Haute-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river. Its main city and capital is Toulouse. Haute-Garonne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Languedoc. The department was larger; the reduction in its area resulted from an imperial decree dated 21 November 1808 and which established the neighbouring department of Tarn-et-Garonne, to the north. The new department, created in response to the pleadings of various locally powerful politicians, took territory from five surrounding departments including Haute-Garonne; the districts lost to Tarn-et-Garonne in 1808 were those of Castelsarrasin. Haute-Garonne is part of the current region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Hautes-Pyrénées, Tarn-et-Garonne, Tarn and Ariège, it borders Spain in the south. The department is crossed by the upper course of the Garonne River for nearly 200 kilometers; the borders of the department follow the river.
The Garonne enters France from Spain at the town of Fos, goes through Toulouse and leaves the department. The extreme south of the department lies in the Pyrenees mountain range and is mountainous; the highest elevation is the Peak of Perdiguère, at 3,222 meters above sea level. This department was the political base of former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin; the President of the General Council is Pierre Izard of the Socialist Party. The inhabitants of the department are called Haut-Garonnais; the greatest population concentration is around Toulouse. The south of the department is quite sparsely populated. More than a million people inhabited the department at the last census in 1999. Young people are well represented with 55% of the population under the age of 40 and of those, 16% are between the ages of 20 and 29; this is. The largest towns are: The department has four ski resorts. Peyragudes, 55 km of slopes Luchon-Superbagnères, 30 km of slopes Le Mourtis, 22 km of slopes Bourg-d'Oueil Cantons of the Haute-Garonne department Communes of the Haute-Garonne department Arrondissements of the Haute-Garonne department General council website Prefecture website Tourism website Photography Panoramics 360° website
A V8 engine is an eight-cylinder V configuration engine with the cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two sets of four, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft. Most banks are set at a right angle to each other, some at a narrower angle, with 45°, 60°, 72° most common. In its simplest form, the V8 is two parallel inline-four engines sharing a common crankshaft. However, this simple configuration, with a flat- or single-plane crankshaft, has the same secondary dynamic imbalance problems as two straight-4s, resulting in vibrations in large engine displacements. Since the 1920s, most V8s have used the somewhat more complex crossplane crankshaft with heavy counterweights to eliminate the vibrations; this results in an engine, smoother than a V6, while being less expensive than a V12. Many racing V8s continue to use the single plane crankshaft because it allows faster acceleration and more efficient exhaust system designs. In 1902, Léon Levavasseur took out a patent on a light but quite powerful gasoline injected V8 engine.
He called it the'Antoinette' after the young daughter of his financial backer. From 1904 he installed this engine in a number of early aircraft; the aviation pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont saw one of these boats in Côte d'Azur and decided to try it on his pusher configuration, canard-design 14-bis aircraft. Its early 24 hp at 1400 rpm version with only 55 kg of weight was interesting, but proved to be underpowered. Santos-Dumont ordered a more powerful version from Levavasseur, he changed its dimensions from the original 80 mm stroke and 80 mm bore to 105 mm stroke and 110 mm bore, obtaining 50 hp with 86 kg of weight, including cooling water. Its power-to-weight ratio was not surpassed for 25 years. Levavasseur produced its own line of V8 equipped aircraft, named Antoinette I to VIII. Hubert Latham piloted the V8 powered Antoinette IV and Antoinette VII in July 1909 on two failed attempts to cross the English Channel. However, in 1910, Latham used the VII with the same engine to become the first in the world to reach an altitude of 3600 feet.
Voisin constructed pusher biplanes with Antoinette engines notably the one first flown by Henry Farman in 1908. The V8 engine configuration was used in France by 1904, in race car and aircraft engines introduced by Renault, Buchet among others; some of these engines found their way into automobiles in small quantities. In 1905, Darracq built a special car to beat the world speed record, they came up with two racing car engines built on camshaft. The result was an engine with a displacement of 1,551 cu in, 200 bhp. Victor Hemery achieved the record on 30 December 1905 with a speed of 109.65 mph. This car still exists. Rolls-Royce built a 3,535 cc V8 car from 1905 to 1906, but only three copies were made and Rolls-Royce reverted to a I6 design. In 1907, the Hewitt Motor Company built a large five-passenger Touring Car, it was equipped with a V8 engine that developed 50/60 horsepower and had a bore of 4 in and a stroke of 4.5 in. The Hewitt was the first American automobile to be equipped with a V8 engine.
