Thomas Clarkson was an English abolitionist, a leading campaigner against the slave trade in the British Empire. He helped found The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade and helped achieve passage of the Slave Trade Act of 1807, which ended British trade in slaves. In his years Clarkson campaigned for the abolition of slavery worldwide. In 1840, he was the key speaker at the Anti-Slavery Society's first conference in London, England which campaigned to end slavery in other countries. Clarkson was the son of an Anglican priest. Thomas attended Wisbech Grammar School, he did his undergraduate work at St John's College, beginning in 1779. An excellent student, he appears to have enjoyed his time at university, although he was a serious, devout man, he received his BA degree in 1783 and was set to continue at Cambridge to follow in his father's footsteps and enter the Anglican Church. He never proceeded to priest's orders, it was at Cambridge in 1785 that Clarkson entered a Latin essay competition, to set him on the course for most of the remainder of his life.
The topic of the essay, set by university vice-chancellor Peter Peckard, was Anne liceat invitos in servitutem dare, it led Clarkson to consider the question of the slave trade. He read everything he could on the subject, including the works of Anthony Benezet, a Quaker abolitionist, as well as first hand accounts of the African slave trade such as Francis Moore's Travels into the Interior Parts of Africa. Appalled and challenged by what he discovered, Clarkson changed his life, he researched the topic by meeting and interviewing those who had personal experience of the slave trade and of slavery. After winning the prize, Clarkson had what he called a spiritual revelation from God as he travelled by horseback between Cambridge and London, he broke up his journey near Ware, Hertfordshire. He wrote: As it is usual to read these essays publicly in the senate-house soon after the prize is adjudged, I was called to Cambridge for this purpose. I performed my office. On returning however to London, the subject of it wholly engrossed my thoughts.
I became at times seriously affected while upon the road. I stopped my horse and dismounted and walked. I tried to persuade myself in these intervals that the contents of my essay could not be true; the more, however, I reflected upon them, or rather upon the authorities on which they were founded, the more I gave them credit. Coming in sight of Wades Mill, in Hertfordshire, I sat down disconsolate on the turf by the roadside and held my horse. Here a thought came into my mind, that if the contents of the essay were true, it was time some person should see these calamities to their end. Agitated in this manner, I reached home; this was in the summer of 1785. This experience and sense of calling led him to devote his life to abolishing the slave trade. Having translated the essay into English so that it could gain a wider audience, Clarkson published it in pamphlet-form in 1786 as An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species the African, translated from a Latin Dissertation, it was honoured with the first prize in the University of Cambridge, for the year 1785.
The essay was influential, resulting in Clarkson's being introduced to many others who were sympathetic to abolition, some of whom had published and campaigned against slavery. These included influential men such as James Ramsay and Granville Sharp, many Quakers, other nonconformists; the movement had been gathering strength for some years, having been founded by Quakers both in Britain and in the United States, with support from other nonconformists Methodists and Baptists, on both sides of the Atlantic. In 1783, 300 Quakers, chiefly from the London area, presented Parliament with their signatures on the first petition against the slave trade. Following this step, a small offshoot group formed the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, a small non-denominational group that could lobby more by incorporating Anglicans, who sat in Parliament.. The twelve founding members included nine Quakers, three pioneering Anglicans: Clarkson, Granville Sharp, Philip Sansom, they were sympathetic to the religious revival that had predominantly nonconformist origins, but which sought wider non-denominational support for a "Great Awakening" amongst believers.
Encouraged by publication of Clarkson's essay, an informal committee was set up between small groups from the petitioning Quakers and others, with the goal of lobbying Members of Parliament. In May 1787, they formed the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade; the Committee included Granville Sharp as Josiah Wedgwood, as well as Clarkson. Clarkson approached the young William Wilberforce, who as an Anglican and an MP was connected within the British Parliament. Wilberforce was one of few parliamentarians to have had sympathy with the Quaker petition. Clarkson took a leading part in the affairs of the Committee for the Abolition of the
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
Sierra Leone the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa. It has a tropical climate, with a diverse environment ranging from savanna to rainforests; the country has a population of 7,075,641 as of the 2015 census. Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature; the country's capital and largest city is Freetown. Sierra Leone is made up of five administrative regions: the Northern Province, North West Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area; these regions are subdivided into sixteen districts. Sierra Leone was a British Crown Colony from 1808 to 1961. Sierra Leone became independent from the United Kingdom on 27 April 1961, led by Sir Milton Margai, who became the country's first prime minister. In May 1962, Sierra Leone held its first general elections as an independent nation. On 19 April 1971, Siaka Stevens' government abolished Sierra Leone's parliamentary government system and declared Sierra Leone a presidential republic.
