A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana
Natchitoches Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,566; the parish seat is Natchitoches. The parish was formed in 1805; the Natchitoches, LA Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Natchitoches Parish. This is the heart of the Cane River Louisiana Creole community, free people of color of mixed-race descent who settled here in the antebellum period, their descendants continue to be Catholic and many are still French speaking. The Cane River National Heritage Area includes the parish. Among the numerous significant historic sites in the parish is the St. Augustine Parish Church, a destination on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail, founded in 2008. Including extensive outbuildings at Magnolia and Oakland plantations, the Cane River Creole National Historical Park interprets the history and culture of the Louisiana Creoles, it is on the Heritage Trail. Natchitoches Parish was created by the act of April 10, 1805 that divided the Territory of Orleans into twelve parishes, including Orleans, Iberville and Natchitoches.
The parish boundaries were much larger than now defined, but were reduced as new parishes were organized following population increases in the state. The parishes of Caddo, Bossier, Webster, DeSoto, Jackson, Red River and Grant were formed from Natchitoches' enormous territory. Natchitoches Parish has had fifteen border revisions, making it second only to Ouachita parish in number of boundary revisions. During the antebellum period, numerous large cotton plantations were developed in this area, worked by enslaved African Americans; the parish population was majority enslaved by the time of the Civil War. There was a large mixed-race population of free Creoles of color. Among the institutions they founded was the St. Augustine Parish Church, built in 1829, it is a destination on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. In May 1861 free men of color in the area known as Isle Brevelle began to organize two militia companies. Other free men of color of Campti and that area enlisted in the Confederate Army in the war, it is believed were accepted into a predominately white company because of their longstanding acceptance in the community.
Many of the free people of color were related to longtime white families in the parish, who acknowledged them. After the war, during Reconstruction and after, there was white violence against freedmen and their sympathizers blacks in the aftermath of emancipation and establishing a free labor system. Most planters continued to rely on cotton as a commodity crop, although the market declined, adding to area problems. In the late 19th century, a timber industry developed in some areas. Since the late 20th century, the parish has developed considerable heritage tourism, it attracts people for fishing and other sports, including spring training on Cane River Lake by several university teams. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 1,299 square miles, of which 1,252 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water, it is the fourth-largest parish by land area in Louisiana. The primary groundwater resources of Natchitoches Parish, from near surface to deepest, include the Red River alluvial, upland terrace and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifers.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,566 people residing in the parish. 54.3% were White, 41.4% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.9% of some other race and 2.1% of two or more races. 1.9% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,080 people, 14,263 households, 9,499 families residing in the parish; the population density was 31 people per square mile. There were 16,890 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 57.85% White, 38.43% Black or African American, 1.08% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.92% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. 1.45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,263 households out of which 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.30% were married couples living together, 17.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.14. In the parish the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 17.90% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 19.70% from 45 to 64, 12.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 90.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.80 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $25,722, the median income for a family was $32,816. Males had a median income of $29,388 versus $19,234 for females; the per capita income for the parish was $13,743. About 20.90% of families and 26.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.70% of those under age 18 and 19.00% of those age 65 or over. Until the late 20th century, Natchitoches Parish was reliably Democratic in most competitive elections, but the party affiliations have changed and, like much of the rest of the South, have a distinct ethnic and demographic character. Since African Americans achieved certain gains under civil rights legislation and have been enabled to vote again since the late 1960s, they have supported the Democratic Party.
Most white conservatives have left that
Lincoln Parish, Louisiana
Lincoln Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,735; the parish seat is Ruston. The parish was created on February 24, 1873 from parts of Bienville, Claiborne and Jackson parishes, its boundaries have changed only once; this makes Lincoln parish one of the Reconstruction parishes. Lincoln Parish comprises LA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Since the late 20th century, archeologists have dated eleven sites in northern Louisiana where thousands of years ago, indigenous cultures built complexes with multiple, monumental earthwork mounds during the Middle Archaic period, long before the development of sedentary, agricultural societies. At sites such as Watson Brake, Frenchman's Bend, Caney, generations of hunter-gatherers worked for hundreds of years to build and add to mound complexes. Hedgepeth Site, located in Lincoln Parish, is dated about 5200–4500 BP, from the latter part of this period; such finds are changing the understanding of early human cultures.
The parish was one of several new ones established by the state legislature during Reconstruction. It was an attempt to break up the old order of political power, to capitalize on the arrival of the railroad line; the parish is named for the late U. S. president Abraham Lincoln. In 1934, the historian Robert W. Mondy of Louisiana Tech University in Ruston completed a thesis entitled "A History of Lincoln Parish, Louisiana" as part of the requirements for his master of arts degree from the University of Texas at Austin. Another Louisiana Tech faculty member, Robert C. Snyder, was instrumental in the establishment in 1962 of the Lincoln Parish Library, he served as the library board president for many years. Lincoln Parish is Republican in contested elections. In 2012, Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney won the parish with 10,739 votes to U. S. President Barack H. Obama, the Democrat who polled 7,956 ballots. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 472 square miles, of which 472 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water.
Interstate 20 U. S. Highway 80 U. S. Highway 167 Louisiana Highway 33 Union Parish Ouachita Parish Jackson Parish Bienville Parish Claiborne Parish As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,735 people residing in the parish. 55.2% were White, 40.5% Black or African American, 1.7% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% of some other race and 1.1% of two or more races. 2.5% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 42,509 people, 15,235 households, 9,689 families residing in the parish; the population density was 90 people per square mile. There were 17,000 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 57.42% White, 39.84% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.28% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races. 1.16% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,235 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.50% were married couples living together, 15.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.40% were non-families.
27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.01. In the parish the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 25.70% from 18 to 24, 23.20% from 25 to 44, 17.60% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.90 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $26,977, the median income for a family was $38,972. Males had a median income of $32,376 versus $20,877 for females; the per capita income for the parish was $14,313. About 18.20% of families and 26.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.10% of those under age 18 and 18.10% of those age 65 or over. Lincoln Parish residents are zoned to Lincoln Parish School Board schools; the parish is home to Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, Grambling State University in Grambling.
Bethel Christian School is located in Ruston. 527th Engineer Battalion is headquartered in Ruston, the parish seat. This battalion is part of the 225th Engineer Brigade of the Louisiana National Guard. Eddie G. Robinson Museum Lincoln Parish Park Louisiana Military Museum Lincoln Parish Museum Dixie Center for the Arts North Central Louisiana Arts Council Ruston Community Theatre Celebrity Theatre Annual Peach Festival held in Ruston Annual Chicken Festival held in Dubach Kingdom Collectives Film Festival held in Ruston Grambling Ruston Dubach Vienna Choudrant Downsville Simsboro Corinth Mount Zion Pleasant Hill Hilly National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln Parish, Louisiana Dan Hollingsworth George M. Lomax Ragan Madden L. D. "Buddy" Napper Elton C. Pody Lincoln Parish
Homer is a town in and the parish seat of Claiborne Parish in northern Louisiana, United States. Named for the Greek poet Homer, the town was laid out around the Courthouse Square in 1850 by Frank Vaughn; the present-day brick courthouse, built in the Greek Revival style of architecture, is one of only four pre-Civil War courthouses in Louisiana still in use. The building, completed in 1860, was accepted by the Claiborne Parish Police Jury on July 20, 1861, at a cost of $12,304.36, is on the National Register of Historic Places. The other courthouses are in St. Martinville and Thibodaux; the population of Homer was 3,237 at the 2010 census. Claiborne Parish was Confederate during the Civil War. In 1863, a company of volunteers ineligible for conscription was organized in Homer to promote the war effort; some Homer-area farmers hurried to Monroe during the war to trade their cotton for scarce items with the Union. The former newspaper, the Homer Iliad, was published by Arkansas native William Jasper Blackburn during Reconstruction.
Blackburn served a year in the United States House of Representatives. Andrew R. Johnson, a native of Tallapoosa County, was president of Homer State Bank and served on the Claiborne Parish School Board and in the early 1910s as the mayor of Homer; the town had a municipal home-rule charter. Johnson's administration worked to bring electric lights and water works to fruition. In 1916, Johnson was elected without opposition, to the state senate. Johnson declined. Earlier, while residing in northern Natchitoches Parish, Johnson laid out and in 1901 named the village of Ashland. Johnson donated land for the former Ashland High School. Johnson is interred in Coushatta in Red River Parish; the Herbert S. Ford Memorial Museum operates across from the parish courthouse in the former Claiborne Hotel; the museum claims the oldest compressed bale of cotton in existence in the United States. This cotton display is believed to have been baled about 1930. Adjacent to the cotton exhibit is the "Black Gold", a replica of an oilfield roughneck—a general laborer worker who loading and unloads cargo from crane baskets and keeps the drilling equipment clean—employed in the early 1930s by the Sinclair Oil and Gas Company.
The exhibit has a recording which explains how a farm family, growing cotton and corn faced great economic travail in Mississippi but relocated to Claiborne Parish to take advantage of the oil and natural gas boom. "Oil changed our lives forever. We owe a lot to the men and mules that made it happen," concludes the recorded message. In 1921, oil was discovered in Homer; the boom continued through the 1930s and brought many customers to the booming Hotel Claiborne, established in 1890 and declared a state historic site in 1984. Former Homer Mayor Alecia Smith was sentenced in 2017 after she pleaded guilty to two counts of malfeasance in office, she falsified public records. Her two five-year sentences were deferred, she was instead placed on probation, she must repay more than $6,000 to the municipality. Louisiana Attorney General Jeff Landry said that department will "not stand for corrupt public officials.... The people of our state deserve better and should expect more out of those who are appointed or elected to serve."
The former Purple Cow restaurant in Homer was a popular gathering spot for young people, for two decades c. 1962. It was operated by Edna Kirkpatrick Broughton. Elmon was a driller in the oilfields and raised hay; the couple had five children, one of whom, Ronnie Broughton, is the state chairman of the Constitution Party in Louisiana and a member and former president of the Webster Parish School Board. Rex's Barber Shop was a staple of downtown Homer, LA for more than 60 years, until the owners retirement in 2018. From 1957 to 2018, Rex's Barber Shop was owned and operated by local Homer resident Rex Young, a native of nearby Athens, LA; the shop, located on the north side of the downtown Homer square, served as a community gathering place for many younger and older citizens of the area. As with most small town businesses, this barber shop was a lively place for area residents to get the news, discuss local politics and of course, learn the latest football scores involving the area high schools.
Many young boys got their first haircut at Rex's Barber Shop, watched their own children, their grandchildren and --in some cases-- their great grandchildren do the same. Author Marilyn Sewell, a Unitarian Universalist minister in Portland, was reared in Homer. Reflecting on her childhood, she wrote the following in 2010. Our doors were always unlocked during the day; when hoboes came by, we always gave them a big plate of food. Our dog never had a leash, ate scraps from the table. We rode our bikes wherever we wanted, walked or hitched rides several miles to school and to the swimming pool, charged whatever we wanted to eat at the local grocery store on the town square. We knew the banker – he lived next door. Teenagers went to the "Teen Club," sponsored by Coca-Cola, we drank nothing stronger than our sponsor's beverage. After basketball games, we went to the Purple Cow, where we had a burger and curly fries for 36 cents; the most daring thing we did was to drive a couple of miles out into the country and climb the fire tower.
Since nobody was drinking, nobody fell. I di
U.S. Route 79
U. S. Route 79 is a United States highway; the route is considered and labeled as a north-south highway, but it is more of a diagonal northeast-southwest highway. The highway's northern/eastern terminus is in Russellville, Kentucky, at an intersection with U. S. Highway 68 and KY 80, its southern/western terminus is in Round Rock, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 35, ten miles north of Austin. US 79, US 68, Interstate 24/US 62 are the primary east–west access points for the Land Between the Lakes recreation area straddling the Kentucky/Tennessee border. US 79 begins at Interstate 35's Exit #253 north of Austin in Round Rock; the route travels eastward through Hutto and Taylor to Rockdale, where it intersects US 77. In Milano, US 79 begins a concurrency with US 190 until Hearne, Texas; the route continues through Franklin and Jewett before reaching Buffalo, where it intersects Interstate 45 at its Exit #178. US 79 has a brief duplex with US 84 that begins near Oakwood and continues through Palestine before separating.
