Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev was a Russian political and Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person. Alternate historical spellings of his name in English include "Berdiaev" and "Berdiaeff", of his given name as "Nicolas" and "Nicholas". Nikolai Berdyaev was born at Kiev Governorate in 1874, in an aristocratic military family, his father, Alexander Mikhailovich Berdyaev, came from a long line of Kharkiv nobility. All of Alexander Mikhailovich's ancestors served as high-ranking military officers, but he resigned from the army quite early and became active in the social life of the Kiev aristocracy. Nikolai's mother, Alina Sergeevna Berdyaeva, was half-French and came from the top levels of both French and Russian nobility, he had Polish and Tatar origins. Influenced by Voltaire, his father was an educated man that considered himself a freethinker and expressed great skepticism towards religion. Nikolai's mother, Eastern Orthodox by birth, was in her views on religion more Catholic than Orthodox.
He spent a solitary childhood at home. He read Hegel and Kant when he was only 14 and excelled at languages. Berdyaev decided on an intellectual career and entered the Kiev University in 1894, it was a time of revolutionary fervor among the intelligentsia. He became a Marxist and he was arrested in a student demonstration and expelled from the university, his involvement in illegal activities led in 1897 to three years of internal exile to Vologda, in northern Russia, a milder sentence compared than that faced by many other revolutionaries. In 1904, he married Lydia Yudifovna Trusheff; the couple moved to Saint Petersburg, the Russian capital, the centre of intellectual and revolutionary activity. He participated in intellectual and spiritual debate departing from radical Marxism to focus his attention on philosophy and Christian spirituality. A fiery 1913 article, entitled "Quenchers of the Spirit", criticising the rough purging of Imiaslavie Russian monks on Mount Athos by the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church using tsarist troops, caused him to be charged with the crime of blasphemy, the punishment for, exile to Siberia for life.
The World War and the Bolshevik Revolution prevented the matter coming to trial. After the October Revolution of 1917, as the Bolshevik régime began consolidating its power with a growing suppression of non-Lenin Marxist Intelligentsia, Berdyaev remained steadfast in his criticism of its totalitarianism and the domination of the state over the freedom of the individual. Nonetheless, he was permitted, for the time being, to continue to write, his disaffection culminated, in 1919, with the foundation of his own private academy, the "Free Academy of Spiritual Culture". It was a forum for him to lecture on the hot topics of the day and to present them from a Christian point of view, he presented his opinions in public lectures, every Tuesday, the academy hosted a meeting at his home because official Soviet anti-religious activity was intense at the time and the official policy of the Bolshevik government, with its Soviet anti-religious legislation promoted State atheism. In 1920, Berdiaev became professor of philosophy at the University of Moscow.
In the same year, he was accused of participating in a conspiracy against the government. The feared head of the Cheka, Felix Dzerzhinsky, came in person to interrogate him, he gave his interrogator a solid dressingdown on the problems with Bolshevism. Novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his book The Gulag Archipelago recounts the incident as follows: was arrested twice, but Berdyaev did not humiliate himself, he did not beg, he professed the moral and religious principles by virtue of which he did not adhere to the party in power. Now there is a man who had a "point of view"! The Soviet authorities expelled Berdyaev from Russia, in September 1922, he became one of a group of prominent writers and intellectuals who were sent into forced exile on the so-called "philosophers' ships". At first and other émigrés went to Berlin, where he founded an academy of philosophy and religion, but economic and political conditions in the Weimar Republic caused him and his wife to move to Paris in 1923, he transferred his academy there, taught and wrote, working for an exchange of ideas with the French and European intellectual community, participated in a number of international conferences.
During the German occupation of France during World War II, Berdyaev continued to write books that were published after the war, some of them after his death. In the years that he spent in France, Berdyaev wrote 15 books, including most of his most important works, he died at his writing desk in his home in Clamart, near Paris, in 1948. Primary source biographical works in English are Berdyaev's intellectual autobiography, published under the title Dream and Reality, Donald A. Lowrie's 1960 book, Rebellious Prophet: A Life of Nikolai Berdyaev, written in close collaboration with Berdyaev's sister-in-law, Evgenia Rapp, others of their close acquaintance under the auspices of the Berdiaev Société. David Bonner Richardson described Berdyaev's philosophy as Christian personalism, he emphasized the importance of creativity. According
Clamart is a railway station serving Clamart, a southwestern suburb of Paris, France. It is situated on the Paris–Brest railway, it is served by Transilien trains from Paris-Montparnasse to Rambouillet and Mantes-la-Jolie. Clamart station at Transilien, the official website of SNCF
Julien Kapek is a French triple jumper. His personal best is 17.38 metres, achieved in July 2006 in Tomblaine. This result places him fourth on the all-time French performers list, only behind Serge Hélan and Karl Taillepierre. List of doping cases in athletics Julien Kapek at IAAF
Jean Arp or Hans Arp was a German-French sculptor, painter and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. Arp was born in Strasbourg, the son of a French mother and a German father, during the period following the Franco-Prussian War when the area was known as Alsace-Lorraine after France had ceded it to in 1871. Following the return of Alsace to France at the end of World War I, French law determined that his name become Jean. Arp would continue referring to himself as "Hans". In 1904, after leaving the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg, he went to Paris where he published his poetry for the first time. From 1905 to 1907, Arp studied at the Kunstschule in Weimar, in 1908 went back to Paris, where he attended the Académie Julian. Arp was a founder-member of the Moderne Bund in Lucerne, participating in their exhibitions from 1911 to 1913. In 1912, he went to Munich, called on Wassily Kandinsky, the influential Russian painter and art theorist, was encouraged by him in his researches and exhibited with the Der Blaue Reiter group.
That year, he took part in a major exhibition in Zürich, along with Henri Matisse, Robert Delaunay and Kandinsky. In Berlin in 1913, he was taken up by Herwarth Walden, the dealer and magazine editor, at that time one of the most powerful figures in the European avant-garde. In 1915, he moved to Switzerland to take advantage of Swiss neutrality. Arp told the story of how, when he was notified to report to the German consulate in Zurich, he pretended to be mentally ill in order to avoid being drafted into the German Army: after crossing himself whenever he saw a portrait of Paul von Hindenburg, Arp was given paperwork on which he was told to write his date of birth on the first blank line. Accordingly, he wrote "16/9/87". Hans Richter, describing this story, noted that "they believed him." In 1916, Hugo Ball opened the Cabaret Voltaire, to become the center of Dada activities in Zurich for a group that included Arp, Marcel Janco, Tristan Tzara, others. In 1920, as Hans Arp, along with Max Ernst and the social activist Alfred Grünwald, he set up the Cologne Dada group.
However, in 1925, his work appeared in the first exhibition of the surrealist group at the Galérie Pierre in Paris. In 1926, Arp moved to the Paris suburb of Meudon. In 1931, he broke with the Surrealist movement to found Abstraction-Création, working with the Paris-based group Abstraction-Création and the periodical, Transition. Beginning in the 1930s, the artist expanded his efforts from collage and bas-relief to include bronze and stone sculptures, he produced several small works made of multiple elements that the viewer could pick up, rearrange into new configurations. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp visited New York City in 1949 for a solo exhibition at the Buchholz Gallery. In 1950, he was invited to execute a relief for the Harvard University Graduate Center in Cambridge and would be commissioned to do a mural at the UNESCO building in Paris.
In 1958, a retrospective of Arp's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, followed by an exhibition at the Musée National d'Art Moderne, France, in 1962. Organized by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts and the Wurttembergischer Kunstverein of Stuttgart, a 150-piece exhibition titled "The Universe of Jean Arp" concluded an international six-city tour at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 1986; the Musée d'art moderne et contemporain of Strasbourg houses many of his sculptures. Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926. In the 1930s, they built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it.
She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946. Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach, his long-time companion, in 1959, he died in Basel, Switzerland. - "I hereby declare that on February 1916, Tristan Tzara discovered the word Dada. I was present with my twelve children...and I wore a brioche in my left nostril. I am convinced that this word has no importance and that only imbeciles and Spanish professors can be interested in dates. What interests us is the Dada spirit and we were all Dada before the existence of Dada.." - "Art is fruit growing out of man like the fruit out of a plant like the child out of the mother... Reason tells man to stand above nature and to be the measure of all things....through reason man became a tragic and ugly figure.." - "These paintings, these sculptures – these objects – should remain anonymous, in the great workshop of nature, like the clouds, the mountains, the seas, the animals, man himself.
Yes! Man should go back to nature! Artists should work together like the artists of the Middle Ages." -"Sculpture should walk on the tips of its toes, unpre
Le Plessis-Robinson is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.5 km from the center of Paris. As of 2009, it has 26,581 inhabitants. Plessis was first mentioned in 839. A plessis was a village surrounded by a fence made of branches. In 1112 the village church was founded, of which the romanesque tower still survives as the oldest monument of Le Plessis. At the end of the 12th the village was renamed Le Plessis-Raoul, after the local lord Raoul, chamberlain of king Philip II of France. In 1407 it came into the hands of Jean Piquet de La Haye, who built a castle in the village, now called Le Plessis-Piquet. In 1614 a monastery of the Congregation of the Feuillants was built in the village. In 1682 Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Minister of Finances under Louis XIV had a pond dug which fed the fountains of the nearby Château de Sceaux. Pierre de Montesquiou d'Artagnan purchased the estate in 1699, expanded the gardens. In 1790, as a result of the French Revolution, Antoine Moullé was elected the first mayor of Le Plessis.
The commune was renamed Le Plessis-Liberté. The monastery was demolished; the commune was renamed back to Le Plessis-Piquet in 1801. In 1848, a guinguette was established in the area as a suite of interconnected tree houses, it was named Le grand Robinson after the tree house described in Swiss Family Robinson, a novel itself named after Robinson Crusoe. Several other popular establishments arose in the area, remained popular until the 1960s. In 1909, the commune of Le Plessis-Piquet was renamed Le Plessis-Robinson, after Le grand Robinson. In 1854, Louis Hachette bought the grounds, he became the mayor of Le Plessis-Piquet and a city councillor. The village and the castle were ruined in the War of 1870, but the castle was rebuilt by the Hachette family. Le Plessis-Robinson is not served by RER, or the suburban rail network; the closest station to Le Plessis-Robinson is Robinson station on Paris RER line B. This station is located in the neighboring commune of Sceaux, 1.5 km from the town center of Le Plessis-Robinson.
Primary schools include two groups of nurseries and preschools, five standalone nurseries/preschools, four standalone elementaries, Ecole Raymond Aumont. Secondary schools: Two junior high schools: Collège Claude Nicolas Ledoux and Collège Romain Rolland One senior high school: Lycée Montesquieu Château park Le Plessis-Robinson is twinned with the following towns: Woking, United Kingdom Arabkir, Armenia Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department Le Plessis-Robinson City Hall
Hauts-de-Seine is a department of France. It is part of the Métropole du Grand Paris and of the Île-de-France region, covers the western inner suburbs of Paris, it is small and densely populated and contains the modern office and shopping complex known as La Défense. Hauts-de-Seine and two other small départements, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne and are together with the City of Paris included in the Greater Paris since 1 January 2016. Hauts-de-Seine is made up of three departmental arrondissements and 36 communes: Hauts-de-Seine has a general council of which members are called general councillors; the general council is the deliberative organ of the department. The general councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the departement for a 6-years term; the general council is ruled by a president. See Hauts-de-Seine General Council; the Hauts-de-Seine department was created in 1968, from parts of the former départements of Seine and Seine-et-Oise.
Its creation reflected the implementation of a law passed in 1964, Nanterre had been selected as the prefecture for the new department early in 1965. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Hauts-de-Seine received national attention as the result of a corruption scandal concerning the misuse of public funds provided for the department's housing projects. Implicated were former minister and former president of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council, Charles Pasqua, other personalities of the RPR party. Hauts-de-Seine is one of Europe's richest areas, its GDP per capita was US$119,778 in 2015, according to INSEE official figures. Hauts-de-Seine was the political base of Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic from 2007 to 2012, he was the mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine in the department. Charles Pasqua was based in Hauts-de-Seine. Website of the General council Prefecture website
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona