The flip or clamshell is a form factor of a mobile phone or other device, in two or more sections that fold via a hinge. If the hinge is on a long edge the device is more to be called clamshell than flip phone. Speaking, the interface components such as keys and display are kept inside the closed clamshell, protecting them from damage and unintentional use while making the device shorter or narrower so it is easier to carry around. In many cases, opening the clamshell offers more surface area than when the device is closed, allowing interface components to be larger and easier to use than on devices which do not flip open. A disadvantage of the clamshell design is the connecting hinge, prone to fatigue or failure; the clamshell form factor is most associated with the cell phone market, as Motorola used to have a trademark on the term "flip phone", but the term "flip phone" has become genericized to be used more than "clamshell" in colloquial speech. A reference to a flip phone style communicator is referenced in chapter 3 of "Armageddon 2419 A.
D." a science fiction novella by Philip Francis Nowlan which first appeared in the August 1928 issue of the pulp magazine Amazing Stories. The device is described in the following quoted passage "Alan took a compact packet about six inches square from a holster attached to her belt and handed it to Wilma. So far as I could see, it had no special receiver for the ear. Wilma threw back a lid, as though she was opening a book, began to talk; the voice that came back from the machine was as audible as her own."The form factor was first used by the laptop manufacturer GRiD for their Compass model in 1982. In 1983, the Ampere WS-1 laptop used a modern clamshell design; the first Motorola model to support the clamshell design was the MicroTAC, created in 1989, although General Telephone & Electronics held the trademark from the 1970s for its Flip-Phone, until 1993. The clamshell form factor began to experience a decline in popularity in the late-2000's, due to the increasing popularity of touchscreen smartphones such as the iPhone, which use a slate-like form factor and large, non-folding screens.
Clamshells remain a predominant form factor for feature phones—which remain popular among specialized audiences who prefer their simplicity or durability over smartphones. Samsung released a low-end smartphone in South Korea known as the Galaxy Folder, which has a flip phone design and keypad reminiscent of feature phones whilst running Android. In the late-2010's, a new trend of foldable smartphones using rollable OLED displays began to emerge: the Samsung Galaxy Fold uses a clamshell form factor with a vertical fold and a small secondary screen on its cover, exposing a larger, tablet-like screen when opened. Motorola unveiled a reimagining of the Motorola Razr in November 2019, which uses a foldable display and a clamshell design reminiscent of its namesake line of feature phones. In automotive design, a clamshell bonnet or clamshell hood describes a design where the engine cover incorporates all or part of one of the wings, it is common in cars based on a spaceframe where the bodywork is lightweight and carries no significant loading, such as the Ford GT40 and Ferrari Enzo, where the whole rear end can be lifted to access the engine compartment and suspension system.
It is sometimes seen in unibody cars, albeit much more - such as the BMW Minis and Alfa Romeo GTV. It is an informal name for General Motors full-size station wagons, manufactured from 1971 to 1976, that featured a complex, two-piece "disappearing" tailgate known as the "Glide Away" tailgate. Besides smartphones, devices using the flip form include laptop computers, the Game Boy Advance SP, the Nintendo DS, the Nintendo 3DS, though these are less described as "flip" or "clamshell" compared to smartphones. Other appliances like pocket watches, waffle irons, sandwich toasters, krumkake irons, the George Foreman Grill have long utilised a clamshell design. Bookbinders build archival "clamshell" boxes called Solander cases, in which valuable books or loose papers can be protected from light and dust. Communicator, the fictional forerunner of the "flip form" smartphone
The block Wiedemann algorithm for computing kernel vectors of a matrix over a finite field is a generalisation of an algorithm due to Don Coppersmith. Let M be an n × n square matrix over some finite field F, let x b a s e be a random vector of length n, let x = M x b a s e. Consider the sequence of vectors S = obtained by multiplying the vector by the matrix M. Say ∑ r = 0 n 0 p r M r = 0. ∑ r = 0 n 0 y ⋅ = 0. But the Berlekamp–Massey algorithm allows us to calculate efficiently some sequence q 0 … q L with ∑ i = 0 L q i S y = 0 ∀ r. Our hope is that this sequence, which by construction annihilates y ⋅ S annihilates S. We take advantage of the initial definition of x to say M ∑ i = 0 L q i M i x b a s e = 0 and so ∑ i = 0 L q i M i x b a s e is a non-zero kernel vector of M; the natural implementation of sparse matrix arithmetic on a computer makes it easy to compute the sequence S in parallel for a number of vectors equal to the width of a machine word – indeed, it will take no longer to compute for that many vectors than for one.
If you have several processors, you can compute the sequence S for a different set of random vectors in parallel on all the computers. It turns out, by a generalization of the Berlekamp–Massey algorithm to provide a sequence of small matrices, that you can take the sequence produced for a large number of vectors and generate a kernel vector of the original large matrix. You need to compute y i ⋅ M t x j for some i = 0 … i max, j = 0 … j max, t = 0 … t max where i max, j max, t max need to satisfy t max > d i max + d j max + O and y i are a series of vectors of length n.
Murdock MacKinnon was a Canadian politician and served as the 11th Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island. MacKinnon was born in Brooklyn, Prince Edward Island to parents of Scottish descent, Lauchlin MacKinnon and Mary MacDonald, he received his higher education from Prince of Wales College and became a farmer. On October 21, 1914, he married Perle Beecher Taylor, together they had one son. In the July 28, 1897 General Elections, MacKinnon was elected to represent the Conservative Party in the 4th Kings District in the Provincial Legislature. From that point until the 1919 General Elections, MacKinnon was continuously re-elected and retained his seat in the Legislature. Between 1911 and 1919, he served as Commissioner of Agriculture and Provincial Secretary Treasurer in the provincial cabinet. On September 8, 1919, Murdoch MacKinnon was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island and served in that capacity until 1924, he is best known for making constitutional history in the province in 1923 for refusing his assent to the Church Union Bill.
He died in Charlottetown. Biography at PEI Lieutenant Governors
The Ford Excursion is a heavy duty, extended-length sport utility vehicle, produced by Ford for the North American market. Introduced for the 2000 model year, the Excursion remains the longest and heaviest SUV to enter mass production. Based upon the F-250 Super Duty pickup truck, the Excursion was developed as a competitor for the 2500-series Chevrolet Suburban/GMC Yukon XL; the lowest-selling of Ford and Lincoln SUVs during its production, the Excursion was withdrawn after the 2005 model year. For the 2007 model year, Ford introduced the extended-length Expedition EL/MAX to match the Chevrolet Suburban in terms of size; as of 2020 production, Ford has not produced an SUV based on the Super Duty model line. During its production, the Ford Excursion was assembled alongside Super Duty pickup trucks at the Kentucky Truck Plant in Louisville, Kentucky. For 1978, the second-generation Ford Bronco was introduced. To compete directly against the Chevrolet K5 Blazer/GMC Jimmy and Dodge Ramcharger, the Bronco increased in size, entering the full-size SUV segment.
To lower its production costs, the model line adopted the chassis and powertrains of the Ford F-100. Remaining a three-door wagon, the Bronco competed against the Blazer/Jimmy, with the closest competitor to the Chevrolet/GMC Suburban being the International Harvester Travelall. During the 1980s, license-built four-door conversions of the Ford Bronco were developed, but few were sold. For 1991, the Ford Explorer became the first four-door SUV sold by Ford. For 1997, Ford redesigned its full-size SUV model line, with the Bronco replaced by the Ford Expedition. Again derived from the F-150, the Expedition was a five-door wagon, coinciding with declining demand for full-size three-door vehicles. While given three rows of passenger seating, the model line was sized between the Chevrolet Tahoe and Chevrolet Suburban. For 1999, Ford introduced the Super Duty range of the F-Series. Intended for work usage and towing, Super Duty F-Series trucks received a heavier-duty chassis and suspension along with a distinct body design.
Intended as a competitor for the 2500-series Suburban, Ford began development of a heavy-duty SUV derived from the F-250 Super Duty pickup truck. The Ford Excursion was produced sharing the platform architecture of the F-250 Super Duty pickup truck. Sharing nearly all of its chassis components and dimensions with the F-250, the Excursion shares a common width and front/rear track with its F-250 counterpart. Other shared assemblies include rear suspension, along with the steering gear; the rear axle for all Excursions was a Sterling 10.5 axle. The four wheel drive models were equipped with a NV273 transfer case and Dana 50 front axle. During the development of the chassis, Ford learned that its initial design caused smaller vehicles to become overridden in a head-on collision. In the test, the tire of the Excursion drove up to the windshield of the Taurus, reducing the chance of survival for the Taurus driver; as a response, Ford modified the chassis to include an under-bumper "blocker beam". For the rear of the chassis, Ford chose to include a trailer hitch as standard equipment in production to reduce underriding in rear-end collisions by smaller vehicles.
During its entire production, the 5.4L Triton V8 was standard, with the 6.8L V10 as an option. As a running change during the 2003 model year, the Navistar-sourced Powerstroke diesel V8 was changed from the 7.3L V8 to the 6.0L V8. The 4-speed 4R100 automatic was standard with the 7.3 L diesel. Although using the 3/4 ton chassis of the F-250, the Excursion was rated with a GVWR of 8,900 lb when equipped with gasoline engines, 9,200 lb with equipped with diesel engines; as its GVWR was above 8,500 lb, the Excursion was exempt from EPA fuel economy ratings. While the Ford Expedition was designed to adopt similar exterior styling of the popular Ford Explorer, the body of the Excursion adapted a high degree of commonality with its F-250 Super Duty counterpart. To directly fit the four doors from the Super Duty crew cab, the Excursion is among one of the only mass-produced SUVs produced with four full-length passenger doors. Styled similar to the Bronco, the Excursion is fitted with a third-row seat and rear cargo area behind the second-row door.
In place of a liftgate, the cargo door of the Excursion was designed with a 3-way door: an upper liftgate paired with two lower dutch doors. To distinguish the Excursion, the grille was changed to an eggcrate pattern, in line with smaller Ford SUVs. In the rear, the Excursion was fitted with the taillamps of the E-Series van. For 2005, the egg-crate grille was replaced by the three-bar grille used on Super Duty trucks. Most of the interior was directly sourced with the addition of third-row seating. For 2002, the dashboard was revised with the addition of a digital odometer; the Excursion adopt
Fabrizio Lai is a Grand Prix motorcycle road racer from Italy. He competes in the CIV Superbike Championship, aboard a MV Agusta F4, he won the European Championship twice in succession in 1996 and 1997 while still a teenager, before winning the Italian championship in 2002. He has competed in the 125 cc World Championship since 2001, first as a wild card rider, full-time since the 2003 season on a Malaguti. Lai achieved his first podium finish during the 2004 season as runner-up at Motegi on a Gilera, He finished 6th overall in 2005 and 11th in 2006 as a Honda rider. For 2007, he switched to the Campetella Racing Aprilia team. 1999- 14th, European 125cc Championship 2000- 4th, European 125cc Championship 2001- 5th, Italian CIV 125GP Championship 2002- 16th, European 125cc Championship / 1st, Italian CIV 125GP Championship 2003- 25th, 125cc World Championship / 1st, Italian CIV 125GP Championship 2004- 16th, 125cc World Championship 2005- 6th, 125cc World Championship 2006- 11th, 125cc World Championship 2007- 14th, 250cc World Championship 2008- 18th, 250cc World Championship 2009- NC, Supersport World Championship 2010- 15th, Italian CIV Supersport 600 Championship 2011- 7th, Italian CIV Superbike Championship 2012- 4th, Italian CIV Superbike Championship 2013- 13th, Italian CIV Superbike Championship official site
The Chiknai River is located in Bangladesh. It arises in the beels west of Chatmohor in Pabna District. Another name Dangha; the Chiknai receives an excess of flood water from the Padma during the rains and falls into the Baral near the village of Faridpur in Pabna district. It is navigable in the rainy season, in the dry season it forms a good fishery, supplying Pabna and other places with fish; the Jamuna forms the eastern boundary of the district for a length of 130 kilometres, separating Pabna from the districts of Mymensingh and Dhaka. The present channel of the Jamuna is of comparatively recent origin and is due to the diversion of the Brahmaputra through the Jenai, a small river, more or less, at the present position of the Jamuna; when Rennell compiled his map of Bengal towards the close of the 18th century, the main stream of the Brahmaputra bent round the range of the Garo Hills and flowed in a south-easterly direction across the district of Mymensingh to join the Meghna just below Bhairab Bazar.
About the beginning of the 19th century the Brahmaputra having raised its bed and lost its velocity was no longer able to hold its own course against the Meghna mentioned above. So it left its old channel and broke to the west, capturing the waters of the Teesta on the way and cut out a new channel for itself, its present channel. At the beginning of the 19th century, the original channel through the Mymensingh district had become of secondary importance, at the present time, though it bears the name of Brahmaputra, it has dwindled into a mere watercourse navigable only during the rainy season. In 1850 British explorer Joseph Dalton Hooker, while travelling to Dhaka, described this great change as follows: A few miles beyond Pabna we passed from a narrow canal at once into the main stream of the Burrampooter at Jaffarganj; this alteration was not effected by the gradual working westward of the main stream, but by the old eastern channel so silting up as to be now unnavigable, while the Jammul which receives the Teesta and, laterally connected by branches with the Burrampooter become wider and deeper, the principal stream