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Clairvaux Abbey

Clairvaux Abbey was a Cistercian monastery in Ville-sous-la-Ferté, 15 km from Bar-sur-Aube, in the Aube department in northeastern France. The original building, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, is now in ruins. Clairvaux Abbey was a good example of the general layout of a Cistercian monastery; the Abbey has been listed since 1926 as a historical monument by the French Ministry of Culture. The grounds are now occupied and used by a high-security prison. Cistercian monasteries were all arranged according to a set plan unless the circumstances of the locality forbade it. A strong wall, furnished at intervals with watchtowers and other defenses, surrounded the abbey precincts. Beyond it a moat, artificially diverted from tributaries which flow through the precincts or encircled the wall; this water furnished the monastery with an abundant supply of water for irrigation and for the use of the offices and workshops. An additional wall, running from north to south, bisected the monastery into an "inner" and "outer" ward.

The inner ward housed the monastic buildings, while the agricultural and other artisan endeavors were carried out in the outer ward. The precincts were entered by a gateway at the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower ward. Here the barns, stables, shambles and workmen's lodgings were located. Convenience was the only consideration for design. A single gatehouse afforded communication through the wall separating the outer from the inner ward. On passing through the gateway and visitors entered the outer court of the inner ward, to face the western facade of the monastic church. To the right of entrance was the abbot's residence, in close proximity to the guest-house. On the other side of the court were stables for the accommodation of the horses of the guests and their attendants; the church occupied a central position, with the great cloister to the south, surrounded by the chief monastic buildings. Further to the east, the smaller cloister contained the infirmary, novices' lodgings, quarters for the aged monks.

Beyond the smaller cloister, separated from the monastic buildings by a wall, lay the vegetable gardens and orchards. Large fish ponds were located in the area east of the monastic buildings; the ponds were an important feature of monastic life, much care was given by the monks to their construction and maintenance. They remain as one of the few visible traces of these vast monasteries; the church consists of a vast nave of eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept and short apsidal choir. To the east of each limb of the transept are two square chapels, divided according to Cistercian rule by solid walls. Nine radiating chapels divided, surround the apse; the stalls of the monks occupy the four eastern bays of the nave. There was a second range of stalls in the extreme western bays of the nave for the lay brothers; the cloister was located to the south of the church so that its inhabitants could benefit from ample sunshine. The chapter house opened out of the east walk of the cloister in parallel with the south transept.

Philip I, Count of Flanders Saint Malachy Bernard of Clairvaux Theresa of Portugal, Countess of Flanders List of abbeys and priories Chiaravalle Abbey Claraval Official website for the Abbey de Clairvaux:

Background of the Bahraini uprising of 2011

The background of the Bahraini uprising dates back to the beginning of the twentieth century. The Bahraini people have protested sporadically throughout the last decades demanding social and political rights. Demonstrations were present as early as the 1920s and the first municipal election was held in 1926. Ruled by Al Khalifas since 1783, Bahrain was a British protectorate for most of the twentieth century; the National Union Committee formed in 1954 was the earliest serious challenge to the status quo. Two year after its formation, NUC leaders deported by authorities. In 1971, Bahrain became an independent state and in 1973 the country held its first parliamentary election. However, only two years the constitution was suspended and the assembly dissolved by the late Emir. In 1992, 280 society leaders demanded the return of the parliament and constitution, which the government rejected. Two years a popular uprising erupted. Throughout the uprising large demonstrations and acts of violence occurred.

Over forty people were killed including several detainees while in police custody and at least three policemen. In 1999, Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa succeeded his father, he ended the uprising in 2001 after introducing wide range reforms. The following year, opposition associations "felt betrayed" after the government issued a unilateral new constitution, they boycotted the 2002 parliamentary election, however in 2006 one of them, Al Wefaq won a majority. The participation in elections increased the split between opposition associations. Haq Movement was founded and utilized street protests to seek change instead of bringing change within the parliament; the period between 2007 and 2010 saw sporadic protests. The state of human rights in Bahrain was criticized in the period between 1975 and 2001. Following 2001 reforms, human rights improved significantly, they began deteriorating again in the end of 2007 when torture and repression tactics were being used again. By 2010, torture had become common and Bahrain's human rights record was described as "dismal" by Human Rights Watch.

The Shia minority have long complained of. They accuse the government of naturalizing Sunnis from neighboring countries and gerrymandering electoral districts. Bahrain is poor when compared to its oil-rich Gulf neighbors. Unemployment rate in Bahrain is among the highest in the region. Extreme poverty did not exist in Bahrain where the average daily income is US$12.8, however 11 percent of citizens suffered from relative poverty. The Al Khalifas have ruled Bahrain since 1783 after expelling the Persians. In 1868, Bahrain was dominated by the British; the country was a protectorate "guided" despite having the Al Khalifas as rulers. In 1923, the British replaced Sheikh Issa bin Ali with his son and introduced a series of administrative reforms. Three years the British placed the country under the de facto rule of Charles Belgrave who operated as an adviser to the ruler until 1957. Having no legal code, the country's judiciary was run by Belgrave giving him the ability to control any opposition movement.

In the 1950s sectarian clashes occurred when a group of Sunnis including members of the royal family, among them the ruler's brother, attacked a Shia religious ritual and a neighborhood. Although many thought it was a "deliberate provocation to create sectarian divisions", the violence lasted for two years. In 1954, the National Union Committee was set up by middle-class Shias, they said Belgrave was "helping foment religious hatred and imprisoning innocent people" and demanded his removal as well as installing a democratic system and a code of law. The NUC is regarded by Bahraini scholar Abdulhadi Khalaf as the "earliest serious and still enduring challenge to ethnic politics in Bahrain"; the committee lasted for two years until the British crushed the uprising and deporting its leaders. In 1965 a month-long uprising broke after hundreds of workers at Bahrain Petroleum Company were laid off. Several general strikes were staged, however the movement was crushed again by the British. In 1966, the British persuaded Bahrain to appoint another "adviser", this time a Colonel called Ian Henderson.

The purpose, according to secret British documents was "to give Henderson a free hand to reorganise it into an efficient, modern covert surveillance'anti terrorist' organisation". Henderson was known for his alleged role in ordering torture and assassinations during Kenya's Mau Mau Uprising. Henderson freed all those imprisoned in the 1965 uprising and allowed protest-related militants to return; this move was analyzed as "building up an intricate system of infiltrators and double agents inside the protest movement". In 1971 Bahrain became independent from Britain and in 1973 the country held its first parliamentary election. Most of the elected members were independents and leftists who called for reforms such as limiting the spendings of the royal family. Two years the constitution was suspended and the assembly dissolved by the late Emir, Isa bin Salman al-Khalifa after it rejected the State Security Law; the act known as "the precautionary law" was proposed by Henderson. It gave police wide arresting powers and allowed individuals to be held in prison without trial or charge for up to three years for mere suspicion "that they might be a threat to the state".

An official said the Parliament had "hindered the government" and it would only be restored "nce we feel that we need it, when it is suitable for our society and development". Starting in August 1975, widespread arrests were conducted incl

ProboŇ°t's mechanical Christmas crib

Probošt's mechanical Christmas crib known as Bethlehem of Třebechovice or Probošt's Nativity Scene of Třebechovice, is a wooden mechanical nativity scene, made by Josef Probošt, Josef Kapucián and Josef Friml. The crib was declared a national cultural monument in 1999, it is unique in terms of art and ethnography, but from a technical point of view. It is notable for its great aesthetic quality, unlike most other movable cribs, which sacrificed looks for mobility; this artifact is now housed in the Museum of Christmas Cribs in Třebechovice pod Orebem in the Czech Republic. It is among the most valuable treasures of the country; the crib was first exhibited at the Zemská jednota řemeslnická in Chrast in 1906. There the crib was received positively, was awarded a diploma and a gold medal. Other exhibitions were in the year 1934 in Kostelec nad Orlicí, in 1935 in Prague, in 1936 in Brno and in 1937 in Bratislava, Piešťany and Hlohovec. Continued exhibiting was interrupted by World War II; the crib was exhibited at the World's fair in Montreal, where more than 8 million visitors saw it, at Madurodam in The Hague and at the Ideal Home Show in London.

Each of these displays met with great success. Since 1972, the crib has been exhibited only at the Museum of Christmas Cribs itself, it was built at the turn of the 19th and the 20th century, it took more than forty years to complete. It includes more than 2000 carved parts and figures, which are put in motion by a small electric motor. Altogether, 373 people are depicted; the landscape is divided into seven terraces filled with characters representing both biblical figures and inhabitants of Bohemia. They are carved from linden wood. Figures are 10–15 cm high and not polychromed, unlike the figures of most other nativity scenes. Residents of Pitr's street, visiting Probošts to admire the nativity scene during its construction served as models for many of the characters depicted in the crib. Among them can be seen Probošt as a carpenter and Kapucián as wise old man; the crib includes six flowering spreading linden trees, a usual part of Czech nativity scenes. The crib was built on a right angle but at the turn of the 19th and 20th century it was rebuilt in a single plane.

The whole nativity scene is made of wood and is 6.9 metres long, 2.2 metres high and 1.9 metres deep. Vaclík, Vladimír. Lidové betlémy v Čechách a na Moravě. Prague: Vyšehrad. Pp. 22, 27, 116–119. Hánová, Jiřina. Betlémy: české a moravské lidové betlémy a jejich tvůrci. Prague: Lika klub. pp. 14–17. ISBN 80-86069-21-4. Zemanová, Zita. Třebechovický Proboštův betlém. Hradec Králové: Třebechovické muzeum betlémů. P. 156. ISBN 80-900865-0-0. Šplíchal, Václav. Poselství dřeva. Letohrad: Golempress. Pp. 521–523, 543–545. ISBN 978-80-903883-0-7. Krýza's crèche Weihnachtsberg Probošt's crib on websites of the Museum of Christmas cribs Vítková, Kateřina. "Slavný Proboštův betlém si dva roky nebude možné prohlédnout". Retrieved 14 January 2012

Parkin Jeffcock

Parkin Jeffcock was an English mining engineer who died trying to effect the rescue of miners during the Oaks mining disaster which killed more than 350 people. Parkin was born on 27 October 1829 at Cowley Manor in Ecclesfield in the West Riding of Yorkshire, now a part of Sheffield, he was the son of John Jeffcock J. P. and his wife Catherine Lady of the Manor of Darley. He intended to go to Oriel College and enter holy orders but instead entered a college for civil engineers at Putney, which under the presidency of the Duke of Cambridge and the principalship of the Rev. B. M. Cowrie, was doing good work for that profession. In 1850, after training at the College for Civil Engineers, he was articled to George Hunter, a colliery viewer and engineer from Durham, he made rapid progress in his profession, in 1857 became a partner of J. T. Woodhouse, a mining engineer and agent based in Derby, he moved to Duffield, a town just north of Derby in 1860. In 1861, his bravery was noted when he attempted to rescue the men and boys trapped in a coal-pit at Clay Cross during an inundation.

In 1863, again in 1864, he examined and reported on the Moselle coalfield, near Saarbrucken. He delivered a paper on the local coalfields to the Institute of Mechanical Engineers in Birmingham, he started a horticultural society and became a church warden. Until 1862, when he resigned his commission, he was a Lieutenant in the First West Yorkshire Yeomanry Cavalry. On 12 December 1866, while at his house at Duffield, he learned that the Oaks Pit, near Barnsley, was on fire. With three others, including Mr Smith, an engineer and David Tewart, the steward of the colliery, he descended to make an exploration of the workings, they were one of the last parties to venture into the pit. One of the party returned to the surface to send down volunteers, but Jeffcock remained below directing the rescue attempts. Before help arrived on the morning of 13 December, a second explosion killed Jeffcock and all but one of the 30 volunteers who were still underground; the sole survivor was rescued on 14 December 1866 by Thomas William Embleton and John Edward Mannatt.

In all 361 people died, including 29 rescuers. The pit was sealed. Jeffcock's body was not recovered until 5 October 1867, when it was buried at the Church of St. Mary, Ecclesfield. St Saviour's Church was built as a memorial to Jeffcock near Sheffield, it was completed in 1872. A memorial on Doncaster Road in Barnsley was built in 1913 to commemorate the bravery and sacrifice of Jeffcock and the other rescuers. Not only were his father and grandfather colliery owners and engineers but so were his three uncles Thomas William Jeffcock, J. P. D. L. Thomas Dunn Jeffcock and William Jeffcock J. P. the first mayor of Sheffield. "On the coal and iron mining of South Yorkshire", presented to the Institute of Mechanical Engineers. He noted that the collieries used large steam driven fans that had worked for many years. Parkin Jeffcock and Mining Engineer By John Thomas Jeffcock, pub 1867, Bemrose and Lothian

Transylvania Pioneers football

The Transylvania Pioneers football team represents Transylvania University. They were known as "Kentucky University" until 1908, they have not competed in football since 1941. It last competed as a member of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Transylvania won the first recorded football game in the state of Kentucky by defeating the Centre Praying Colonels of Centre College 13¾ – 0 on April 9, 1880; the team's rivalry with Kentucky began the following year of 1881. The two schools played three games, with Transylvania winning two of them, its 1903 team claimed a southern championship. Lexington mayor Hogan Yancey was a star fullback on that team. Happy Chandler played both football and baseball at Transylvania in 1921. If Transylvania won an away football game the campus community was notified by the blowing of the steam whistle at the Power Plant; the program had a 26-37-2 record in its final eight seasons. Transylvania's biggest rival was Georgetown

Jeremiah O'Brien

Captain Jeremiah O'Brien was an Irish-American captain in the Massachusetts State Navy. Prior to its existence, he commanded the sloop Unity when he captured the British armed schooner HMS Margaretta in the Battle of Machias, the first naval battle of the American Revolutionary War, he led the first American attack on Nova Scotia in the Raid on St. John. O'Brien has been the name of six United States ships in honor of Jeremiah O'Brien: USS O'Brien, a torpedo boat, built in 1900 and served until 1909. USS O'Brien, an O'Brien-class destroyer, which served from 1915 until 1922. USS O'Brien, a Sims-class destroyer, served from 1940 until she was sunk by an enemy torpedo in 1942. SS Jeremiah O'Brien, an EC2-S-CI-class Liberty ship, which served during World War II from 1943 until 1946. USS O'Brien, an Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer, served from 1944 until 1972. USS O'Brien, a Spruance-class destroyer, launched in 1976 and served until 2004. Jeremiah was the eldest son of Mary O'Brien, he was born at Kittery, Maine in 1744.

His family moved to Scarborough and settled in Machias, Maine in the 1760s to engage in lumbering. Maine was a part of Massachusetts at the time. Reports of the battles of Lexington and Concord reached Machias in early May 1775. Benjamin Foster erected a liberty pole. Machias merchant captain Ichabod Jones sailed his ships Unity and Polly to Boston with a cargo of lumber and purchased food for sale in Machias. British troops encouraged Jones to deliver another cargo of lumber for construction of their barracks in Boston. Admiral Samuel Graves ordered HMS Margaretta, under the command of James Moore, to accompany Jones' ships to discourage interference from Machias rebels; when the ships reached Machias on 2 June 1775, James Moore ordered. Foster plotted to capture the British officers when they attended church on 11 June, but the British avoided capture and retreated downriver aboard Margaretta. On 12 June Foster pursued Margaretta aboard the packet boat Falmouth. After Falmouth ran aground, O'Brien and his five brothers, John, William and Joseph, seized the Unity.

Under the command of Jeremiah O'Brien, thirty-one townsmen sailed aboard Unity armed with guns, swords and pitch forks and captured Margaretta in an hour-long battle after Margaretta had threatened to bombard the town. John O'Brien jumped aboard Margaretta as the two ships closed, but was forced to jump overboard by the British crew. After rescuing John, Unity again closed Margaretta. Unity was bombarded by grenades from the British ship, but Margaretta surrendered after James Moore was mortally wounded; this battle is considered the first time British colors were struck to those of the United States though the Continental Navy did not exist at the time. The United States Merchant Marine claims this incident as their beginning. In August 1775, O'Brien participated in the Raid on St. John. O'Brien continued as the captain of Unity, renamed Machias Liberty, for two years, received the first captain's commission in the Massachusetts State Navy in 1775. President James Madison appointed O'Brien as the federal customs collector for the port of Machias in 1811, he held the position until his death in 1818.

Five ships in the United States Navy have been named USS O'Brien for him. In World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Jeremiah O'Brien was named in his honor. Bangor and Aroostook Railroad bicentennial locomotive number 1776 was named Jeremiah O'Brien Irish military diaspora Lieutenant Commander M. D. Giambattista, U. S. Navy. "Captain Jeremiah O'Brien and the Machias Liberty". U. S. Naval Institute. Joshua M Smith. Borderland Smuggling: patriots and illicit trade in the northeast, 1783-1820. ISBN 978-0-8130-6443-7. OCLC 1096361672. Allen, Gardner Weld. A Naval History of the American Revolution. Houghton Mifflin. Pp. 8–12