cabildo, which runs Northwest to Southeast. Avenida Cabildo carries heavy automobile traffic, features corner cafés, grocery stores, movie theaters, specialty shops, clothing boutiques and other retail venues. Pedestrians are numerous on weekend afternoons as Porteños from various areas of the city come to shop. Most of the neighborhood's densest housing is located in the vicinity of Cabildo. High-rise luxury apartment buildings are clustered on the leafy streets surrounding the Universidad de Belgrano, a private liberal-arts university. West of Crámer avenue, "Belgrano R" is chiefly residential and lower-density in nature, characterized by calm streets lined with large, mature shade trees. Most buildings in this section are detached single-family homes that follow Anglo-Saxon architectural styles.
This section is favored by expatriate businesspeople. "Belgrano C" is home to Buenos Aires's small Chinatown. The district is crowded with restaurants and specialty grocery stores catering to Asian-Argentines and to the general public. Belgrano's sidewalks are busy with dogwalkers. Though city ordinances forbid more than ten dogs to a person, it is not uncommon to see double that number—which contributes to the dog-waste problem plaguing many sidewalks. Other than Cabildo, avenues Libertador, Luis Maria Campos, Crámer, Ricardo Balbín, Figueroa Alcorta run parallel to the riverbank, while Federico Lacroze, Juramento and Congreso run from the riverbank to the Southwest direction. Belgrano is served by the Buenos Aires metro line D, many bus lines, two commuter rail lines. 1.5 km to the west of Belgrano lies Avenida General Paz, a major limited-access freeway that defines the city limits of Buenos Aires proper. Beyond this avenue lie the suburbs of Vicente Lopez and Olivos. International schools include: Belgrano Day School Colegio Pestalozzi - The German international school [Colegio Manuel Belgrano The lush park Barrancas de Belgrano was designed by the famous French-Argentine landscape/park architect Carlos Thays, who designed many open spaces throughout Buenos Aires.
Several blocks north of the Belgrano University, Barrancas de Belgrano spans several city blocks and is overlooked by highrise upper-middle class apartment buildings. On Manuel Belgrano square, a local artisan fair is held and becomes vibrant on weekends, it features a small bust of Manuel Belgrano on its middle spot. In the edge of the plaza lies the Inmaculada Concepción church, called "La Redonda" by locals because of its circular plan. Many weddings are celebrated in this church in the afternoon hours. Two museums are across Juramento and Cuba streets: Larreta and Sarmiento, respectively. Larreta museum focus on Spanish art, it is located on the former private residence of writer Enrique Larreta, designed by architect Ernesto Bunge on 1882. It features. Historical Museum Sarmiento exhibits some objects belonging to former presidents Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda, it is located in what used to be Belgrano townhall, where the national congress held its sessions while Belgrano was the capital of the Argentine republic.
Nearby, going down to Lower Belgrano, appears the Barrancas de Belgrano, three squares along together, older Rio de la Plata River natural terraces. Two blocks away, in Lower Bergrano there is the local football team. Although neighboring Nuñez is known as the home of River Plate, its landmark stadium River Plate Stadium—also home of the Argentina national football team—is located within the boundaries of Belgrano
A campus is traditionally the land on which a college or university and related institutional buildings are situated. A college campus includes libraries, lecture halls, residence halls, student centers or dining halls, park-like settings. A modern campus is a collection of buildings and grounds that belong to a given institution, either academic or non-academic. Examples include the Apple Campus; the word derives from a Latin word for "field" and was first used to describe the large field adjacent Nassau Hall of the College of New Jersey in 1774. The field separated Princeton from the small nearby town; some other American colleges adopted the word to describe individual fields at their own institutions, but "campus" did not yet describe the whole university property. A school might have one space called a campus, one called a field, another called a yard; the tradition of a campus began with the medieval European universities where the students and teachers lived and worked together in a cloistered environment.
The notion of the importance of the setting to academic life migrated to America, early colonial educational institutions were based on the Scottish and English collegiate system. The campus evolved from the cloistered model in Europe to a diverse set of independent styles in the United States. Early colonial colleges were all built in proprietary styles, with some contained in single buildings, such as the campus of Princeton University or arranged in a version of the cloister reflecting American values, such as Harvard's. Both the campus designs and the architecture of colleges throughout the country have evolved in response to trends in the broader world, with most representing several different contemporary and historical styles and arrangements; the meaning expanded to include the whole institutional property during the 20th century, with the old meaning persisting into the 1950s in some places. Sometimes the lands on which company office buildings sit, along with the buildings, are called campuses.
The Microsoft Campus in Redmond, Washington is a good example. Hospitals, airports sometimes use the term to describe the territory of their facilities; the word "campus" has been applied to European universities, although most such institutions are characterized by ownership of individual buildings in urban settings rather than park-like lawns in which buildings are placed. Campus novel Campus university Satellite campus History of college campuses and architecture in the United States The dictionary definition of campus at Wiktionary Media related to Campuses at Wikimedia Commons
Diesel multiple unit
A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the carriages. Diesel-powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as DMUs. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel–electric, diesel–mechanical or diesel–hydraulic; the diesel engine may be located under the floor. Driving controls can be on one end, or in a separate car. DMUs are classified by the method of transmitting motive power to their wheels. In a diesel–mechanical multiple unit, the rotating energy of the engine is transmitted via a gearbox and driveshaft directly to the wheels of the train, like a car; the transmissions can be shifted manually by the driver, as in the great majority of first-generation British Rail DMUs, but in most applications, gears are changed automatically. In a diesel–hydraulic multiple unit, a hydraulic torque converter, a type of fluid coupling, acts as the transmission medium for the motive power of the diesel engine to turn the wheels.
Some units feature a hybrid mix of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions reverting to the latter at higher operating speeds as this decreases engine RPM and noise. In a diesel–electric multiple unit, a diesel engine drives an electrical generator or an alternator which produces electrical energy; the generated current is fed to electric traction motors on the wheels or bogies in the same way as a conventional diesel–electric locomotive. In modern DEMUs, such as the Bombardier Voyager family, each car is self-contained and has its own engine and electric motors. In older designs, such as the British Rail Class 207, some cars within the consist may be unpowered or only feature electric motors, obtaining electric current from other cars in the consist which have a generator and engine. A train composed of DMU cars scales well, as it allows extra passenger capacity to be added at the same time as motive power, it permits passenger capacity to be matched to demand, for trains to be split and joined en route.
It is not necessary to match the power available to the size and weight of the train, as each unit is capable of moving itself. As units are added, the power available to move the train increases by the necessary amount. DMUs may have better acceleration capabilities, with more power-driven axles, making them more suitable for routes with frequent spaced stops, as compared with conventional locomotive and unpowered carriage setups. Distribution of the propulsion among the cars results in a system, less vulnerable to single-point-of-failure outages. Many classes of DMU are capable of operating with faulty units still in the consist; because of the self-contained nature of diesel engines, there is no need to run overhead electric lines or electrified track, which can result in lower system construction costs. Such advantages must be weighed against the underfloor noise and vibration that may be an issue with this type of train. Diesel traction has several downsides compared to electric traction, namely higher fuel costs, more noise and exhaust as well as worse acceleration and top speed performance.
The power to weight ratio tends to be worse. DMUs have further disadvantages compared to diesel locomotives in that they cannot be swapped out when passing onto an electrified line, necessitating either passengers to change trains or Diesel operation on electrified lines; the lost investment once electrification reduces the demand for diesel rolling stock is higher than with locomotive hauled trains where only the locomotive has to be replaced. Diesel multiple units are in constant use in Croatia, operated by national operator Croatian Railways. On Croatian Railways, DMUs have important role since they cover local and distant lines across the country. Two largest towns in Croatia and Split, are daily connected with DMU tilting trains "RegioSwinger" that provide Inter City service between those two towns since 2004. In the early 1990s, luxury DMU series 7021 provided some of higher ranked lines across the country. DMU series HŽ series 7121, 7122 and Croatian-built series 7022 and 7023 are nowadays in high use covering country's local and regional services in country's interior on the tracks that are not electrified.
In the Republic of Ireland the Córas Iompair Éireann, which controlled the republic's railways between 1945 and 1986, introduced DMUs in the mid-1950s and they were the first diesel trains on many main lines. The first significant use of DMUs in the United Kingdom was by the Great Western Railway, which introduced its small but successful series of diesel–mechanical GWR railcars in 1934; the London and North Eastern Railway and London and Scottish Railway experimented with DMUs in the 1930s, the LMS both on its own system, on that of its Northern Irish subsidiary, but development was curtailed by World War II. After nationalisation, British Railways revived the concept in the early 1950s. At that time there was an urgent need to move away from expensive steam traction which led to many experimental designs using diesel propulsion and multiple units; the early DMUs proved successful, under BR's 1955 Modernisation Plan the building of a large fleet was authorised. These BR "First Generation" DMUs were built between 1956 and 1963.
BR required that contracts for the design and manufacture of new locomotives and rolling stock be split between n