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Civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design and maintenance of the physical and built environment, including public works such as roads, canals, airports, sewerage systems, structural components of buildings, railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines, it is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history; because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, hydrology, environment and other fields.

Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation computations. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence; the earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.

During this time, transportation became important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, the term engineer and architect were geographical variations referring to the same occupation, used interchangeably; the construction of pyramids in Egypt were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura; the Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, harbors, bridges and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.

The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president; the institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, aqueducts, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, in the construction of ports, moles and lighthouses, in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, in the construction and application of machinery, in the drainage of cities and towns.

The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835; the first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering, coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in 1838 as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in 1839, the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840. Civil engineers possess an academic degree in civil engineering; the length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is designated as a bachelor

1999 French Grand Prix

The 1999 French Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 27 June 1999 at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours near Magny-Cours, France. It was the seventh race of the 1999 Formula One season; the 72-lap race was won by Heinz-Harald Frentzen driving a Jordan car after starting from fifth position. Mika Häkkinen finished second driving for McLaren, with Rubens Barrichello finishing third for the Stewart team; the remaining points-scoring positions were filled by Ralf Schumacher, Michael Schumacher, Eddie Irvine. As a consequence of the race, Häkkinen extended his lead in the World Drivers' Championship to eight points over Schumacher, with Irvine a further 14 behind. In the World Constructors' Championship, McLaren reduced the lead over Ferrari to six points with Williams passing Benetton for fourth position, 43 points behind Ferrari. Heading into the seventh round of the season, McLaren driver Mika Häkkinen was leading the World Drivers' Championship with 34 points. Behind Häkkinen and Schumacher in the Drivers' Championship, Eddie Irvine was third on 25 points in the other Ferrari, with Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Giancarlo Fisichella both on 13 points.

In the Constructors' Championship, Ferrari were leading on 55 points and McLaren were second on 46 points, with Jordan third on 16 points. Following the Canadian Grand Prix on 13 June, the teams conducted testing sessions at the Magny-Cours circuit from 16–18 June. David Coulthard set the fastest time on the first day, while Eddie Irvine was fastest on the second and final day of testing. Williams made modifications to the suspension of their cars. Among the other teams, Minardi elected to perform aerodynamic mapping work at the Automotive Safety Center using their test driver Gastón Mazzacane. Arrows performed shakedown runs at the Santa Pod Raceway. On 16 June, Jordan driver and 1996 World Drivers' Champion Damon Hill announced that he would retire from Formula One racing at the end of the season. Hill said a factor in his decision was the amount of testing undertaken by the teams and his own personal performance during the season, although he considered retiring with immediate effect. Two practice sessions were held before the Sunday race—one on Friday from 11:00 to 14:00 local time, a second on Saturday morning between 09:00 to 11:00.

The first practice session took place in dry conditions. The ambient temperature was 24 °C; the second practice session was held in overcast and wet weather conditions, with a drop in the track temperature to 19 °C and the ambient temperature to 20 °C. Saturday afternoon's qualifying session was held from 13:00 to 14:00 local time; each driver was limited to twelve laps with the implementation of a 107% rule to exclude slow drivers from competing in the race. The session was held in wet conditions. Rubens Barrichello clinched his first pole position of the season, in his Stewart, in a time of 1:38.441. He was joined on the front row by Jean Alesi, four-tenths of a second behind. Olivier Panis was third in his Prost. Coulthard took fourth despite spinning off late in the session. Heinz-Harald Frentzen was fifth, with Michael Schumacher completing the top six. Due to the wet conditions, a record five drivers - Damon Hill, Marc Gené, Luca Badoer, Pedro de la Rosa, Toranosuke Takagi - all failed to meet the 107% time.

Hill missed out by the slimmest-ever margin. Due to the wet conditions, the drivers' competitiveness in practice, all five drivers were permitted to race due to "exceptional circumstances". On Sunday morning, a pre-race warm up session took place at 09:30 local time, lasted for 30 minutes, it took place in wet weather conditions, with the track temperature at 15 °C and the ambient temperature was 14 °C. Coulthard set the fastest lap with a time of 1:32.091. He was followed on the timesheets by Ferrari drivers Irvine and Michael Schumacher who completed the top three positions; the race took place in the afternoon from 14:00 local time, started on a dry track, with an ambient temperature of 19 °C and a track temperature of 20 °C. Rubens Barrichello managed to get away to maintain first position. Jean Alesi, starting second, held up drivers after the start. David Coulthard was able to pass Alesi on lap two. Mika Häkkinen stormed up through the field from his starting position of fourteenth to ninth place by lap two.

Häkkinen caught and passed Olivier Panis for sixth place and caught Michael Schumacher in fifth on lap five. As this happened Herbert retired thanks to a gearbox problem. Coulthard passed Barrichello on lap six by outbraking him into the Adelaide hairpin, and Diniz retired thanks to transmission failure on lap 7. Mika Häkkinen attempted to pass Michael Schumacher on lap nine by slipstreaming him down the long straight before the Adelaide hairpin, but was on the outside coming into Adelaide and Schumacher was able to stay just ahead. Häkkinen repeated the move on the next lap, this time to the inside, was able to stay in front of Schumacher. Schumacher at this point was struggling on a car, set up for a wet race. David Coulthard suffered a complete electrical failure on lap 10 and retired, giving the lead back to Rubens Barrichello. From the Crew behind Irvine overtook Villeneuve. Mika Häkkinen caught Heinz-Harald Frentzen on lap 12 hounded him for three laps before passing him in a repeat of the move he had pulled on Michael Schumacher earlier.

Frentzen tried to fight back, was able to pull alo

Appley Bridge meteorite

The Appley Bridge meteorite is a meteorite that hit ground at Halliwell Farm in Appley Bridge, England at around 8:45 PM on Tuesday, 13 October 1914. After local residents saw a bolide, the meteorite was subsequently found in a farmer's field in the village the following day, it was 18 inches below the surface of the field, with the appearance of burnt iron, weighed 33 pounds. An article in Scientific News stated "a small fragment, detached from the larger mass was put on view in a shop-window at Appley Bridge." A collection of letters and news-cuttings pertaining to the meteorite is held by the Natural History Museum Archives in London. In 2011, a fragment weighing less than an ounce and mounted in a one-inch plastic gem case was sold by auctioneers Lyon & Turnbull in Edinburgh, it was expected to sell for £250. Glossary of meteoritics Meteorite fall Russell Parry The Appley Bridge Meteorite