De Dion-Bouton introduced a 7,773 cc automobile V8 in 1910 and displayed it in New York in 1912. It inspired a number of manufacturers to follow suit; the limiting factor in mass production and sales of V8s was the difficulty in starting large engines using a hand crank. Not only does increasing the size of the engine make this harder, the number of pistons is a factor, because with a 4 cylinder engine, a piston comes into compression every half turn of the crank, overcoming this with the crank is not difficult. With eight cylinders, there is only 1/4 of a turn of the crank before another cylinder comes into compression. To overcome this problem, electric starters were developed; the first marque to equip its cars with electric starter motors was Cadillac, in 1912, Cadillac was the first production automobile with V8s, introduced 2 years later. It sold 13,000 of the 5.4 L L-head engines in its first year of production, 1914. Cadillac has been a V8 company since. Oldsmobile, another division of General Motors, introduced its own 4 L V8 engine in 1916.
Chevrolet introduced a 4.7 L V8 engine in 1917 and installed in the Chevrolet Series D. In February 1915, Swiss automotive engineer Marc Birkigt designed the first example of the famous Hispano-Suiza V8 single overhead cam aviation engines, in differing displacements, using dual ignition systems and in power levels from 150 horsepower to around 300 horsepower, in both direct-drive and geared output shaft versions. 50,000 of these engines were built in Spain, the United Kingdom, Italy. Wright Aeronautical built them in the United States during World War I, with the French-produced versions getting almost-exclusive use to power the SPAD S. VII and SPAD S. XIII fighter aircraft. E.5 fighters and Sopwith Dolphin fighters. The H. S. 8-series overhead cam valvetrain V8 aviation engines are said to have powered half of all Allied aircraft of the WW I era. By 1932, Henry Ford introduced one of his last great personal engineering triumphs: his "en block", or one piece, V8 engine, its simple design made possible the greatest production V8 to the masses.
Offered as an option to an improved 4-cylinder Mo
Ader Avion II
The Avion II was the second primitive aircraft designed by Clément Ader in the 1893. Most sources agree that work on it was never completed, Ader abandoning it in favour of the Avion III that had a financial backer. Ader's claim that he flew the Avion II in August 1892 for a distance of 100 m at a field in Satory is not accepted; the name "Avion" was devised by Ader from Latin avis and became the origin of the word avion, the most common in French to designate an airplane. The first official text noting it is French patent no. 205 555 granted to Ader on April 19, 1890. The engine developed for Avion II, called Zéphyr was a light steam engine driving a 3 m diameter 4-bladed propeller, in which steam was cooled through a condenser, it yielded 22 kW at 480 rpm at a pressure of 15 Pa, weighing 33 kg dry, 134 kg with full boiler and accessories. Related development Ader Eole Aircraft of comparable role and era Ader Avion III
Charles de Freycinet
Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet was a French statesman and four times Prime Minister during the Third Republic. He served an important term as Minister of War, he belonged to the Opportunist Republicans faction. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, in 1890, the fourteenth member to occupy a seat in the Académie française. Freycinet was born at Foix of a Protestant family and was the nephew of Louis de Freycinet, a French navigator. Charles Freycinet was educated at the École Polytechnique, he entered government service as a mining engineer. In 1858 he was appointed traffic manager to the Compagnie de chemins de fer du Midi, a post in which he showed a remarkable talent for organization, in 1862 returned to the engineering service, attaining in 1886 the rank of inspector-general, he was sent on several special scientific missions, including one to the United Kingdom, on which he wrote a notable Mémoire sur le travail des femmes et des enfants dans les manufactures de l'Angleterre.
In July 1870 the Franco-Prussian War started which led to the fall of the Second French Empire of Napoleon III. On the establishment of the Third Republic in September 1870, he offered his services to Léon Gambetta, was appointed prefect of the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, in October became chief of the military cabinet, it was Freycinet's powers of organization which enabled Gambetta to raise army after army to oppose the invading Germans. He revealed himself to be a competent strategist, but the policy of dictating operations to the generals in the field was not attended with happy results; the friction between him and General d'Aurelle de Paladines resulted in the loss of the advantage temporarily gained at Coulmiers and Orléans, he was responsible for the campaign in the east, which ended in the destruction of the Armée de l'Est of Charles Denis Bourbaki. In 1871 he published a defence of his administration under the title of La Guerre en province pendant le siège de Paris, he entered the Senate in 1876 as a follower of Gambetta, in December 1877 became Minister of Public Works in the cabinet of Jules Armand Stanislaus Dufaure.
He passed a great scheme for the gradual acquisition of the railways by the state and the construction of new lines at a cost of three milliards, for the development of the canal system at a further cost of one milliard. He retained his post in the ministry of William Henry Waddington, whom he succeeded in December 1879 as Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, he passed an amnesty for the Communards, but in attempting to steer a middle course on the question of the religious associations, he lost Gambetta's support, resigned in September 1880. In January 1882 he again became Foreign Minister, his refusal to join Britain in the bombardment of Alexandria was the death-knell of French influence in Egypt. He attempted to compromise by occupying the Isthmus of Suez, but the vote of credit was rejected in the Chamber by 417 votes to 75, the ministry resigned, he returned to office in April 1885 as Foreign Minister in Henri Brisson's cabinet, retained that post when, in January 1886, he succeeded to the premiership.
He came to power with an ambitious programme of internal reform. In spite of his unrivalled skill as a parliamentary tactician, he failed to keep his party together, was defeated on 3 December 1886. In the following year, after two unsuccessful attempts to construct new ministries, he stood for the Presidency of the Republic. In April 1888 he became Minister of War in Charles Floquet's cabinet — the first civilian since 1848 to hold that office, his services to France in this capacity were the crowning achievement of his life, he enjoyed the conspicuous honour of holding his office without a break for five years through as many successive administrations — those of Floquet and Pierre Tirard, his own fourth ministry, the Émile Loubet and Alexandre Ribot ministries. The introduction of the three-years' service and the establishment of a general staff, a supreme council of war, the army commands were all due to him, his premiership was marked by heated debates on the clerical question, it was a hostile vote on his bill against the religious associations that caused the fall of his cabinet.
He failed to clear himself of complicity in the Panama scandals, in January 1893 resigned the Ministry of War. In November 1898 he once again became Minister of War in the Charles Dupuy cabinet, but resigned office on 6 May 1899. Charles de Freycinet – President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Jean Joseph Frédéric Farre – Minister of War Charles Lepère – Minister of the Interior and Worship Pierre Magnin – Minister of Finance Jules Cazot – Minister of Justice Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry – Minister of Marine and Colonies Jules Ferry – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts Henri Varroy – Minister of Public Works Adolphe Cochery – Minister of Posts and Telegraphs Pierre Tirard – Minister of Agriculture and CommerceChanges17 May 1880 – Ernest Constans succeeds Lepère as Minister of the Interior and Worship. Charles de Freycinet – President of the Council and Minister of Foreign Affairs Jean-Baptiste Billot – Minister of War René Goblet – Minister of the Interior Léon Say – Minister of Finance Gustave Humbert – Minister of Justice and Worship Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry – Minister of Marine and Colonies Jule
The Ader Éole called Avion, was an early steam-powered aircraft developed by Clément Ader in the 1890s and named after the Greco-Roman wind god Aeolus. Unlike many early flying machines, the Éole did not attempt to fly by flapping its wings, but relied on the lift generated by its wings in forward motion. With wings resembling mechanical copies of bat wings, its steam engine was an unusually light-weight design driving a propeller at the front of the aircraft, but lacking any means for the pilot to control the direction of flight. According to late 1907 claims made by Clément Ader, on 8 October 1890, the machine achieved a short flight of around 50 m at the Chateau d'Armainvilliers in Brie, it reached a height of around 20 cm. The poor power-to-weight ratio of the steam engine and bad weather were felt to limit the flying height achieved. Ader claimed to have flown the Éole again in September 1891, this time to a distance of 100 m, but this claim is less substantiated; some consider the Éole to have been the first true aeroplane, given that it left the ground under its own power and carried a person through the air for a short distance, that the event of 8 October 1890 was the first successful flight.
However, the lack of directional control, the fact that steam-powered aircraft proved to be a dead end, both weigh against these claims. Ader's proponents have claimed. Modern attempts to recreate and evaluate the craft have met with mixed results. A full-size replica built in 1990 at the École Centrale Paris crashed on its first flight, injuring its pilot and leading to the termination of the experiment. Scale models, have been flown. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.5 m Wingspan: 14 m Wing area: 28 m2 Empty weight: 226 kg Gross weight: 330 kg Powerplant: 1 × Ader alcohol-burning steam engine, 15 kW Performance Maximum speed: 58 km/h Wing loading: 8 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.05 kW/kg Alexander Mozhaysky, a Russian inventor who designed a steam-powered plane
Louis Pierre Mouillard
Louis Pierre Mouillard was a French artist and innovator who worked on human mechanical flight in the second half of the 19th century. He based much of his work on the investigation of birds in Cairo. Around the early 1900s he was considered the father of aviation. Mouillard's most famous work, L'Empire de l'Air, in which he proposed fixed-wing gliders, was published in France in 1881 and soon became a recognized classic, it was translated into English by the Smithsonian Institution in their annual report of 1882 and reprinted in 1893 as The Empire Of The Air. Mouillard studied at the School of Fine Arts at Lyon and Paris but settled in Algeria at Mitidja after the death of his father. Here he constructed several gliders before returning to France in 1865. Around this time he managed to glide 138 feet at about 30 feet height, he described the use of a screw to provide lift and propulsion to a glider in 1890. He was appointed a professor of drawing at the Cairo Polytechnic in 1866 during which time he took a lot of interest in the flight of vultures.
He studied the requirements of gliding flight in birds. In 1897 his design was patented in the United States of America by Octave Chanute, his biographer Arthur Henry Couannier posthumously published a book on gliding flight in 1912 titled Le vol sans battement. He foresaw the use of aluminium as the metal of choice for aircraft and was the first to introduce control surfaces to the wing. Mouillard realized the importance of wings and the future of aviation at a time when balloons were considered the only practical way to carry humans and flapping machines had failed, he inspired the work of many others including Otto Lilienthal. Mouillard was described by Wilbur Wright as one of the greatest missionaries of the flying cause. Mouillard believed that flight would unify the world, that the empire of the air would be for all humanity to own and that it would eliminate the need for boundaries and armies, he has been termed as a utopian: C'est même la suppression, dans un temps très court, des nationalités: les races seront rapidement mélangées ou détruites, car il n'y aura plus de barrières possibles, pas même ces barrières mouvantes qui se nomment les armées.
Plus de frontières!... plus d'îles!... plus de forteresses!... où allons-nous? Il faut bien avouer que nous sommes en face de la plus large expression de l'inconnu... Nous pouvons donc nous rasséréner et contempler ce but avec calme: ce phare, c'est cette immense loi de la nature qui se nomme le progrès. Translated: "This will result in the rapid removal of nationalities: races will be mixed or destroyed, as there will be no barriers, not these moving barriers that are called armies. No more borders!... or islands!... or fortresses!... Where are we going? We must admit that we are facing the great unknown But we can reassure ourselves of the results, this is the law of nature we call progress, progress is synonymous with good." Mouillard died unrecognized and in poverty, at Cairo in 1897. In February 1912 a statue was erected in Cairo to his memory; the statue was made by Guillaume Laplagne and was erected on a black basalt base and was located near the Heliopolis Grand Hotel but this no longer exists.
The base of the pedestal bears the word Oser! Meaning "dare" which he had printed on the cover of his book; the vulture in front of the pedestal is based on his illustration used in his 1881 book. Rue Pierre-Mouillard is a Paris street named in his honour. List of early flying machines Mouillard. Essai d'ornithologie appliquee a l'aviation Correspondence between Octave Chanute and Mouillard Mouillard biography Publications by Mouillard
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor and innovator, credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885. Bell's father and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work, his research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which culminated in Bell being awarded the first U. S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Many other inventions marked Bell's life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903. Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, 1847.
The family home was at South Charlotte Street, has a stone inscription marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell and Edward Charles Bell, both of whom would die of tuberculosis, his father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, a phonetician, his mother was Eliza Grace. Born as just "Alexander Bell", at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers. For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the name "Graham", chosen out of respect for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father who had become a family friend. To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck"; as a child, young Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Bell asked, he was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine, put into operation and used for a number of years.
In return, Ben's father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to "invent". From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art and music, encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he became the family's pianist. Despite being quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits. Bell was deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour, he developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics, his family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known his The Standard Elocutionist, which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities, he could decipher Visible Speech representing every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Sanskrit reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation. As a young child, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms.
His school record was undistinguished, marked by lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences biology while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father. Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study; the elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself. At the age of 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy at Elgin, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session; the following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his f