From 1978 to 1985, Sierra Leone was a one-party state in which Stevens' APC was the only legal political party in the country. The current constitution of Sierra Leone, which includes multiparty democracy, was adopted in 1991 by the government of President Joseph Saidu Momoh, Stevens' hand-picked successor. On 23 March 1991, a rebel group known as the Revolutionary United Front led by a former Sierra Leone army officer Foday Sankoh launched an eleven-year brutal civil war in the country, in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Sierra Leone government. In April 1992, a group of junior army officers in their twenties overthrew president Momoh from power, their leader a 25 year old captain Valentine Strasser became the world's youngest Head of State. In January 1996 Brigadier General Julius Maada Bio returned the country to multi-party democracy and the 1991 constitution was reestablished. Bio handed power to Ahmad Tejan Kabbah after his victory in the 1996 Sierra Leone presidential election.
In 1997, the military overthrew President Kabbah. However, in February 1998, a coalition of West African Ecowas armed forces led by Nigeria removed the military junta from power by force and President Kabbah was reinstated as president. Sierra Leone has had an uninterrupted democracy from 1998 to present. In January 2002, President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah fulfilled his campaign promise by ending the civil war as the rebels were defeated by military force with the help and support of Ecowas, the British government, the African Union, the United Nations. 16 ethnic groups inhabit each with its own language and customs. The two largest and most influential are the Mende; the Temne are predominantly found in the northwest of the country, the Mende are predominant in the southeast. Comprising a small minority, about 2%, are the Krio people, who are descendants of freed African-American and West Indian slaves. Although English is the official language, used in schools and government administration, Krio, an English-based creole, is the most spoken language across Sierra Leone and is spoken by 98% of the country's population.
The Krio language unites all the different ethnic groups in the country in their trade and social interaction. Sierra Leone is a Muslim-majority country at about 78%, though there is an influential Christian minority at 21%. Sierra Leone is regarded as one of the most religiously tolerant states in the world. Muslims and Christians collaborate and interact with each other peacefully, religious violence is rare; the major Christian and Muslim holidays are public holidays in the country, including Christmas, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha Sierra Leone has relied on mining diamonds, for its economic base. It is among the largest producers of titanium and bauxite, is a major producer of gold, has one of the world's largest deposits of rutile. Sierra Leone is home to the third-largest natural harbour in the world. Despite this natural wealth, 53% of its population lived in poverty in 2011. Sierra Leone is a member of many international organisations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Mano River Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the African Development Bank and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Archaeological finds show that Sierra Leone has been inhabited continuously for at least 2,500 years, populated successively by societies who migrated from other parts of Africa. The people adopted the use of iron by the 9th century and by 1000 AD agriculture was being practised along the coast; the climate changed and boundaries among different ecological zones changed as well, affecting migration and conquest. Sierra Leone's dense tropical rainforest and swampy environment was considered impenetrable; this environmental factor protected its people from conquests by the Mande and other African empires. This reduced the Islamic influence of the Mali Empire but Islam, introduced by Susu traders and migrants from the north and east, became adopted in the 18th century. European contacts within Sierra Leone were among the first in West Africa in the 15th century. In 1462, Portuguese explorer Pedro de Sintra mapped the hills surrounding what is now Freetown Harbour, naming the shaped formation Serra da Leoa or "Serra Leoa".
The Spanish rendering of this geographic formation is Sierra Leona, adapted and, became the country's current name. Although according to the p
Clapham is a district of south-west London lying within the London Borough of Lambeth, but with some areas extending into the neighbouring London Borough of Wandsworth. The present day Clapham High Street is an ancient "diversion" of the Roman military road Stane Street, which ran from London to Chichester; this followed the line of Clapham Road and onward along the line of Abbeville Road. The ancient status of that military road is recorded on a Roman stone now placed by the entrance of the former Clapham Library in the Old Town, discovered during building operations at Clapham Common South Side in 1912. Erected by Vitus Ticinius Ascanius according to its inscription, it is estimated to date from the 1st century. According to the history of the Clapham family, maintained by the College of Heralds, in 965 King Edgar of England gave a grant of land at Clapham to Jonas, son of the Duke of Lorraine, Jonas was thenceforth known as Jonas "de Clapham"; the family remained in possession of the land until Jonas's great-great grandson Arthur sided against William the Conqueror during the Norman invasion of 1066 and, losing the land, fled to the north.
Clapham appears in Domesday Book as Clopeham. It was held by Goisfrid de Mandeville, its domesday assets were 3 hides, it rendered £7 10s 0d, was located in Brixton hundred. The parish comprised 4.99 square kilometres. The benefice remains to this day a rectory, in the 19th century was in the patronage of the Atkins family: the tithes were commuted for £488 14s. In the early 19th century, so the remaining glebe comprised only 11 acres in 1848; the church, which belonged to Merton Priory was, with the exception of the north aisle, left standing for the performance of the burial service, taken down under an act of parliament in 1774, a new church erected in the following year at an expense of £11,000, on the north side of the common. In the late 17th century, large country houses began to be built there, throughout the 18th and early 19th century it was favoured by the wealthier merchant classes of the City of London, who built many large and gracious houses and villas around Clapham Common and in the Old Town.
Samuel Pepys spent the last two years of his life in Clapham, living with his friend, protégé at the Admiralty and former servant William Hewer, until his death in 1703. Clapham Common was home to Elizabeth Cook, the widow of Captain James Cook the explorer, she lived in a house on the common for many years following the death of her husband. Other notable residents of Clapham Common include Palace of Westminster architect Sir Charles Barry, Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg and 20th century novelist Graham Greene. John Francis Bentley, architect of Westminster Cathedral, lived in the adjacent Old Town. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Clapham Sect were a group of wealthy City merchants social reformers who lived around the Common, they included William Wilberforce, Henry Thornton and Zachary Macaulay, father of the historian Thomas Macaulay, as well as William Smith MP, the Dissenter and Unitarian. They were prominent in campaigns for the abolition of slavery and child labour, for prison reform.
They promoted missionary activities in Britain's colonies. The Society for Missions to Africa and the East was founded on 12 April 1799 at a meeting of the Eclectic Society, supported by members of the Clapham Sect, who met under the guidance of John Venn, the Rector of Clapham. By contrast, an opponent of Wilberforce and slave-trader George Hibbert lived at Clapham Common, worshipping in the same church, Holy Trinity. After the coming of the railways, Clapham developed as a suburb for commuters into central London, by 1900 it had fallen from favour with the upper classes. Many of their grand houses had been demolished by the middle of the 20th century, though a number remain around the Common and in the Old Town, as do a substantial number of fine late 18th- and early 19th-century houses. Today's Clapham is an area of varied housing, from the large Queen Anne-, Regency- and Georgian-era homes of the Old Town and Clapham Common, to the grids of Victorian housing in the Abbeville area; as in much of London, the area has its fair share of council-owned social housing on estates dating from the 1930s and 1960s.
In the early 20th century, Clapham was seen as an ordinary commuter suburb cited as representing ordinary people: hence the familiar "man on the Clapham omnibus". By the 1980s, the area had undergone a further transformation, becoming the centre for the gentrification of most of the surrounding area. Clapham's relative proximity to traditionally expensive areas of central London led to an increase in the number of middle-class people living in Clapham. Today the area is an affluent place, although many of its professional residents live close to significant pockets of social housing. Clapham was an ancient parish in the county of Surrey. For poor law purposes the parish became part of the Wandsworth and Clapham Union in 1836; the parish was added to the Registrar General London Metropolis area in 1844 and it came within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855. The population of 16,290 in 1851 was considered too small for the Clapham vestry to be a viable sanitary authority and the parish was grouped into the Wandsworth District, electing 18 members to the Wandsworth District Board of Works.
In 1889 the parish was transferred to the County of London and in 1900 it became p
Conversion to Christianity
Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a non-Christian person converts to Christianity. Converts to Christianity make a vow of repentance from past sins, accept Jesus as their Savior and vow to follow his teachings as found in the New Testament. Different sects of Christianity may perform various different kinds of rituals or ceremonies on a convert in order to initiate them into a community of believers; the most accepted ritual of conversion in Christianity is through baptism, but this isn't universally accepted among Christian denominations. A period of instruction and study always ensues before a person is formally converted into Christianity, but the length of this period varies, sometimes as short as a few weeks and less, other times, up to as long as a year or more. Most mainline Christian denominations will accept conversion into other denominations as valid, so long as a baptism with water in the name of the Trinity took place, but some may accept a simple profession of faith in Jesus as Lord as being all, needed for true conversion.
Other Christians may not accept conversions performed in other denominations and certain communities may be discriminated against as heretical. This is most true for many nontrinitarian sects, which many mainstream Christian denominations reject as having valid forms of conversion. Many nontrinitarian sects spiritually isolate themselves in that they may only consider their conversions valid and not those of mainstream Christianity. Social scientists have shown great interest in the Christian conversion as a religious experience that believers describe as strengthening their faith and changing their lives. Christianization, defined as the "reformulation of social relations, cultural meanings, personal experience in terms of Christian ideals," should be distinguished from conversion. Christianization is the broader cultural term, has involved efforts to systematically convert an entire continent or culture from existing beliefs to Christianity. Christian denominations vary on the exact procedures of conversion.
More traditional Christian groups such as the Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church, Anglicans and some Reformed Christians consider the sacrament of baptism in the name of the Trinity to be the moment of conversion. All of these groups teach the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, that is, once baptized, all past sins, including original sin, are washed away and a person becomes justified before God. Through baptism, one is incorporated into the body of believers, called the Church, may rightly be considered a Christian; some of these groups may administer other sacraments in the process of conversion such as confirmation. Some Evangelical Christians, like Baptist, Pentecostals, do not believe baptism is necessary for salvation and conversion, but only that a profession of faith is enough. Christians differ on how old someone must be to convert. More traditional groups of Christians believe conversion is not restricted to age, tend to baptize infants. Evangelical Christians do not baptize children because they see conversion as a personal decision.
Conversion has been used as a tool by imperial powers during the peak of slave trade & colonization of Asia & Africa. Today it remains to be one of the greatest causes for social conflict in many countries. Before conversion takes place, converts called "catechumens", must undergo a period of instruction. In the Catholic Church, this involves spending a few months preparing in RCIA, where catechumens spend time learning about the Christian faith and the teachings of the Bible and the Church. In the Orthodox Church, it can take up to a full year of studying and participation before one is baptized. Protestant denominations and other Christian groups have various other ways of instructing converts which may focus on the Bible. There are different modes of baptism in Christianity, these include immersion and aspersion; the way in which a person is baptized depends on the denomination one enters. All baptisms share in common the use of the Trinitarain formula by the minister while baptizing the convert.
The Roman Catholic Church baptizes with affusion but does so with immersion. Orthodox Christians and some Eastern Catholics baptize by triple immersion upon invocation of the Trinity. Protestants baptize in a number of different ways. Many Anglicans and Lutherans baptize by affusion, whereas Presbyterians and Congregationalist baptize with aspersion. Others, like Methodist, may conduct all three forms of baptism. Many Evangelical Protestants insist that only full immersion baptism is valid, they base this off of the New Testament Greek word for baptism "baptizo" which can be translated as "dipping" or "submersion." Depending on which of these denominations one enters, the sacrament of Confirmation known as Chrismation by eastern Christians, may be administered after the baptism. In the Latin Catholic Church, infants who are baptized are not confirmed, but instead must wait until they're in their teens to be confirmed. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, many Eastern Catholic Churches, infants are Chrismated and communed by a priest or bishop after they are baptized.
When an adult convert enters the Catholic or Orthodox Church, they are confirmed after baptism, upon which, a clergy member will anoint the forehead with
War of independence
A war of independence or independence war is a conflict occurring over a territory that has declared independence. Once the state that held the territory sends in military forces to assert its sovereignty or the native population clashes with the former occupier, a separatist rebellion has begun. If a new state is established, the conflict is known as a'War of Independence'. Examples of war of independence include: First War of Independence Second War of Independence Breakaway states Wars of national liberation 1948 Arab–Israeli War
St Edmund Hall, Oxford
St Edmund Hall is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. The college has a claim to be "the oldest academical society for the education of undergraduates in any university" and is the last surviving medieval hall at the University; the college is located just off Queen's Lane, near the High Street, in central Oxford. After more than seven centuries as a men-only college, it has been coeducational since 1979; as of 2018, the college had a financial endowment of £58 million. Similar to the University of Oxford itself, the precise date of establishment of St Edmund Hall is not certain; the name St Edmund Hall first appears in a 1317 rental agreement. St Edmund Hall began life as one of Oxford's ancient Aularian houses, the medieval halls that laid the foundation of the University, preceding the creation of the first colleges; as the only surviving medieval hall, its members are known as "Aularians". The college has a history of independent thought, which brought it into frequent conflict with both Church and State.
During the late 14th and early 15th centuries it was a bastion of John Wycliffe's supporters, for which college principal William Taylor was burnt at the stake, principal Peter Payne fled the country. In the late 17th century, St Edmund Hall incurred the wrath of the Crown for fostering non-jurors, men who remained loyal to the Scottish House of Stuart and who refused to take the oath to the German House of Hanover, whom they regarded as having usurped the British throne. Queen Elizabeth II approved St Edmund Hall's charter of incorporation as a full college of the University of Oxford in 1957, although it deliberately retained its ancient title of "Hall"; the Duke of Edinburgh presented the royal charter to the college in June 1958. In 1978, women were first admitted as members of the Hall, with the first matriculations of women in 1979 and in 2015 the college celebrated the matriculation of its 3000th female student with events and exhibitions, including the display of portraits of notable women who had taught, studied or worked at the Hall in the Dining Hall, a noticeable change from the styles of portraits in most colleges.
St Edmund Hall is located on the north side of the High Street, off Queen's Lane. It borders the Carrodus Quad of The Queen's College to the south; the front quadrangle houses the porters' lodge, the Old Dining Hall, built in the 1650s, the college bar, the chapel, the Old Library and accommodation for students and Fellows. An engraving of the college coat of arms is found above the entrance to the college on Queen’s Lane; as seen in this image, the coat of arms sits above the following Latin dedication "sanctus edmundus huius aulae lux", or "St Edmund, light of this Hall". It is a common practice within the University to use chronograms for dedications; when transcribed into Latin, they are written in such a way that an important date that of a foundation or the dedication itself, is embedded in the text in Roman numerals. In the above dedication, the text is rendered as sanCtVs edMVndVs hVIVs aVLae LVX and, in this case, adding the numerals gives: C + V + M + V + V + V + I + V + V + L + L + V + X = 1246, a popular, if conservative, estimate for the establishment of the Hall.
It is the date of the canonisation of St Edmund of Abingdon. In the centre of the quadrangle is a medieval well, uncovered in 1926 during the construction of a new lecture room and accommodation; this well is believed to be the original from water. A new wellhead was added, with the inscription "haurietis aquas in gaudio de fontibus salvatoris," Latin for "with joy, draw water from the wells of salvation." These words, from Isaiah 12:3, are believed to be those spoken by St Edmund on his deathbed at Salisbury. A metal grate was added to the well to prevent injuries, but water can still be seen in the well at a depth of about 9 feet. Plans to add a wooden frame and bucket were scrapped to maintain the overall appearance of the quad; the east side of the Front Quad contains the chapel. The chapel contains a stained glass window, one of the earliest works by the artists Sir Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris, a painting above the altar named Supper at Emmaus, by Ceri Richards. Described as a'marmite painting' due to its anachronous style within the chapel, which dates to the late 17th century, the painting commemorates the granting of the college's Royal Charter.
The organ was built by Wood of Huddersfield in the 1980s. The St Edmund Hall Chapel Choir consists of eight choral scholars, two organ scholars and many other non-auditioning singers; the choir goes on two annual tours, including trips to Wells Cathedral in 2017, France, the burial place of St Edmund, in 2016 and Warsaw, Poland in 2015. Above the chapel is the Old Library, it was the last among Oxford colleges to chain its valuable books, but the first to have shelves against the walls. The Old Library is used for events and for research; the college library, the deconsecrated 12th century church of St Peter-in-the-East, was converted in the 1970s, includes the 14th century tower, which houses a tutor’s room at the top. The oldest part of the library still standing is the crypt below the church, which dates from the 1