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Civil Rights Act of 1957

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875. The bill was passed by the 85th United States Congress and signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on September 9, 1957; the Supreme Court's 1954 ruling in the case of Brown v. Board of Education brought the issue of school desegregation to the fore of public attention, as Southern leaders began a campaign of "massive resistance" against desegregation. In the midst of this campaign, President Eisenhower proposed a civil rights bill designed to provide federal protection for African-American voting rights. Though the civil rights bill passed Congress, opponents of the act were able to remove several provisions, limiting its immediate impact. During the debate over the law, Senator Strom Thurmond conducted the longest one-person filibuster in Senate history. Despite having a limited impact on African-American voter participation, the Civil Rights Act of 1957 did establish the United States Commission on Civil Rights and the United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division.

Congress would pass far more effective civil rights laws in the form of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Following the Supreme Court ruling in Brown, which led to the integration called desegregation, of public schools, Southern whites began a campaign of "Massive Resistance." Violence against blacks rose. There had been continued physical assaults against suspected activists and bombings of schools and churches in the South. In an effort to defuse calls for more far-reaching reforms, President Eisenhower proposed a civil rights bill that would increase the protection of African American voting rights. By 1957, only about 20% of blacks were registered to vote. Despite being the majority in numerous counties and congressional districts in the South, most blacks had been disfranchised by discriminatory voter registration rules and laws in those states since the late 19th and early 20th centuries that were instituted and propagated by Southern Democrats. Civil rights organizations had collected evidence of discriminatory practices, such as the administration of literacy and comprehension tests and poll taxes.

While the states had the right to establish rules for voter registration and elections, the federal government found an oversight role in ensuring that citizens could exercise the constitutional right to vote for federal officers: electors for president and vice president and members of the US Congress. The Democratic Senate Majority Leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, realized that the bill and its journey through Congress could tear apart his party, as southern Democrats opposed civil rights, its northern members were more favorable. Southern Democratic senators occupied chairs of numerous important committees because of their long seniority. Johnson sent the bill to the Senate Judiciary Committee, led by Democratic Senator James Eastland of Mississippi, who drastically altered the bill. Democratic Senator Richard Russell, Jr. of Georgia had denounced the bill as an example of the federal government seeking to impose its laws on states. Johnson sought recognition from civil rights advocates for passing the bill as well as recognition from the anti-civil rights Democrats for weakening the bill so much as to make it toothless.

The bill passed 285-126 in the House of Representatives with a majority of both parties' support It passed 72-18 in the Senate, again with a majority of both parties. President Eisenhower signed the bill on September 9, 1957. Then-Democratic Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, an ardent segregationist, sustained the longest one-person filibuster in history in an attempt to keep the bill from becoming law, his one-man filibuster lasted 18 minutes. He read from the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, George Washington's Farewell Address. To prevent a quorum call that could have relieved the filibuster by allowing the Senate to adjourn, cots were brought in from a nearby hotel for the legislators to sleep on while Thurmond discussed irrelevant and obscure topics. Other Southern senators, who had agreed as part of a compromise not to filibuster this bill, were upset with Thurmond, they believed. Other constituents were upset with their senators. Thurmond pointed out that there was a federal statute that prosecuted citizens who denied or intimidated voters at voting booths under a fine and/or imprisonment but that the bill under consideration could deny trial by jury to those that continued to do so.

Democratic Representative Charles A. Boyle of Illinois, a member of the powerful Appropriations Subcommittee of Defense, pushed the bill through the House of Representatives. Section 101 set up a six-member Civil Rights Commission in the executive branch to gather information on citizens' deprivation of voting rights based on color, religion, or national origin as well as the legal background, the laws, the policies of the federal government; the commission was to take testimony or written complaints from individuals on the difficulties in re

Zeppelin-Staaken R.XIV

The Zeppelin-Staaken R. XIV was a development of the Zeppelin-Staaken R. VI; this was one of a series of large bombers called Riesenflugzeuge, intended to be less vulnerable than the dirigibles in use at the time. The original version of the Staaken R. XIV had two engine nacelles, each housing a pair of 350hp Austro-Daimler V-12 engines in a push-pull configuration; the nacelles were large enough for some inflight maintenance. The Austro-Daimler engines were installed without reduction gears and were the most powerful available at the time, but soon proved to be unreliable. On 12 April 1918, during its second flight of the acceptance program, a connecting rod broke in one of the rear engines; the Austro-Daimlers were replaced by four 300 hp Basse und Selve BuS. IVa engines and it was ready for further flight testing by 10 May 1918; the unproven Basse und Selves were problematic and had a tendency to seize pistons, so they were in turn removed in favor of the less powerful but reliable 245 hp high-compression Maybach Mb.

IVa. In an attempt to maintain the performance of the Zeppelin-Staaken R. VI, a fifth Maybach engine was installed in the nose. Four of the improved model R. XIVa were ordered by Idflieg late in the war; the XIVa had some weight reduction improvements and geared engines to increase the rate of climb, service ceiling and bombload. These were built between 1918 and 1919; the R. XIVa machines were built by the Flugzeugwerft G.m.b. H. at Staaken west of Berlin. Zeppelin-Staaken R. XIV 43/17 of Rfa 501 was brought down at 23:50 on August 10, 1918 by Capt A B Yuille of No 151 Sqn RAF, flying a Sopwith Camel D6573, it crashed one mile west of Lighthouse Talmas, near Doullens, all crew members were killed."A five engined Gotha came over about midnight and dropped a few bombs. The searchlights got him and this time Jerry had a surprise as our flying scouts were up, spotted Fritz at once and went for him. In a few minutes a fight as on and we soon saw the big Gotha in flames, he came down and a number of soldiers ran to the burning wreck, when one of the bombs exploded in the heat.

Several of those who were near were more injured. This machine carried eight men, three had been shot, four burned and one staff officer had jumped with a parachute, but this failed to open so he too was killed" - Diary of Thomas Spencer German Empire? Ukrainian People's Republic 6 planes Data from General characteristics Crew: seven Length: 22.5 m Wingspan: 42.2 m Height: 6.3 m Wing area: 334 m2 Empty weight: 10,000 kg Gross weight: 14,250 kg Powerplant: 5 × Maybach Mb. IVa in-line 6 cylinder, 183 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 135 km/h Cruise speed: 120 km/h Range: 1,300 km Service ceiling: 4,500 m Rate of climb: 2.38 m/s Armament Guns: 6 x lMG 08 7.92-mm machine guns Bombs: 2,000kg max A Zeppelin-Staaken R XIVa airplane lands in Aspern, 1919

Rationalist International

Rationalist International is an organization with the stated aim to represent a rational view of the world, making the voice of reason heard and considered where public opinion is formed and decisions are made. Rationalism is an attitude that accepts the primacy of reason and aims to establish a system of philosophy and ethics verifiable by experience, independent of all arbitrary assumptions of authority. Rationalist International argues for a logical approach to human problems, suggests alternatives to religious dogma, defends freedom of thought and civil liberties and strives for the secularization of politics and educational systems. Rationalists counter superstition, aim to promote an open and just society, endorse the scientific method and recognize the importance of human emotions and imagination. Rationalist International was founded in December 1995 during the First International Rationalist Conference at New Delhi, with delegates from 28 countries. Sanal Edamaruku Secretary General of the Indian Rationalist Association, became the first president of the new international organization.

In January 2000, Rationalist International organized the Second International Conference at Trivandrum, Kerala in which prominent rationalist thinkers from different parts of the world opened the discussion about the Rationalist Agenda for the new century. Paul Kurtz received the 1st International Rationalist Award during this conference; the Third International Rationalist Conference was held at New Delhi in 2002. Jim Herrick received the 2nd International Rationalist Award. Honorary Associates include: Dr. nl:Pieter Admiraal, Prof. Mike Archer, Katsuaki Asai, Prof. Colin Blakemore, Dr. Bill Cooke, Dr. Helena Cronin, Prof. Richard Dawkins, Jan Loeb Eisler, Tom Flynn, Jim Herrick, Ellen Johnson, Dr. Richard Leakey, Iain Middleton, Dr. Taslima Nasreen, Steinar Nilsen, Prof. Jean-Claude Pecker, James Randi, Prof. Ajoy Roy, Dr. Younus Shaikh, Barbara Smoker, Richard Stallman, Prof. nl:Rob Tielman, David Tribe, K. Veeramani, Barry Williams, Prof. Richard Wiseman, Prof. Lewis Wolpert, Andrzaj Koraszewski, Małgorzata Koraszewska and Maryam Namazie.

