Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures. The word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to the Magna Carta and before, adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans. As the name suggests, the churches of the Anglican Communion are linked by bonds of tradition and they are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, and thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, in his person, is a unique focus of Anglican unity. He calls the once-a-decade Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession, and writings of the Church Fathers. Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded closely to those of contemporary Protestantism, the word Anglican originates in ecclesia anglicana, a medieval Latin phrase dating to at least 1246 that means the English Church.
Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans, as an adjective, Anglican is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion, the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is sometimes considered as a misuse. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century, although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century. Elsewhere, the term Anglican Church came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity, as such, it is often referred to as being a via media between these traditions. Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as containing all necessary for salvation and as being the rule.
Reason and Tradition are seen as means to interpret Scripture. Anglicans understand the Apostles Creed as the symbol and the Nicene Creed as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. Anglicans celebrate the sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Eucharist, called Holy Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches used for centuries and it was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches which had previously followed differing local liturgies. The term was kept when the church became international because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world, in 1549, the first Book of Common Prayer was compiled by Thomas Cranmer, who was Archbishop of Canterbury. The founding of Christianity in Britain is commonly attributed to Joseph of Arimathea, according to Anglican legend, Saint Alban, who was executed in 209 AD, is the first Christian martyr in the British Isles.
A new culture emerged around the Irish Sea among the Celtic peoples with Celtic Christianity at its core, what resulted was a form of Christianity distinct from Rome in many traditions and practices
J. M. W. Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner, RA was an English Romanticist landscape painter. Turner was considered a figure in his day, but is now regarded as the artist who elevated landscape painting to an eminence rivalling history painting. Although renowned for his oil paintings, Turner is one of the greatest masters of British watercolour landscape painting and he is commonly known as the painter of light. Joseph Mallord William Turner was baptised on 14 May 1775, and it is generally believed he was born between late April and early May. Turner himself claimed he was born on 23 April, but there is no proof and he was born in Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, in London, England. His father, William Turner, was a barber and wig maker and his mother, Mary Marshall, came from a family of butchers. A younger sister, Mary Ann, was born in September 1778, the earliest known artistic exercise by Turner is from this period—a series of simple colourings of engraved plates from Henry Boswells Picturesque View of the Antiquities of England and Wales.
Around 1786, Turner was sent to Margate on the north-east Kent coast, here he produced a series of drawings of the town and surrounding area foreshadowing his work. Turner returned to Margate many times in life, by this time, Turners drawings were being exhibited in his fathers shop window and sold for a few shillings. His father boasted to the artist Thomas Stothard that, My son, in 1789, Turner again stayed with his uncle who had retired to Sunningwell in Berkshire. A whole sketchbook of work from time in Berkshire survives as well as a watercolour of Oxford. The use of sketches on location, as the foundation for finished paintings. By the end of 1789, he had begun to study under the topographical draughtsman Thomas Malton. Turner learned from him the tricks of the trade and colouring outline prints of British castles. He would call Malton My real master, topography was a thriving industry by which a young artist could pay for his studies. In the same year of 1789 he entered the Royal Academy of Art schools, when he was 14 years old, Sir Joshua Reynolds, president of the Royal Academy, chaired the panel that admitted him.
At first Turner showed a keen interest in architecture, but was advised by the architect Thomas Hardwick to continue painting and his first watercolour painting A View of the Archbishops Palace, Lambeth was accepted for the Royal Academy summer exhibition of 1790 when Turner was 15. As a probationer in the academy, he was drawing from plaster casts of antique sculptures
Peckham Rye is an open space and road in the London Borough of Southwark in London, England. The roughly triangular space, managed by Southwark Council, consists of two congruent areas, with Peckham Rye Common to the north and Peckham Rye Park to the south. The road Peckham Rye forms the western and eastern perimeter of the open space, Peckham Rye is Cockney rhyming slang for tie. Peckham Rye railway station on Rye Lane is a distance north of the open space in Peckham. To the east is Nunhead, to the south is Honor Oak, Peckham Rye is a ward in Southwark, forming part of the Camberwell and Peckham constituency. There are several key roads that lead to the park including Barry Road, Barry Road connects the Rye with Dulwich library while Friern Road is named after a friary that once existed. For a list of the different local landmarks with Rye and Peckham Rye in their names. It was on the Rye in the 1760s that the artist William Blake claimed to have visions, including one of a tree filled with angels.
The novel The Ballad of Peckham Rye by Muriel Spark is based around this area, the park in the 50s - 70s was the site for a yearly fair. The land for Peckham Rye Park was purchased by the London County Council for £51,000, at that time the park was 54 acres,13 acres being occupied by Homestall Farm. One of the first features of the new park, an ornamental Old English Garden was created and it was renamed the Sexby Garden after Colonel J. J. Sexby the London County Councils first Chief Officer of Parks. It was re-developed in 1936 and the paths re-laid with york stone paving, during World War II, part of the Common became a Prisoner of War camp for Italian prisoners of war
Aerosmith is an American rock band, sometimes referred to as the Bad Boys from Boston and Americas Greatest Rock and Roll Band. Their style, which is rooted in blues-based hard rock, has come to incorporate elements of pop, heavy metal, and rhythm and blues. They were formed in Boston, Massachusetts in 1970, in 1971, Tabano was replaced by Brad Whitford, and the band began developing a following in Boston. They were signed to Columbia Records in 1972, and released a string of gold and platinum albums, beginning with their 1973 eponymous debut album, followed by Get Your Wings in 1974. In 1975, the broke into the mainstream with the album Toys in the Attic. Two additional albums followed in 1977 and 1979 and their first five albums have since attained multi-platinum status. Throughout the 1970s, the band toured extensively and charted a dozen Hot 100 singles, by the end of the decade, they were among the most popular hard rock bands in the world and developed a loyal following of fans, often referred to as the Blue Army.
The band did not fare well between 1980 and 1984, releasing the album Rock in a Hard Place, which was certified gold and Whitford returned to Aerosmith in 1984 and the band signed a new deal with Geffen Records. After a comeback tour, the band recorded Done with Mirrors, the band became a pop culture phenomenon with popular music videos and notable appearances in television and video games. Their comeback has been described as one of the most remarkable, additional albums followed in 2001,2004, and 2012. Since 2001, the band has toured every year, except 2008, Aerosmith is the best-selling American hard rock band of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide, including over 70 million records in the United States alone. The band has scored 21 Top 40 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, nine number-one Mainstream Rock hits, four Grammy Awards, six American Music Awards, and ten MTV Video Music Awards. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2001, in 2013, the bands principal songwriters and Perry, were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.
In 1964, Steven Tyler formed his own called the Strangeurs—later Chain Reaction—in New Hampshire. Meanwhile and Hamilton formed the Jam Band, which was based on free-form and Perry moved to Boston, Massachusetts in September 1969. There they met Joey Kramer, a drummer from Yonkers, New York, Kramer knew Tyler and had always hoped to play in a band with him. Kramer, a Berklee College of Music student, decided to school to join Jam Band. In 1970, Chain Reaction and Jam Band played at the same gig, Tyler immediately loved Jam Bands sound, and wanted to combine the two bands
The Northern line is a London Underground line, coloured black on the Tube map. The section between Stockwell and Borough opened in 1890, and is the oldest section of deep-level tube line on the network, for most of its length it is a deep-level tube line. There were about 252,310,000 passenger journeys in 2011/12 on the Northern line, making it the second-busiest line on the Underground. Despite its name, it does not serve the northernmost stations on the network, though it does serve the southernmost station, there are 50 stations on the line, of which 36 have platforms below ground. An extension in the 1920s used a route planned by a fourth company. Abandoned plans from the 1920s to extend the line further southwards, from the 1930s to the 1970s, the tracks of a seventh company were managed as a branch of the Northern line. The C&SLR, Londons first deep-level tube railway, was built under the supervision of James Henry Greathead and it was the first of the Undergrounds lines to be constructed by boring deep below the surface and the first to be operated by electric traction.
