Clairvoyance is the ability to gain information about an object, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception. Any person, claimed to have such ability is said accordingly to be a clairvoyant. Claims for the existence of paranormal and psychic abilities such as clairvoyance have not been supported by scientific evidence published in high-impact-factor peer-reviewed journals. Parapsychology explores this possibility, but the existence of the paranormal is not accepted by the scientific community. Parapsychology, including the study of clairvoyance, is an example of pseudoscience. Pertaining to the ability of clear-sightedness, clairvoyance refers to the paranormal ability to see persons and events that are distant in time or space, it can be divided into three classes: precognition, the ability to perceive or predict future events, the ability to see past events, remote viewing, the perception of contemporary events happening outside of the range of normal perception. Throughout history, there have been numerous places and times in which people have claimed themselves or others to be clairvoyant.

A number of Christian saints were said to be able to see or know things that were far removed from their immediate sensory perception as a kind of gift from God, including Columba of Iona, Padre Pio and Anne Catherine Emmerich. Jesus Christ in the Gospels is recorded as being able to know things that were far removed from his immediate human perception. In other religions, similar stories of certain individuals being able to see things far removed from their immediate sensory perception are commonplace within pagan religions where oracles were used. Prophecy involved some degree of clairvoyance when future events were predicted. In most of these cases, the ability to see things was attributed to a higher power and not thought of as an ability that lay within the person himself. In Jainism, clairvoyance is regarded as one of the five kinds of knowledge; the beings of hell and heaven are said to possess clairvoyance by birth. According to Jain text Sarvārthasiddhi, "this kind of knowledge has been called avadhi as it ascertains matter in downward range or knows objects within limits".

The earliest record of somnambulistic clairvoyance is credited to the Marquis de Puységur, a follower of Franz Mesmer, who in 1784 was treating a local dull-witted peasant named Victor Race. During treatment, Race would go into trance and undergo a personality change, becoming fluent and articulate, giving diagnosis and prescription for his own disease as well as those of others. Clairvoyance was a reported ability of some mediums during the spiritualist period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, psychics of many descriptions have claimed clairvoyant ability up to the present day. Early researchers of clairvoyance included William Gregory, Gustav Pagenstecher, Rudolf Tischner. Clairvoyance experiments were reported in 1884 by Charles Richet. Playing cards were enclosed in envelopes and a subject put under hypnosis attempted to identify them; the subject was reported to have been successful in a series of 133 trials but the results dropped to chance level when performed before a group of scientists in Cambridge.

J. M. Peirce and E. C. Pickering reported a similar experiment in which they tested 36 subjects over 23,384 trials which did not obtain above chance scores. Ivor Lloyd Tuckett and Joseph McCabe analyzed early cases of clairvoyance and came to the conclusion they were best explained by coincidence or fraud. In 1919, the magician P. T. Selbit staged a séance at his own flat in Bloomsbury; the spiritualist Arthur Conan Doyle attended the séance and declared the clairvoyance manifestations to be genuine. A significant development in clairvoyance research came when J. B. Rhine, a parapsychologist at Duke University, introduced a standard methodology, with a standard statistical approach to analyzing data, as part of his research into extrasensory perception. A number of psychological departments attempted to repeat Rhine's experiments with failure. W. S. Cox from Princeton University with 132 subjects produced 25,064 trials in a playing card ESP experiment. Cox concluded "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the'average man' or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that group.

The discrepancy between these results and those obtained by Rhine is due either to uncontrollable factors in experimental procedure or to the difference in the subjects." Four other psychological departments failed to replicate Rhine's results. It was revealed that Rhine's experiments contained procedural errors. Eileen Garrett was tested by Rhine at Duke University in 1933 with Zener cards. Certain symbols that were placed on the cards and sealed in an envelope, she was asked to guess their contents, she performed poorly and criticized the tests by claiming the cards lacked a psychic energy called "energy stimulus" and that she could not perform clairvoyance to order. The parapsychologist Samuel Soal and his colleagues tested Garrett in May, 1937. Most of the experiments were carried out in the Psychological Laboratory at the University College London. A total of over 12,000 guesses were recorded but Garrett failed to produce above chance level. In his report Soal wrote "In the case of Mrs. Eileen Garrett we fail to find the slightest confirmation of Dr. J. B.

Rhine's remarkable claims relating to her alleged powers of extra-sensory perception. Not only did she fail when I took charge of the experiments, but she failed when four other trained experimenters took my place." Remote viewing known

Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death is the death of a cell in any form mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a biological process, which confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle. For example, the differentiation of fingers and toes in a developing human embryo occurs because cells between the fingers apoptose. PCD serves fundamental functions during both animal tissue development. Apoptosis and autophagy are both forms of programmed cell death. Necrosis is the death of a cell caused by external factors such as trauma or infection and occurs in several different forms. Necrosis was long seen as a non-physiological process that occurs as a result of infection or injury, but in the 2000s, a form of programmed necrosis, called necroptosis, was recognized as an alternative form of programmed cell death, it is hypothesized that necroptosis can serve as a cell-death backup to apoptosis when the apoptosis signaling is blocked by endogenous or exogenous factors such as viruses or mutations.

Most other types of regulated necrosis have been discovered as well, which share several signaling events with necroptosis and apoptosis. The concept of "programmed cell-death" was used by Lockshin & Williams in 1964 in relation to insect tissue development, around eight years before "apoptosis" was coined. Since PCD has become the more general of these two terms; the first insight into the mechanism came from studying BCL2, the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome translocations found in follicular lymphoma. Unlike other cancer genes, which promote cancer by stimulating cell proliferation, BCL2 promoted cancer by stopping lymphoma cells from being able to kill themselves. PCD has been the subject of increasing research efforts; this trend has been highlighted with the award of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston. Apoptosis or Type I cell-death. Autophagic or Type II cell-death. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death.

Biochemical events lead to death. These changes include blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, chromosomal DNA fragmentation, it is now thought that- in a developmental context- cells are induced to positively commit suicide whilst in a homeostatic context. There appears to be some variation in the morphology and indeed the biochemistry of these suicide pathways. There is some evidence that certain symptoms of "apoptosis" such as endonuclease activation can be spuriously induced without engaging a genetic cascade, however true apoptosis and programmed cell death must be genetically mediated, it is becoming clear that mitosis and apoptosis are toggled or linked in some way and that the balance achieved depends on signals received from appropriate growth or survival factors. Macroautophagy referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein aggregates, excess or damaged organelles.

Autophagy is activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has been associated with physiological as well as pathological processes such as development, neurodegenerative diseases, stress and cancer. A critical regulator of autophagy induction is the kinase mTOR, which when activated, suppresses autophagy and when not activated promotes it. Three related serine/threonine kinases, UNC-51-like kinase -1, -2, -3, which play a similar role as the yeast Atg1, act downstream of the mTOR complex. ULK1 and ULK2 form a large complex with the mammalian homolog of an autophagy-related gene product and the scaffold protein FIP200. Class III PI3K complex, containing hVps34, Beclin-1, p150 and Atg14-like protein or ultraviolet irradiation resistance-associated gene, is required for the induction of autophagy; the ATG genes control the autophagosome formation through LC3-II complexes. ATG12 is conjugated to ATG5 in a ubiquitin-like reaction that requires ATG7 and ATG10; the Atg12–Atg5 conjugate interacts non-covalently with ATG16 to form a large complex.

LC3/ATG8 is cleaved at its C terminus by ATG4 protease to generate the cytosolic LC3-I. LC3-I is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine in a ubiquitin-like reaction that requires Atg7 and Atg3; the lipidated form of LC3, known as LC3-II, is attached to the autophagosome membrane. Autophagy and apoptosis are connected both positively and negatively, extensive crosstalk exists between the two. During nutrient deficiency, autophagy functions as a pro-survival mechanism, excessive autophagy may lead to cell death, a process morphologically distinct from apoptosis. Several pro-apoptotic signals, such as TNF, TRAIL, FADD induce autophagy. Additionally, Bcl-2 inhibits Beclin-1-dependent autophagy, thereby functioning both as a pro-survival and as an anti-autophagic regulator. Besides the above two types of PCD, other pathways have been discovered. Called "non-apoptotic programmed cell-death", these alternative routes to death are as efficient as apoptosi

Saqr Ajail

Saqr Ajail Al-Janabi is an Iraqi footballer who plays as a Goalkeeper for Al-Minaa in the Iraqi Premier League. In 2009, Saqr started playing for the Iraq U16, played for the 2012 AFC U-19 Championship with Iraq U19 and won the runner-up title in this championship, he was called by coach Hakeem Shaker to play in the 2013 AFC U-22 Championship in Oman and he won the championship title with the team. On September 15, 2015 Saqr was called by coach Yahya Alwan to play in the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification. Iraq Youth team2012 AFC U-19 Championship: runner-upIraq U-23AFC U-22 Championship: 2013 on on