The route continues to the northeast through Jacksonville, where it has a junction with US 69, Henderson, where it crosses US 259. The highway travels due east to Carthage, where it meets US 59, before resuming a northeasterly direction and crossing into Louisiana near Panola. US 79 is entwined with two tragedies of country music. Johnny Horton was killed by a drunk driver on the highway near Milano in 1960 and Jim Reeves, killed in a plane crash in 1964, is buried and memorialized on US 79 in his hometown of Carthage. US 79 joins US 80 near Greenwood, the two routes are cosigned through Shreveport. US 79/80 continue into Bossier City; the routes parallel Interstate 20 through the old Bossier City Entertainment District until Minden, where the two routes separate: US 80 continues eastward, while US 79 turns to the northeast toward Homer. In Homer, the route resumes a more northerly direction, traveling through Haynesville before crossing the Arkansas border about 7 miles south of Emerson, Arkansas.
US 79 continues northward from Louisiana into Emerson and Magnolia, where it has a brief concurrency with US 82 through the city. From here, the route turns to the northeast, through Camden, where it intersects US 278, Fordyce, in which it has a brief concurrency with US 167. East of Kingsland, the highway travels in a more northerly direction as it prepares to enter the Pine Bluff metropolitan area. In Pine Bluff, U. S. 79 joins the Interstate 530 freeway. After the freeway ends, US 79 and US 63, with which it is cosigned, leave the city toward the north; the two routes stay joined until Stuttgart. US 79 continues to the east and northeast, through Marianna and Hughes, before turning due north to an intersection with Interstate 40 near Jennette. US 79 joins I-40 and the two routes stay cosigned through the concurrency with Interstate 55 in West Memphis, before US 79 joins I-55 to cross the Mississippi River at the Memphis & Arkansas Bridge into Memphis. U. S. Route 79 enters Memphis with U. S. Route 70, U.
S. Route 64 and Tennessee State Route 1, travelling east along E. H. Crump Boulevard, turns north on Third Street and travels through Downtown Memphis along both Second and Third Streets, it continues east on Union Avenue, north along East Parkway, east along Summer Avenue. At Stage Road in Bartlett, it continues along Summer Avenue with US 70 while US 64 turns east along Stage Rd. From here, US 79 continues north from Bartlett, passing through the rest of Shelby County as a 4-lane undivided highway. In Arlington, the road narrows to 2 lanes and passes through Fayette County, Tipton County, Haywood County until Brownsville, Tennessee. In Brownsville, U. S 79, along with U. S. 70 and SR 1, goes to the south along a bypass. On the east side of the city, U. S. 70 and SR 1 turn east while US 79 and 70A continue to the northeast, passing through Crockett and Gibson Counties. The section from Milan, Tennessee to the Carroll County line was widened to 4 lanes. U. S. 70A splits off from US 79 near Atwood, Tennessee and US 79 continues to the northeast into Henry County, passing through the city of Paris and crosses the Tennessee River.
The portion from McKenzie, Tennessee to the Tennessee River is 4-lanes, plans are in the works to widen the portion in between this section and the Milan section. The section from Brownsville to the Tennessee River is part of the "Austin Peay Memorial Highway". Once US 79 comes into Stewart County, it passes to the south of the Land Between the Lakes recreation area and crosses the Cumberland River; the portion between the rivers is known as Donelson Parkway. It enters Montgomery County and the city of Clarksville, Tennessee; this portion between Dover and Clarksville is known as Dover Road. One through Clarksville, US 79 enters Kentucky. Wilma Rudolph Boulevard is the name given to the portion of U. S. Route 79 in Clarksville, Tennessee between the Interstate 24 in Clarksville to the Red River bridge near the Kraft Street intersection; this section of Highway 79 in Clarksville was called the Guthrie Highway, for nearby Guthrie, but in 1994, the name was changed to honor Wilma Rudolph, an Olympic runner from Clarksville, who won three gold medals in the 1960 Rome Summer Olympic Games.
Between Clarksville and Dover, the road is known as "Dover Road". US 7
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl