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Civil parish

In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of up to 95,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Sutton Coldfield, those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.

On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and an early form was long established in England by the time of the Norman Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. In a few cases, manors were so large. Churches and their priests were the responsibility of the lord of the manor, but not all lords were both willing and able to provide these, so residents of nearby manors would look to the church of the nearest manor that had a church.

The churches and priests became the responsibility of the Catholic Church and these arrangements were formalised, with the boundary of the parish taking the boundary of the group of manors. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division; this consistency in boundaries was a result of Canon Law, which governed the rights and responsibilities of local churches, made boundary changes and sub-division difficult. The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres.

Until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601. Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented; the parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish. As the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers.

This innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places. For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish.

The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868. The ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of paris

Wrestling at the 2010 Asian Games – Men's Greco-Roman 120 kg

The men's Greco-Roman 120 kg wrestling competition at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou was held on 23 November 2010 at the Huagong Gymnasium. This Greco-Roman wrestling competition consisted of a single-elimination tournament, with a repechage used to determine the winner of two bronze medals; the two finalists faced off for silver medals. Each wrestler who lost to one of the two finalists moved into the repechage, culminating in a pair of bronze medal matches featuring the semifinal losers each facing the remaining repechage opponent from their half of the bracket; each bout consisted of up to three rounds. The wrestler who scored more points in each round was the winner of that rounds. All times are China Standard Time LegendD — Disqualified F — Won by fall Results, Page 22 FILA Database

Section 21 notice

In England and Wales, a section 21 notice known as a section 21 notice of possession or a section 21 eviction, is the notice which a landlord must give to their tenant to begin the process to take possession of a property let on an assured shorthold tenancy without providing a reason for wishing to take possession. The expiry of a section 21 notice does not bring a tenancy to its end; the tenancy would only be ended by a landlord obtaining an order for possession from a court, having that order executed by a County Court bailiff or High Court enforcement officer. Such an order for possession may not be made to take effect earlier than six months from the beginning of the first tenancy unless the tenancy is a demoted assured shorthold tenancy. If the court is satisfied that a landlord is entitled to possession, it must make an order for possession, on a date no than 14 days after the making of the order unless exceptional hardship would be caused to the tenant in which case possession may be postponed to a date no than six weeks after the making of the order.

The court has no power to grant any adjournment or stay of execution from enforcement unless the tenant has a disability discrimination, public law or human rights defence, or the case is pending an appeal. Where a landlord is seeking possession on the basis of a section 21 notice where the tenancy is, or where there are successive tenancies on the same terms as, the original tenancy comprised in a written tenancy agreement, the landlord may bring a claim for possession under the accelerated procedure if no other claims are being made at the same time. Unlike a standard possession claim, the accelerated possession version is decided by a judge on paper without a hearing unless the paperwork doesn't appears to be in order, or the tenant has raised an important issue in defence; the mean time between claim for possession under the accelerated procedure being issued at court and eviction in 2017 was 24.4 weeks, with a median of 17 weeks. Security of tenure was first given to tenants of certain dwellings in 1915 by the Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest Act as a result of housing shortage caused by World War I.

Regulations on security tightened over the years. The Rent Act 1977 and the Protection from Eviction Act 1977 consolidated existing legislations and is still in force as of 2019. Tenants of regulated tenancies under the Rent Act 1977 cannot be evicted by their landlord without one of the grounds under Schedule 15 of the Act being satisfied. Notably, grounds for possession resulting from tenant's rent arrears is only a discretionary ground, meaning the court will only grant an order for possession if it considers it reasonable to do so; the Housing Act 1988 introduced assured tenancies and assured shorthold tenancies from 15 January 1989, the latter being a subset of the former. Like regulated tenancies under the Rent Act 1977, tenants of non-shorthold assured tenancies cannot be evicted without one of the grounds specified under the Act being satisfied. Landlords of tenants with an assured shorthold tenancies however can apply for an order for possession from the court without specifying any reason so long as sufficient notices have been given to their tenants in accordance with section 21 of the 1988 Act.

Assured shorthold became the default type of private residential tenancies from the commencement of the Housing Act 1996. Section 21 of the 1988 Act provides two different mechanisms under which a landlord can give notice to obtain possession of their property. In either case, since the coming into force of the 1996 Act, the notice must be in writing. An agent of the landlord may give the notice on behalf of the landlord. Where there are joint landlords, the notice may be given by any one of them. Where the occupier tenant holds a sub-tenancy, a superior landlord may not give a valid notice at a time when they are not the direct landlord of the occupier if the mesne tenancy will have ended by the time the notice expire thus making the sub-tenant a direct tenant of the superior landlord. If the notice is served by a company it must be signed or otherwise executed in accordance with the Companies Act 2006. Under subsection, the tenant must be given at least two months' notice that the landlord requires possession of the property.

Where the tenancy agreement contains a break clause which allows for the tenancy to be determined before the expiry of the fixed term period, a notice under section 21 may be sufficient to determine the tenancy under the break clause. The legislation is silent and there is no clear authorities as to whether the notice may expire before the end of the fixed term in the absence of a break clause; until the Court of Appeal judgment in Spencer v Taylor, it was thought that a notice may only be given under subsection during a fixed term tenancy. The judgment clarified that a notice may be given under the subsection during a statutory periodic tenancy that arise pursuant to section 5 of the 1988 Act on the coming to an end of a fixed term tenancy. If the landlord is a private registered provider of social housing, the tenancy is for a fixed term of at least two years granted on or after 1 April 2012 the landlord must have given a notice of at least six months that the landlord does not propose to grant the tenant another tenancy on the expiry of the current tenancy, informing the tenant of how to obtain help or advice about the notice and outlining any obligations the landlord has to provide help or advice.

Under subsection, the length of the notice must be at least two months. The notice must state that possession of the property is required by virtue of section 21 of the 1988 Act, on a date after which possession is required; the date must be the last day of a

Scott Edwards (bowls)

Scott Edwards is an English male indoor bowler. He was the National singles runner-up in 2010 during the Men's National Championships, he is two times winner of the Bournemouth Open. He has qualified for the World Indoor Bowls Championships on three occasions in 2013, 2018 and 2019. Edwards knocked out the World Champion Paul Foster in the 2017 International Open and the World Champion Mark Dawes in the 2018 International Open at his own club, he is ranked World No.18 indoors, Open singles circuit No.1 and PBA European No.1. Bournemouth Open Singles Champion 2 years running. Worthing Pavilion Open Singles Champion twice. Atherley Open Singles Champion. Cheltenham Open Singles Champion. Hove Open Singles Champion. Worthing Open Singles Champion. Salisbury Open Singles Champion. Adur Open Singles Champion. Welford Open Singles Champion. Loddon Vale Open Singles Champion. Dolphin Open Singles Champion. Five Rivers Open Singles Champion. Seven consecutive Open pairs titles over 3 years at the Bournemouth Open, Worthing Open and Hove Open.

* He is a semi professional poker player

Adriana Breukink

Adriana Breukink is a recorder maker living in Enschede, who makes Renaissance and modern instruments. Breukink was introduced to the recorder by an aunt, she attended the Royal Conservatory of The Hague where she worked with Frans Brüggen and Ricardo Kanji. The great recorder maker Fred Morgan offered classes at the Conservatory, Breukink worked with him to make a Ganassi recorder. By the time she had completed her solo exam in 1980, she had decided to become an instrument maker. Breukink has become a leader in the development of new recorders. In 1997, she developed a Ganassi-based recorder with a chin-controlled dynamic slide extension for Moeck. In an effort to develop a Renaissance style recorder for use by beginners she developed the Adri's Dream recorder in collaboration with Mollenhauer in 1999, she expanded this line to include Dream Edition recorders for more advanced players. In conjunction with Küng, she introduced the Eagle Recorder for professional players in 2007. Breukink is a member of the Bassano Quartet, who perform on a variety of her instruments up to three meters tall.

Adriana Breukink: recorder maker / performer / designer


Zhunan Township is an township in northern Miaoli County, Taiwan. Its city centre forms a continuous urban area with Toufen. Zhúnán means "bamboo south" but in this context, zhú is short for "Hsinchu". Thus, Zhunan lies south of Hsinchu. A previous name of the area was Tiong-káng "central port", a name preserved in Zhonggang, one of the 25 constituent villages of Zhunan; the present name was adopted under Japanese rule in 1920. Area: 37.56 square kilometres Population: 85,005 The township comprises 25 villages: Dacuo, Dingpu, Gongguan, Haikou, Kaiyuan, Longshan, Shanjia, Tianwen, Yingpan, Zhengnan, Zhonghua, Zhongying and Zhuxing. National Health Research Institutes Zhunan was traditionally a beach and fishing community, is associated with the sea goddess Matsu. Zhunan's main tourist attraction is its largest Matsu Temple; the temple has a statue of the deity, over 100 feet tall. Zhunan has a large Science Park. Zhunan has some cycling routes that run parallel to the beaches. Beach access was difficult until a bridge connecting the harbour and the beaches opened in 2008.

It is a favourite spot among locals for surfing and windsurfing due to the year-round winds. Mountains are within a 20-minute drive. Hotsu Longfong Temple Northern Miaoli Art Center Ten Ren Tea Culture Museum Zhonggang Cihyu Temple Zhunan Brewery Zhunan is served by National Highway No. 3 and Provincial Highway No. 61. The township is accessible from Qiding Station of Taiwan Railways. Kang Shih-ju, member of Legislative Yuan Tsai Wan-lin, former businessman Tsai Wan-tsai, former banker Zhunan Township