Former Honorary Associates include: Sir Hermann Bondi, Prof. Vern Bullough, Joseph Edamaruku, Pekka Elo, Prof. Antony Flew, Christopher Hitchens, Prof. Paul Kurtz, Lavanam, Dr. Henry Morgentaler, Harry Stopes-Roe, Dr. G N Jyoti Shankar; the internet-based news bulletin of Rationalist International has wide circulation around the world. It appears in English, French and Spanish. Freethought Association of Canada Maharashtra Rationalist Association Rationalist International Homepage

Municipal broadband

Municipal broadband deployments are broadband Internet access services provided either or by local governments. Common connection technologies include unlicensed wireless, licensed wireless, fiber optic cable. Although many cities deployed Wi-Fi based solutions, municipal fiber-to-the-home networks are becoming more prominent because of increased demand for modern audio and video applications, which are increasing bandwidth requirements by 40% per year. Wireless public municipal broadband networks avoid sometimes unreliable hub and spoke distribution models and use mesh networking instead; this method involves relaying radio signals throughout the whole city via a series of access points or radio transmitters, each of, connected to at least two other transmitters. Mesh networks provide reliable user connections and are faster to build and less expensive to run than the hub and spoke configurations. Internet connections can be secured through the addition of a wireless router to an existing wired connection – a convenient method for Internet access provision in small centralized areas.

Although wireless routers are reliable, their occasional failure means no Internet availability in that centralized area. This is why companies spoke configurations. Three basic models for the operation and funding of Wi-Fi networks have emerged: Networks designed for use by municipal services. Municipal funds are used to run the network; such networks are funded by specially earmarked tax revenues operated and maintained on a chargeable basis by private service providers. These allow for in-kind provision of private access to public rights of way to build-out and maintain private networks with a'lease payment' or percentage of profits paid to the municipality. In Stockholm, the city-owned Stokab provides network infrastructure through dark fiber to several hundred service providers who provide various alternative services to end users. Reggefiber in the Netherlands performs a similar role; the Utah Telecommunication Open Infrastructure Agency provides service at one network layer higher through a fiber network.

This system's capacity is wholesaled to fifteen service providers who in turn provide retail services to the market. A final model is a provision of all layers of service, such as in Chaska, where the city has built and operated a Wi-Fi Internet network that provides email and web hosting applications; these different models involve different public-private partnership arrangements, varying levels of opportunity for private sector competition. Municipal broadband offers a number of advantages to the economy; such networks provide high speed Internet access more cheaply than other current broadband service providers, if not for free. Different cities adopt different models according to their needs. Municipal broadband not only provides high speed Internet access for free it lowers prices, creates competition, boosts economic development; these advantages help networks functioning efficiently. Municipal broadband companies are faced with a changing and competitive market with many operators; this makes broadband affordable in rural and low-income communities.

In a 2004 White House report, the President called for "universal, affordable access for broadband technology by the year 2007" and "plenty of technology choices when it comes to purchasing broadband". Worker productivity can increase as a result of municipal broadband by giving city officials such as police officers and firefighters remote access to information. Intelligent transport systems rely on fiber-optic infrastructure to network and manage thousands of traffic signals in large metropolitan areas every day. Building inspectors can issue reports and access networked data while conducting inspections. Public buildings in remote areas can be connected through Wi-Fi without the expense of fiber or private telecommunications contracts. Police officers can access security cameras, criminal records and other necessary information. Networks can allow officers to show witnesses mug shots or "virtual lineups" at the scene of a crime, instead of at a police station; the Department of Homeland Security provides funding for cities that use municipal networks for these applications.

Not only does municipal broadband help public servants with their jobs, it helps close the digital divide. Such services help bridge the gap by providing people with public access to the Internet; this allows low income families and city officials to access important information without budgetary considerations in mind. The importance of free Internet access is based on information availability, for example students with no home based access are able to log on to the Internet using municipal broadband. Commentators hope that municipal broadband networks will make cities more attractive to businesses high-tech and research companies, which are dependent on communication. Communication enables small and home-based businesses to participate in international and regional commerce. Municipal broadband allows companies to recruit new employees who can telecommute without physically relocating. In 2000, the Federal Communications Commission endorsed municipal broadband as a "best practice" for bringing broadband to under served communities.


Let the Days Go By

Let the Days Go By is the first studio album by British singer-songwriter and guitarist Bryn Haworth, released in 1974 by Island Records. The first song on the album "Grappenhall Rag" was issued as a single by Island Records. Interviewed in 2009 about the reception given to the album, Haworth recalled: "It was quite positive actually. I think most of the music press found it quite fresh, you know. Back in those days there was an openness to all styles of music, and because it was a mix of songs and styles it seemed to please most people." All tracks are written except where noted. Tracks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 and 10: March 1974, Island Studios, London Producer: Bryn Haworth/ Richard Digby Smith Engineer: Richard Diggy Smith Assistant engineer: Dave HutchinsTracks 7 and 8: October 1973, Island Studios, London Producer: John Porter Engineer: Phil Ault Track 6: September 1973, Centre Music, CaliforniaTrack 11: July 1973, Marshall's Ranch, California Engineer: Bryn Haworth Bryn Haworth - Gibson mandolin, Gibson mandocello, harmonica, 12 string guitar, acoustic guitar, tambourine, Leslie slide guitar, acoustic side guitar, 12 string slide guitar, electric guitars and vocals Bruce Rowland - drums, rola-bola and percussion Graham Maitland - Fender piano, Wurlitzer piano and accordion Gordon "Gordy" Haskell - bass Terry Stannard - drums Pete Wingfield - piano, Wurlitzer piano and grand piano Rabbit - Hammond organ Mel Collins - alto saxophone, horns Alan Spenner - bass Bugs Pemberton - drums Freebo - fretless bass Kevin Kelly - Fender piano John Porter Rick Wolff - Chinese flutes Mother Nature - crickets and ocean Duncan Davis - photography Michael Ross - Design The original cardboard inner sleeve for the vinyl record was printed, on both sides, with a multicoloured lotus petal mandala

Yardie Creek Station

Yardie Creek or Yardie Creek Station is a pastoral lease and sheep station located in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia. It is situated 12.5 kilometres west north west of Exmouth and 143 kilometres north of Coral Bay. The area was under pastoral lease beginning in 1876 when J Brockman acquired leases in the area covering North West Cape to run cattle. Brockman sold parts of the lease in 1888 to ornithologist Thomas Carter including Yardie Creek, Exmouth Gulf and Ningaloo Station. Carter established a pastoral station in 1889 grazing sheep; the working station was resumed by the government in December 1969 as part of the Cape Range National Park. The station experienced drought conditions in 1912 followed by being overrun by kangaroos who came from the hill country in search of water; the following year a station partner, Mr A. O. Holst, reported the country had reasonable rains with 6 inches falling in June followed by a 3 inches downpour in July. Arnold Owen Holst and Alexander Campbell dissolved their partnership in 1927, Campbell remained at Yardie Creek and took up in partnership with Eric Arthur Payne sometime soon after.

The station took delivery of 50 rams in 1928, followed by 50 merino rams from Walebing in 1929. The partnership between Campbell and Payne was dissolved in 1936, with Payne being in control of the lease. Campbell left to Perth, he claimed the station had been improved from virgin country of a value of about £14,000. The Payne family held the lease for the station until 1962. In 1946 many of the buildings around the station were destroyed by a cyclone; the station was hit by another cyclone in 1953 which resulted in extensive damage to the homestead and several outbuildings being demolished. The Broad family were the last occupiers of the pastoral lease and the left the area in 1970; the area was declared a national park in 1964, the off-shore area, Ningaloo Marine Park, was declared in 1987. The Yardie Creek homestead was registered as a heritage site on the Register of the National Estate in 1978. Parts of the timber and iron used to build the out buildings were salvaged from the SS Mildura; the ship was carrying cattle from the Kimberley when it was driven aground and wrecked on North West Reef in 1907 during a cyclone.

List of pastoral leases in Western Australia