The Civilian Conservation Corps was a voluntary public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men. For young men ages 18–25, it was expanded to ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the first director of this agency, succeeded by James McEntee following Fechner's death; the CCC was a major part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal that provided manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal and local governments; the CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Through the course of its nine years in operation, 3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them with shelter and food, together with a wage of $30 per month; the American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs.
Sources written at the time claimed an individual's enrollment in the CCC led to improved physical condition, heightened morale, increased employability. The CCC led to a greater public awareness and appreciation of the outdoors and the nation's natural resources, the continued need for a planned, comprehensive national program for the protection and development of natural resources; the CCC operated separate programs for Native Americans. 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, Congress voted to close the program; as governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. Long interested in conservation, as president, he proposed to Congress a full-scale national program on March 21, 1933: I propose to create to be used in complex work, not interfering with normal employment and confining itself to forestry, the prevention of soil erosion, flood control, similar projects.
I call your attention to the fact that this type of work is of definite, practical value, not only through the prevention of great present financial loss but as a means of creating future national wealth. He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, housing and medical care for working in the national forests and other government properties; the Emergency Conservation Work Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5, 1933, which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, a former labor union official who served until 1939; the organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. The order indicated that the program was to be supervised jointly by four government departments: Labor, which recruited the young men, which operated the camps, Agriculture and Interior, which organized and supervised the work projects.
A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative from each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program. To end the opposition from labor unions Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, as director of the corps. William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor. Reserve officers from the U. S. Army were in charge of the camps. General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army, but the Army found numerous benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni sergeants; the CCC provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. George Marshall had "embraced" the CCC, unlike many of his brother officers.
Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the leadership performance of both Regular and Reserve officers. The CCC provided lessons which the Army used in developing its wartime and mobilization plans for training camps. An implicit goal of the CCC was to restore morale in an era of 25% unemployment for all men and much higher rates for poorly educated teenagers. Jeffrey Suzik argues in "'Building Better Men': The CCC Boy and the Changing Social Ideal of Manliness" that the CCC provided work, an ideology of robust outdoor manhood to counter the Depression's effeminacy, as well as cash to help the family budget. Through a regime of heavy manual labor and political education, an all-male living and working environment, the CCC tried to build "better men" who would be economically independent and not effete. By 1939 there was a shift from the athletic manual worker to the trained citizen soldier ready for the war; the legislation and mobilization of the program occurred quite rapidly. Roosevelt made his request to Congress on March 21, 1933.
The first CCC enrollee was selected April 8, and
The 1983–84 season of the European Cup football club tournament was won for a fourth time by Liverpool in a penalty shootout in the final against Roma. The game had finished 1–1. Phil Neal had scored for Roberto Pruzzo for Roma, it was the seventh title in eight seasons for English clubs. Hamburg, the defending champions, were eliminated by Dinamo București in the second round. Liverpool won 6–0 on aggregate. Athletic Bilbao won 4–2 on aggregate. Olympiacos won 2–0 on aggregate. Benfica won 6–2 on aggregate. Rába ETO Győr won 4–1 on aggregate. Dinamo Minsk won 3–2 on aggregate. Dinamo Bucureşti won 4–0 on aggregate. Bohemians Prague won 5–0 on aggregate. Rapid Wien won 4–3 on aggregate. Standard Liège won 11–4 on aggregate. Dundee United won 6–0 on aggregate. 4–4 on aggregate. CSKA Sofia won on away goals. Roma won 4–2 on aggregate. Dynamo Berlin won 6–1 on aggregate. Partizan won 5–1 on aggregate. Liverpool won 1–0 on aggregate. Benfica won 3–1 on aggregate. Dinamo Minsk won 9–4 on aggregate. Dinamo Bucureşti won 5–3 on aggregate.
2–2 on aggregate. Rapid Wien won on away goals. Dundee United won 4–0 on aggregate. Roma won 2–0 on aggregate. Dynamo Berlin won 2–1 on aggregate. Liverpool won 5–1 on aggregate. Dinamo Bucureşti won 2–1 on aggregate. 2–2 on aggregate. Dundee United won on away goals. Roma won 4–2 on aggregate; the tie between Roma and Dundee United was controversial. The Liverpool vs Dinamo Bucharest tie was physical and confrontational in nature. Liverpool won 3–1 on aggregate. Roma won 3–2 on aggregate; the top scorers from the 1983–84 European Cup are as follows: 1984 European Super Cup 1984 Intercontinental Cup 1983/84 European Champions Clubs' Cup - Matches UEFA.com European Champions' Cup 1983-84 Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation 1983/84 European Champions Clubs' Cup - Scorers UEFA.com 1983-84 European Cup - results and line-ups European Cup 1983-84 – results, players statistics website eurocups-uefa.ru European Cup 1983-84 – results, protocols website Football Archive 1983–84 European Cup
Lauren Perkins is a professional skateboarder and model from Los Angeles, California. Perkins is one of a small group of professional female skaters, she began skateboarding in 2005. She thought it looked fun, so she asked for a skateboard for her birthday. Away from skateboarding, Perkins enjoys snowboarding and motocross. Perkins is featured on the skate DVD Getting Nowhere Faster. Perkins was a stunt double for Jennifer Morrison in the film Grind, performing the characters skateboarding scenes; this was arranged by her team manager at Volcom. Perkins was featured in the film MVP 2: Most Vertical Primate playing the character of Sammy Rogers, a young skater competing in a skateboard competition. 2005 – First girl to compete street in CASL 2006 – 2nd place in All Girls Street Jam 2006 – 2nd place overall 11-12 age group against all boys 2007 – 1st place at the Gravity Games amateur contest 2008 – 3rd place Triple Crown 2009 – 1st place All Girls Street Jam 2009 – 2nd place Australia 2010 – 1st place West 49th 2010 – 2nd place overall ladies street rankings 2011 – 2nd place Gravity Games 2012 - 3rd place XGames Womens Street 2012 – 2nd place Australia 2013 – 2nd place XGames Womens Street 2014 – 2nd place Mystic Cup 2015 – 1st place S3 Super Girl Jam Fruit by the Foot Commercial “MVP II” “The Grind” Daily Habit CNBC “On the Money” Lauren Perkins on IMDb https://web.archive.org/web/20090404065804/http://laurengraceperkins.com/ Girls Skate Network Interview https://archive.is/20130122083811/http://etniesgirl.com/site-images/riders/hero/lauren-perkins-.jpg https://web.archive.org/web/20071020110833/http://etniesgirl.com/site-images/riders/hero/lauren-perkins.jpg http://www.rip.tv/direct/uploads/images/YZFBgIvS4tQLIZa.jpeg