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Civil Works Administration

The Civil Works Administration was a short-lived job creation program established by the New Deal during the Great Depression in the United States to create manual-labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers. The jobs were temporary, for the duration of the hard winter of 1933–34. President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveiled the CWA on November 8, 1933, put Harry L. Hopkins in charge of the short-term agency; the CWA was a project created under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration. The CWA created construction jobs improving or constructing buildings and bridges, it ended on March 31, 1934, after spending $200 million a month and giving jobs to four million people. CWA workers laid 12 million feet of sewer pipe and built or improved 255,000 miles of roads, 40,000 schools, 3,700 playgrounds, nearly 1,000 airports; the program was praised by Alf Landon, who ran against Roosevelt in the 1936 election. Representative of the work are one county's accomplishments in less than five months, from November 1933 to March 1934.

Grand Forks County, North Dakota put 2,392 unemployed workers on its payroll at a cost of about $250,000. When the CWA began in eastern Connecticut, it could hire only 480 workers out of 1,500 who registered for jobs. Projects undertaken included work on city utility systems, public buildings and roads. Rural areas profited, with most labor being directed to roads and community schools. CWA officials gave preference to veterans with dependents, but considerable political favoritism determined which North Dakotans got jobs. Although the CWA provided much employment, there were critics who said there was nothing of permanent value. Roosevelt told his cabinet that this criticism moved him to end the program and replace it with the WPA which would have long-term value for the society, in addition to short-term benefits for the unemployed. Works Progress Administration Civilian Conservation Corps Public Works Administration Bremer, William W. "Along the "American Way": The New Deal's Work Relief Programs for the Unemployed," Journal of American History Vol. 62, No.

3, pp. 636-652 in JSTOR Peters and Timothy Noah. "Wrong Harry -- Four million jobs in two years? FDR did it in two months" Slate Jan. 26, 2009 online Schwartz, Bonnie Fox. The Civil Works Administration, 1933-1934: The Business of Emergency Employment in the New Deal, a standard scholarly history Walker, Forrest A; the Civil Works Administration: an experiment in Federal work relief, 1933-1934, a standard scholarly history McJimsey, George, ed. FDR, Harry Hopkins, the civil works administration 679 pages. FDR did it in two months. 1934: A New Deal for Artists" is an exhibition on the artists of the Great Depression at the Smithsonian American Art Museum University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Civil Works Administration Photographs 119 images showing work projects in King County, Washington established under the auspices of the Civil Works Administration in 1933-34. Media related to Civil Works Administration at Wikimedia Commons

It's a Long, Long Way to the U.S.A. (And the Girl I Left Behind)

"It's a Long, Long Way to the U. S. A" is a World War I era song released in 1917. Val Trainor wrote the lyrics. Harry Von Tilzer composed the music; the song was published by Harry Von Tilzer Publishing Company of New York. It was written for both piano. Edward H. Pfeiffer designed. Pfeiffer illustrated more than 1,500 covers throughout his career; this one in particular featured soldiers sitting around a campfire. One of the soldiers is dreaming about a woman; the title of the song was borrowed from the popular march, "It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary."The song was successful in 1917. It is one of Tilzer's 22 war-inspired songs; the song tells the story of a wounded soldier giving his friend a verbal message to deliver to his "little girl" and mother. It appears as though the soldier is near death as he speaks and says, "Night and day how I was praying her dear face once more to see." The chorus is as follows: "It's a long, long way to U. S. A, and the girl I left behind. It's a long, long way to the U.

S. A, and the girl I left behind."The sheet music can be found at Pritzker Military Museum & Library. Bibliography Vogel, Frederick G. World War I Songs: A History and Dictionary of Popular American Patriotic Tunes, with Over 300 Complete Lyrics. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc. 1995. ISBN 0-89950-952-5

Death Is a Lonely Business

Death Is a Lonely Business is a mystery novel by American writer Ray Bradbury, published in 1985. The story, set in 1949, is about a series of murders that happen in Venice, California a declining seaside community in Los Angeles where Bradbury lived from 1942 to 1950; the main character and narrator is a sensitive, modest writer, with a girlfriend studying in Mexico City. In the course of the story he meets Elmo Crumley, a detective who helps him solve the mystery behind all the semi-murders occurring among a series of eccentric characters in the forgotten town; the books biography lists this as Bradbury's first novel since Something Wicked This Way Comes, although the young adult novel The Halloween Tree was published later. It evokes both the milieu and style of other mystery writers Raymond Chandler, Dashiell Hammett, James M. Cain, Ross Macdonald, all of whom Bradbury names in the book's dedication, James Crumley, after whom Bradbury named his detective, yet the main character is undoubtedly Bradbury himself, portrayed in a period of his life just before his marriage and his success with The Martian Chronicles.

Two sequels followed: A Graveyard for Lunatics, Let's All Kill Constance, advancing the writer's career to 1954 and 1960, respectively. "Dwarfed By Ancient Archetypes," Time magazine review. Brown, Charles N.. "The Locus Index to Science Fiction". Retrieved 2007-12-13. "Google Books Death Is a Lonely Business title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database

Norton University

Norton University is a private university in Cambodia registered with the Ministry of Education and Sport. It was established in 1996; the University was one of the first private Cambodian educational institutions. In 2006, Tom Chandler, a 3-D modeling specialist from Monash University in Melbourne was invited to Norton as a senior visiting fellow; the aim of the fellowship was to introduce architecture and science students to specialised animation and modeling techniques and allow them to learn to digitally render their own heritage using 3-D techniques. Norton university is considered to be the Best IT Education Center in Cambodia years after its establishment, was chosen by National ICT Development Authority, Ministry of Post-Telecommunications, International Data Group to receive the award, that official honor in 2010; the university has two campus. The current Rector, Vice Rector of Norton University are Professor Chan Sok Khieng and Professor Un Van Thouen, respectively. Degree Bachelor of Arts, in Teaching English as a Foreign Language Bachelor of Arts in English Communication Bachelor of Arts in English Interpretation and Translation Degree: Bachelor of Science in Computing Information.

Course Summary Degree: Bachelor Engineering Structure and Components Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman The Norton University website

Bernard I, Count of BesalĂș

Bernard I, called Taillefer, was the Count of Besalú in Catalonia from 988 until his death. He was the eldest son of Oliba Cabreta and Ermengard of Empúries, succeeded his father in Besalú while his younger brothers Oliba and Wifred, inherited Berga–Ripoll and Cerdagne–Conflent, respectively. Bernard's first public action took place during the reign of his father, when he witnessed, alongside his mother, the donation of the church of Saint Vincent by Miro II to the church of Besalú on 12 April 977. According to the surviving charter, Miro... comes atque episcopus granted ecclesiam sancti Vincentii to ecclesiæ Bisuldunensi with the consent of Ermengardæ comitissæ et filio eis Bernardo. Bernard witnessed his parents' donation of some property to Sant Llorenç de Bagà on 15 January 981, along with his brothers. Oliba Cabreta had left his sons a strong principality the strongest in Catalonia, its control extended over the great Catalan monasteries of Ripoll, Cuixà, Sant Joan, Arles de Tec and Camprodon.

Despite being a father of his eventual heir William, he had not come of age when his father abdicated to become a monk at Montecassino, since he and Wifred were left under the protection of the Pope John XV. Alongside Besalú Bernard inherited the Fenouillèdes and Peyrepertuse in the County of Carcassonne, where his father had extended his dynasty's power base. Bernard stood to inherit Vallespir on the death of his mother, which occurred after 994. Despite its control of the great monasteries the family of Oliba Cabreta did not control a bishopric; this Bernard and his brothers set out to rectify. Berengar, a younger brother, was made Bishop of Elne and Oliba resigned the county of Berga to Wifred and that of Ripoll to Bernard and entered the monastery of Ripoll, he became Bishop of Vic. By a large sum of money Bernard and Wifred obtained the Archdiocese of Narbonne for Wifred's second son Wifred. In 998 Bernard joined Ermengol I of Urgell on a pilgrimage to the first for either. There they participated in a synod held under the auspices of the Emperor Otto III.

Ermengol returned to Rome in 1001. In 1016–17 Bernard and a large entourage that included with his sons William and Wifred, his brother Oliba, the viscounts of Besalú, Fenouillèdes, Vallespir, the jurist Pons Bonfill, the abbot Adalbert, many other dignitaries and prelates, went to Rome to celebrate Christmas at Saint Peter's Basilica. There Bernard petitioned Pope Benedict VIII to create a see in Besalú, he accused the nuns of Sant Joan of impropriety and because they refused to appear before a papal tribunal, Benedict suppressed their convent, calling it a meretrius de Venus and establishing instead some monks under the rule of Aachen and remanding to Bernard the feudal dues of the abbey. By a bull directed to the new bishop, Benedict created Bernard's desired bishopric; the count paid to have his second son, installed there. Though a minor, Wifred was consecrated by the pope himself; the pope gave Bernard the choice of the diocesan seat, which he placed in Besalú, in Adalbert's monastery there.

To this monastery the new community at Sant Joan was subjected. From Rome Bernard brought back a relic of the Holy Cross and deposited it in Adalbert's Benedictine church, which possessed altars dedicated to Sant Vicenç, Sant Salvador, Santa Maria, Sant Genís, Sant Miquel Arcàngel. Around 1000 Bernard founded a comital monastery at Sant Pau in the Fenouillèdes, delegating its organisation to Wifred, abbot of Cuixà. In 1003 the count transferred the ancient monastic community of Sant Aniol d'Aguja to Sant Llorenç del Mont. In the decade after Bernard's death this house was under the rule of abbot Tassius abbot of Sant Pere in 1029–31; the Aachen ruled church of Sant Pere in Besalú, rebuilt in a Romanesque style begun under Miro II, was consecrated on 23 September 1003 by Bernard. Bernard's relationship with the Church was unusual. In two judgements emitted from his court in 1002 and 1004 the list of confirmants begins with four abbots, all figures at court and an indication of the preeminence of the monsteries in Besalú at the time.

In a charter of February 1017 Bernard remarked that the Pope held the sceptre of the world, but in a spirit of independence added: "let no one, neither the Pope himself, nor a General Council, violate the conditions of this document". In 1003, Bernard took part in the defensive campaign—described as a "holy war" or "crusade"—that defeated an invading Córdoban army in battle near Thoranum castrum. Of the allied Catalan leaders, Bernard appears to have been the senior. According to an early source, before the battle Bernard reasoned that if the saints Peter and Michael and the Virgin Mary each killed 5,000 Muslims, there would be a manageable number left for the soldiers, he further recalls that the Muslims are slain before they have a chance to retreat. In the end, the Córdobans retreated to their own territory, where a second battle was fought at Albesa; the result of this second battle is unclear, but not favourable to the Christians. Bernard's presence at this second battle can be surmised based on the presence of his brother Berengar, who died there.

When Giselbert I of Roussillon died in 1014 his brother Hugh I of Empúries invaded the County of Roussillon and tried to wrest it from the hands of Giselbert's young son, Gausfred II, who appealed to Bernard and Oliba for aid. Through their intervention Hugh and Gausfred

Bantam sunfish

The bantam sunfish is a species of freshwater fish in the genus Lepomis common throughout Louisiana, in extreme southeastern Texas, in southern Arkansas, in a few places in western Kentucky and western Tennessee. The bantam sunfish is dark in color with around ten vertical stripes visible along each flank; the lower jaw protrudes noticeably beyond the upper. The northern and southern boundaries for the bantam sunfish coincide heavily with the former Mississippi Embayment from southern Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico; as for the eastern and western boundaries, the bantam sunfish occurs along the Gulf Coast from Eagle Lake in Texas east through the Biloxi River system in Mississippi. The species is common only in a few states; these states include Louisiana where the fish resides statewide, extreme southeastern Texas, southern Arkansas, a few places in western Kentucky and western Tennessee. The bantam sunfish is known to occur, less in parts of extreme southwestern Illinois, the Bootheel of Missouri, McCurtain County in Oklahoma, some Mississippi and Gulf Coast drainages of the State of Mississippi.

Isolated populations of the bantam sunfish occurred above the Fall Line in the Illinois River at Pekin, in backwater ponds and sloughs of the Wabash River drainage in White County and the Pine Hills. In Illinois, the range of the bantam sunfish is considered to be limited to the Wolf Lake region of Union County. Newer records extend the Illinois range of the bantam sunfish south through the Clear Creek drainage to Horseshoe Lake, Alexander County, through the Cache River drainage in Buttonland Swamp, Limekiln Slough, Grassy Slough. Previous collections in the Cache River drainage failed to produce any bantam sunfish. One study of the gut contents of wild-caught bantam sunfish revealed a diverse diet dominated by gastropods, odonate larvae, micro-crustaceans. Bantam sunfish individuals of less than 21mm in length fed upon aquatic Hemiptera, micro-crustaceans, chironomids, while individuals of more than 40 mm in length ate gastropods and larger dipteran larvae. Bantam sunfish of all size classes consumed dragonfly larvae.

The bantam sunfish has no known predators. Many predatory fish coexist in the habitat of bantam sunfish. One extensive study at Wolf Lake, Illinois found no evidence of predation on the bantam sunfish. Gut analysis of potential predators, including largemouth bass, black crappie, white crappie, warmouth and yellow bullhead revealed a lack of predation on bantam sunfish; the bantam sunfish inhabits sloughs, ponds, backwaters and swamps. The vegetated margins of these environments are dominated by spatterdock, American lotus, broadleaf arrowhead and duckweed and are the preferred habitat for this fish. Substrates consist of detritus and silt, with some sand. Environmental degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbance drainage of wetlands, is the greatest threat to the persistence of bantam sunfish in the wild. Wetlands and swamps have been channelized, dredged and converted to croplands. Rapid population growth in the southern portions of the United States poses multiple threats to aquatic biota as development of land and water resources continues to accelerate.

Over-collection for scientific research and educational purposes could become a problem given the bantam sunfish's short lifespan. The typical spawning period for the species throughout its range is from mid-April to early June. Only large males at least one year and 40 mm in length appear to be sexually mature and do most of the spawning. Females become sexually mature at one year of age. However, the largest females develop the earliest mature ova and contribute most to the spawning effort. There is little published data on the nest associates, nest sites and nesting behavior of the bantam sunfish in the wild. One of the few accounts is from Robinson. Environmental degradation caused by anthropogenic disturbance drainage of wetlands, is the greatest threat to the bantam sunfish. "We are not aware of any current management activities being employed in any states focusing on populations of L. symmetricus, except that Illinois is planning possible introduction of the species back into its historic range on the Illinois River near Pekin...

We are not aware of any past or current conservation activities being employed in any states focusing on populations of L. symmetricus, except for its inclusion on State lists of endangered/threatened or special concern species". Limited information on the spawning and nesting habits of bantam sunfish in the wild make it near impossible to determine if populations are reproducing at a sustainable level