Trolleybuses in Lugano

The Lugano trolleybus system was a trolleybus system that formed part of the public transport network of Lugano, in the canton of Ticino, for nearly half a century. Opened in 1954, the system had progressively replaced the Lugano tramway network by 1959, was expanded between 1975 and 1981. However, it was closed in 2001, the overhead wires had been removed by the summer of 2002. At its height, the system consisted of four lines. From its opening until the end of 1999, it was operated by Azienda Comunale dei Trasporti della Città di Lugano. Trasporti Pubblici Luganesi S. A. took over on 1 January 2000. The Lugano trolleybus system was one of the last trolleybus systems to be opened in Switzerland. Only the Montreux/Vevey system and the Schaffhausen system were opened later; the Lugano system was made up only of routes converted from tramway lines. The first trolleybus route, opened on 25 April 1954, ran from the centre of Lugano to Cinque Vie, located in a hilly area. Another trolleybus route was put into operation in the autumn of 1959, between central Lugano and Castagnola.

At the end of that year, a route to Paradiso was opened. In 1959, a route was opened to Cornareda, at which a trolleybus depot was built. Not until 1963, with the opening of the Massagno–Crocifisso route, did the system expand to include a route that had not been powered by overhead wires. Following a reorganisation of the system in 1972, the system's network, consisting of three routes with a cumulative length of 13.4 km, was: In 1975, ACT built an extension from Cinque Vie to Breganzona. A year another new section was opened: the route to Cornareda was extended to the new quarter of Pregassona, located on a hill above the city. In 1980, a new trolleybus depot was built, connected to this extension; the old depot became the local workshops of a transport company. The last new trolleybus route to be opened in Lugano was an extension of the Crocifisso route to Vezia; until 1993, each route was assigned two different numbers, one of, displayed by vehicles running in one direction, the other by vehicles travelling in the opposite direction.

In 1993, this uncommon practice was discontinued. Thereafter, the trolleybus routes were as follows: In 2000, the new operator, TPL, decided to close the system; the last day of trolleybus operation was Thursday, 28 June 2001, with trolleybuses running on routes 3 and 5 on the final day. Route 1's trolleybuses had been replaced by motorbuses a few weeks earlier, due to road construction. Use of trolleybuses on route 4 had ended some time earlier. One of the main reasons given for the decision to close the system was its worn-out fleet; the other was the system's high voltage, given that few or no manufacturers were interested in supplying new trolleybuses capable of operating at such a high voltage. The same problem had been cited several years earlier, by at least 1995 ACT had begun considering closure of the system. Another reason for the closure is that maintenance of the system's vehicles and infrastructure had been run down in the 1990s; as a result, the Federal Office of Transport had started to grant only temporary operating authorizations, continued operation would have been subject to various conditions.

After the closure of the system, trolleybuses 201 and 203–209 were sold to a dealer of used buses and trolleybuses in Romania, who in turn sold them to the city of Brașov in Romania, where some of them are still in service. Nos. 101, 112, 124 and 126 were acquired by the Trolleybusverein Schweiz for preservation, as was the FIAT catenary maintenance truck no. 67, built in 1963. The following 36 trolleybuses were procured for the Lugano trolleybus system over the course of its life: An unusual feature of the system was that it was energised at an unusually high 1,000 V DC, the voltage used by the tramway network. In both cases, the reason for the higher than usual voltage was that it avoided voltage problems at crossing points with three railways, the Lugano–Tesserete railway, the Lugano–Cadro–Dino railway and the Lugano–Ponte Tresa railway. Trolleybuses are built to run at voltages of 600 V or 750 V, Lugano's high voltage was non-standard, it was one of only three Swiss systems to use 1,000 V or higher – the others being the rural Altstätten–Berneck system, which closed in 1977, the 1,100 V Thun–Beatenbucht trolleybus system, which closed in 1982 – and Lugano's was the last trolleybus system anywhere to use that voltage.

List of trolleybus systems in Switzerland "Trolleybus city: Lugano". Trolleymotion. Lugano database / photo gallery and Lugano trolleybus list at Urban Electric Transit – in various languages, including English. Swiss Trolleybus Society – official site

Jean-Baptiste Nouvion

Jean-Baptiste Nouvion was a French prefect and a colonial administrator in Algeria. He made the success of the French aperitif Sirop de Picon, he started his career as chief of staff of the Civil governor of Algeria, Gustave Mercier Lacombe from 1859 to 1861. After several positions as sub prefect in Saint Nazaire and Philippeville, he became the prefect of Oran in Algeria from 1873 until 1879. In 1862 the French government invited industry to take part in the Universal Exhibition in London. Jean-Baptiste Nouvion, the sub-prefect of Philippeville, urged Gaëtan Picon to bring his aperitif Sirop de Picon to the exhibition. But, failing to convince the manufacturer to take part, the sub-prefect stubbornly took it upon himself to ship a case of African Amer to London; the product ended up crowned with a bronze medal in the bitter aperitif category adding to Gaëtan Picon's eventual fortune. A city near Oran was named Nouvion as a recognition of his work. After the Independence of Algeria, the name of the city was changed to El Ghomri.

· France: Officier of the Legion of Honour by the emperor Napoléon III in 1865 Spain: Commandeur of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Tunisia: Grand officier of the Order of Glory