The railway opened in November 1890 from Stockwell to a station at King William Street. This was inconveniently placed and unable to cope with the traffic so, in 1900. By 1907 the C&SLR had been extended at both ends to run from Clapham Common to Euston. The CCE&HR was opened in 1907 and ran from Charing Cross via Euston and Camden Town to Golders Green and it was extended south by one stop to Embankment in 1914 to form an interchange with the Bakerloo and District lines. In 1913 the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, owner of the CCE&HR, took over the C&SLR, during the early 1920s, a series of works was carried out to connect the C&SLR and CCE&HR tunnels to enable an integrated service to be operated. The first of new tunnels, between the C&SLRs Euston station and the CCE&HRs station at Camden Town, had originally been planned in 1912 but had been delayed by World War I. The second connection linked the CCE&HRs Embankment and C&SLRs Kennington stations and provided a new station at Waterloo to connect to the main line station there.
The smaller-diameter tunnels of the C&SLR were expanded to match the diameter of the CCE&HR. In conjunction with the works to integrate the two lines, two extensions were undertaken, northwards to Edgware in Middlesex and southwards to Morden in Surrey. The Edgware extension used plans dating back to 1901 for the Edgware and it extended the CCE&HR line from its terminus at Golders Green to Edgware in two stages, to Hendon Central in 1923 and to Edgware in 1924. The line crossed open countryside and ran on the surface, apart from a tunnel north of Hendon Central
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 in London, England, as the Horticultural Society of London, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861. The Royal Horticultural Society is the UKs leading gardening charity and claims to be the world’s largest gardening charity, the RHS quotes its charitable purpose as The encouragement and improvement of the science and practice of horticulture in all its branches. The current Director General is Sue Biggs, the charity promotes horticulture through flower shows such as the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, RHS Tatton Park Flower Show and RHS Cardiff Flower Show. It supports training for professional and amateur gardeners, the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. The society would award prizes for gardening achievements, Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership, the proposal was accepted, despite Knights ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was President of the society from 1811–1838, and developed the societys aims, in 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, and the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were previously decided by election, Fellowship may be secured through a suggested £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively. The Royal Horticultural Societys four major gardens in England are, Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey, Rosemoor Garden in Devon, Hyde Hall in Essex and Harlow Carr in Harrogate, the Societys first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1821 the society leased part of the Duke of Devonshires estate at Chiswick to set up an experimental garden, from 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, and from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables.
In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the societys oldest garden, Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Dick, Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection which was based at Hyde Hall. The most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001 and it had been the Northern Horticultural Societys trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens, in 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its flower shows which take place across the UK.
The most famous of these shows being the RHS Chelsea Flower Show and this is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the party, having won a majority of seats in the House of Commons at the 2015 general election. The partys leader, Theresa May, is serving as Prime Minister. It is the largest party in government with 8,702 councillors. The Conservative Party is one of the two major political parties in the United Kingdom, the other being its modern rival. The Conservative Partys platform involves support for market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defence, deregulation. In the 1920s, the Liberal vote greatly diminished and the Labour Party became the Conservatives main rivals, Conservative Prime Ministers led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century, including Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher. Thatchers tenure led to wide-ranging economic liberalisation, the Conservative Partys domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to them being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world.
The Conservatives are the joint-second largest British party in the European Parliament, with twenty MEPs, the party is a member of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe Europarty and the International Democrat Union. The party is the second-largest in the Scottish Parliament and the second-largest in the Welsh Assembly, the party is organised in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The Conservative Party traces its origins to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party and they were known as Independent Whigs, Friends of Mr Pitt, or Pittites. After Pitts death the term Tory came into use and this was an allusion to the Tories, a political grouping that had existed from 1678, but which had no organisational continuity with the Pittite party. From about 1812 on the name Tory was commonly used for the newer party, the term Conservative was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830. The name immediately caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834.
Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto, the term Conservative Party rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. In 1912, the Liberal Unionists merged with the Conservative Party, in Ireland, the Irish Unionist Alliance had been formed in 1891 which merged anti-Home Rule Unionists into one political movement. Its MPs took the Conservative whip at Westminster, and in essence formed the Irish wing of the party until 1922. The Conservatives served with the Liberals in an all-party coalition government during World War I, keohane finds that the Conservatives were bitterly divided before 1914, especially on the issue of Irish Unionism and the experience of three consecutive election losses
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
South Kensington is an affluent district of West London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the City of Westminster. It is a built-up area 2.4 miles west- south-west of Charing Cross and it is hard to define boundaries for South Kensington, but a common definition is the commercial area around the South Kensington tube station and the adjacent garden squares and streets. Although the postcode SW7 mainly covers South Kensington, some parts of Knightsbridge are covered, neighbouring the equally affluent centres of Knightsbridge and Kensington, South Kensington covers some of the most exclusive real estate in the world. It is home to numbers of French expatriates, but Spanish, American. There are several French bookshops and cafes in the area and is sometimes referred to as Paris’s 21st arrondissement. Two London Underground stations are located in South Kensington, South Kensington, the area was largely undeveloped until the mid-19th century, being an agricultural area supplying London with fruit and vegetables.
The area is the subject of Donovans song Sunny South Kensington, California was given that name in 1911 by Robert Brousefield, an American surveyor who at an ealier time lived in the British South Kensington. Notable residents have included, Sir Henry Cole, campaigner and first director of the South Kensington Museum, charles Booth, pioneer of social research, lived at 6 Grenville Place. George Wallis, FSA, museum curator and art educator and his children, including Whitworth Wallis and Rosa Wallis. Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, actor-manager, lived at 31 Rosary Gardens. Sir J M Barrie and novelist, author of Peter Pan, virginia Woolf and her sister Vanessa Bell and interior designer, lived at 22 Hyde Park Gate until 1904. Francis Bacon, Irish-born British artist, lived at 17 Queensberry Mews and 7 Reese Mews, benny Hill, lived at 1 &2 Queens Gate. Nicholas Freeman, OBE, controversial Leader of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, lived in Harrington Gardens, dennis Gabor, electrical engineer and physicist, most notable for inventing holography,1971 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Peter Finch, English-born distinguished Australian actor, won 5 BAFTA acting awards and he was the first person to win a posthumous Academy Award in an acting category
Lambeth London Borough Council
Lambeth London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Lambeth in Greater London, England. It is a London borough council, and one of the 32 in the United Kingdom capital of London, the council meets at Lambeth Town Hall in Brixton, but currently meetings are at locations across the borough due to renovation works on the Town Hall. Lambeth is divided into 21 wards, each electing three councillors, the council was first elected in 1964. As of March 2017, the Council Composition stands at 58 Labour Councillors,3 Conservative Councillors,1 Independent and 1 Green Councillor, Cressingham Gardens is a council garden estate in Lambeth. It is located on the edge of Brockwell Park. It comprises 306 dwellings, a mixture of four and two-bedroom houses, and one-bedroom apartments and it was designed at the end of the 1960s by the Lambeth Borough Council Architect Edward Hollamby, and built at the start of the 1970s. In 2012 Lambeth Council proposed demolishing the estate, to replace the houses by apartment blocks.
Most of the apartments would be for sale to the private sector, the residents have argued that there has been no consultation or legal advice to confirm that the residents would be able to move into the homes once the demolition and re build had been completed. All 3 Conservative and the solitary Green and Independent councillors opposed demolition,2 Labour Councillors opposed the demolition. On 17 July 2015 the high court ruled that Eva Bokrosovas request for review of Lambeth Council decision to only consider options for demolishing Cressingham Gardens. On November 24 Mrs Justice Elisabeth Laing ruled that the decision to remove options 1,2 and 3 from the consultation was unlawful. The current local authority was first elected in 1964, a year before coming into its powers. Both Metropolitan Boroughs were created in 1900 with Lambeth Metropolitan Borough Council replacing the Vestry of the Parish of Lambeth, the former Clapham and Streatham parishes, which became part of Lambeth in 1965, were governed by the Wandsworth District Board of Works from 1855 to 1900.
It was envisaged through the London Government Act 1963 that Lambeth as a London local authority would share power with the Greater London Council. This arrangement lasted until 1986 when Lambeth London Borough Council gained responsibility for services that had been provided by the Greater London Council. Lambeth was very active in the Ratecapping campaign in the 1980s, Lambeth became an education authority in 1990. The Labour Party had included an aspiration in their 2010 manifesto for Lambeth to become a Co-operative Council with greater use of mutualist models, following the 2010 election, the Council established a Commission to look at what this might entail. One aspect of this is that the aims to make Lambeth a place where there is a coproduction of public services by service users and communities Summary of council election results
Stevland Hardaway Morris, known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American musician, songwriter, record producer, and multi-instrumentalist. A child prodigy, he is considered to be one of the most critically and commercially successful musical performers of the late 20th century, Wonder signed with Motowns Tamla label at the age of 11, and he continued performing and recording for Motown into the 2010s. He has been blind since shortly after birth, Wonder is noted for his work as an activist for political causes, including his 1980 campaign to make Martin Luther King Jr. s birthday a holiday in the United States. In 2009, Wonder was named a United Nations Messenger of Peace, in 2013, Billboard magazine released a list of the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists to celebrate the US singles charts 55th anniversary, with Wonder at number six. Stevie Wonder was born in Saginaw, Michigan, in 1950, the third of six children of Calvin Judkins and Lula Mae Hardaway, when Wonder was four, his mother left his father and moved to Detroit with her children.
She changed her back to Lula Hardaway and changed her sons surname to Morris. Wonder has retained Morris as his legal surname and he began playing instruments at an early age, including piano and drums. He formed a partnership with a friend, calling themselves Stevie and John, they played on street corners. Before signing, producer Clarence Paul gave him the name Little Stevie Wonder, because of Wonders age, the label drew up a rolling five-year contract in which royalties would be held in trust until Wonder was 21. He and his mother would be paid a stipend to cover their expenses, Wonder received $2.50 a week. Wonder was put in the care of producer and songwriter Clarence Paul, tribute to Uncle Ray was recorded first, when Wonder was still 11 years old. Mainly covers of Ray Charless songs, it included a Wonder and Paul composition, the Jazz Soul of Little Stevie was recorded next, an instrumental album consisting mainly of Pauls compositions, two of which and Session Number 112, were co-written with Wonder.
At the end of 1962, when Wonder was 12 years old, he joined the Motortown Revue, at the Regal Theater, his 20-minute performance was recorded and released in May 1963 as the album Recorded Live, The 12 Year Old Genius. A single, from the album was released in May. The song, featuring a confident and enthusiastic Wonder returning for a spontaneous encore that catches out the replacement bass player, was a No.1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 when Wonder was aged 13, making him the youngest artist ever to top the chart. The single was simultaneously No.1 on the R&B chart and his next few recordings, were not successful, his voice was changing as he got older, and some Motown executives were considering cancelling his recording contract. During 1964, Wonder appeared in two films as himself, Muscle Beach Party and Bikini Beach, but these were not successful either, sylvia Moy persuaded label owner Berry Gordy to give Wonder another chance. He began to work in the Motown songwriting department, composing songs both for himself and his mates, including The Tears of a Clown, a No.1 hit for Smokey Robinson
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan