Peter Julian Millett, Baron Millett, GBS, PC, is a non-permanent judge of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal and a former Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and barrister of the United Kingdom. The son of Denis and Adele Millett, he was educated at Harrow School, at Trinity Hall, where he received a Master of Arts in Classics and Law in 1954, graduating with a Double First. From 1955 to 1957 he served as a Flying Officer in the Royal Air Force, he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship by Queen Mary, University of London in 2012. Millett was called to the Bar at Middle Temple in 1955. In 1959, he came to Lincoln's Inn, where he was appointed a Bencher in 1980. From 1958 to 1986 he practised at the Chancery Bar and was examiner and lecturer in practical conveyancing at the Council of Legal Education from 1962 to 1976. Between 1967 and 1973, Millett was junior counsel at the Department of Trade and Industry in chancery matters, between 1971 and 1975 member of the General Council of the Bar, he was a member of the Law Commission working party on co-ownership of the matrimonial home in 1972 and 1973 and appointed a Queen's Counsel in the following year.
From 1977 to 1982, Millett was member of the Department of Trade Insolvency Law Review Committee. In 1982 he acted for the Inland Revenue in the leading tax avoidance case, Ramsay v IRC, creating a principle that ended and prevented many tax avoidance schemes. In 1986, he was knighted, he was appointed a Lord Justice of Appeal and a member of the Privy Council in 1994. On 1 October 1998, he was appointed as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary, receiving additionally a life peerage with the title Baron Millett, of St Marylebone in the City of Westminster, he retired as a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary in January 2004. He has been a Non-permanent Judge of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal since 2000. In 2015, Millett was awarded the Gold Bauhinia Star by the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, he retired from the membership of the House of Lords on 4 May 2017. Millett is well known for his judgment in the House of Lords in the wrongful birth case of McFarlane v Tayside Health Board where a couple were denied recovery of damages for the cost of bringing up an unwanted child, born as a result of a negligently performed vasectomy.
He concluded that "the law must take the birth of a normal, healthy baby to be a blessing, not a detriment." In addition, in a dissenting opinion, he concluded that damages could not be awarded for the pain and distress of pregnancy and delivery but rather that a small sum should be awarded to reflect that the parents had "lost the freedom to limit the size of their family" and thus had been "denied an important aspect of their personal autonomy." Millett is notable for his contribution to the law of Equity and Trusts. He wrote the leading judgment in Foskett v McKeown, a landmark case on the English law of trusts, concerning tracing and the availability of proprietary relief following a breach of trust, he decided Bristol and West Building Society v Mothew, a leading English fiduciary law and professional negligence case, concerning a solicitor's duty of care and skill, the nature of fiduciary duties. The case is globally cited for its definition of a fiduciary and the circumstances in which a fiduciary relationship arises.
From 1991 to 1995, he was President of the West London Synagogue. He is an active Freemason, served for five years as Metropolitan Grand Master of London from the inception of the new Metropolitan Grand Lodge in 2003. In this capacity he supervised more than 1,200 Masonic Lodges in London, more than 600 associated Chapters of Royal Arch Masons. Millett has been married to Ann Mireille Harris since 1959, they have five grandchildren. Re Charnley Davies Ltd BCLC 760 Armitage v Nurse EWCA Civ 1279 Bristol and West Building Society v Mothew Ch 1 Foskett v McKeown UKHL 29, 1 AC 102 Re Brumark Investments Ltd UKPC 28 Twinsectra Ltd v Yardley UKHL 12 Shogun Finance Ltd v Hudson 1 AC 919 Collector of Stamp Revenue v Arrowtown Assets Ltd HKCFA 52, 1 HKLRD 77, 6 HKCFAR 517, FACV 4/2003
Adrian Johann Frutiger was a Swiss typeface designer who influenced the direction of type design in the second half of the 20th century. His career spanned the hot metal and digital typesetting eras; until his death, he lived in Bremgarten bei Bern. Frutiger's most famous designs, Univers and Avenir, are landmark sans-serif families spanning the three main genres of sans-serif typefaces: neogrotesque and geometric. Univers was notable for being one of the first sans-serif faces to form a consistent but wide-ranging family, across a range of widths and weights. Frutiger described creating sans-serif types as his "main life's work," due to the difficulty in designing them compared to serif fonts. Adrian Frutiger was born in Canton of Bern, the son of a weaver; as a boy, he experimented with invented scripts and stylized handwriting in a negative reaction to the formal, cursive penmanship required by Swiss schools. His father and his secondary school teachers encouraged him to pursue an apprenticeship rather than pure art.
After planning to train as a pastry chef, Frutiger secured an apprenticeship at the Otto Schlaefli printing house in Interlaken. At the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed for four years, as a compositor, to the printer Otto Schlaeffli in Interlaken taking classes in woodcuts and drawing at the Gewerbeschule in Bern under Walter Zerbe, followed by employment as a compositor at Gebr. Fretz in Zürich, Switzerland. In 1949 he transferred to the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich, where he studied under Walter Käch, Karl Schmid and Alfred Willimann until 1951. Students there studied monumental inscriptions from Roman forum rubbings. At the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich, Frutiger concentrated on calligraphy — a craft favouring the nib and the brush, instead of drafting tools, but began sketches for what would become Univers, influenced by the sans-serif types popular in contemporary graphic design. Frutiger married Paulette Flückiger in 1952, he married the theologian Simone Bickel in 1955. They had two daughters, who both experienced mental health problems and committed suicide as adolescents.
Disappointed by the standard of mental health care at the time and his wife founded the Fondation Adrian et Simone Frutiger to fund psychology and neuroscience research and developments in mental health support. In an interview, Frutiger described himself as a Calvinist. Frutiger spent most of his professional career working in Paris and living in France, returning to Switzerland in life. Charles Peignot, of the Paris foundry Deberny et Peignot, recruited Frutiger based upon the quality of the illustrated essay Schrift / Écriture / Lettering: the development of European letter types carved in wood, Frutiger's final project at the Kunstgewerbeschule Zürich. Frutiger's wood-engraved illustrations of the essay demonstrated his skill and knowledge of letter forms. At Deberny & Peignot foundry, Frutiger designed the typefaces Président, Méridien, Ondine. In addition, Charles Peignot set Frutiger to work upon converting extant typefaces for the new phototypesetting Linotype equipment. Adrian Frutiger's first commercial typeface was Président — a set of titling capital letters with small, bracketed serifs, released in 1954.
A calligraphic, script face, Ondine was released in 1954. In 1955, Méridien, a glyphic, old-style, serif text face was released; the typeface shows inspiration by Nicolas Jenson, and, in the Méridien type, Frutiger's ideas of letter construction and organic form, are first expressed together. Raph Levien described as a "Frutiger trademark" his common use of an "a" where the loop makes a horizontal line at the top on meeting the vertical, it makes use of narrow wedge serifs, a style sometimes known as Latin which Frutiger would use in his future serif designs. In 1956, he designed his slab-serif typefaces -- Egyptienne, on the Clarendon model. Charles Peignot envisioned a large, unified font family, that might be set in both the metal and the photo-composition systems. Impressed by the success of the Bauer foundry's Futura typeface, Peignot encouraged a new, geometric sans-serif type in competition. Frutiger disliked the regimentation of Futura, persuaded Peignot that the new sans-serif should be based on the realist model.
The 1898 face, Akzidenz-Grotesk, is cited as the primary model. To maintain unity across the 21 variants, each weight and width, in roman and oblique, was drawn and approved before any matrices were cut. In the Univers font, Frutiger introduced his two-digit numeration; the second digit indicates the face-width and either oblique. It was marketed with a design inspired by the periodic table; the response to Univers was positive. His slab serif designs Glypha are directly based upon it. Univers attracted attention to Frutiger's work outside continental Europe, he was commissioned by Monotype to create Apollo, their first typeface created for phototypesetting, released in 1964. In 1961–64, Frutiger created with André Gürtler a sans-serif font named Concorde for news use in regular and bold styles for Parisian printing company Sofratype. Required to create a design different to Univers, the design based on classical capitals with a greater classical influence than Univers influenced by a serif design Opéra