A clap is the percussive sound made by striking together two flat surfaces, as in the body parts of humans or animals. Humans clap with the palms of their hands quickly and to express appreciation or approval, but in rhythm as a form of body percussion to match the sounds in music, chants, hand games, clapping games; some people slap the back of one hand into the palm of the other hand to signify urgency or enthusiasm. This act may be considered uncouth by others. Clapping is used in many forms of music. One example is in gospel music. In flamenco and sevillanas, two Spanish musical genres, clapping is called palmas and sets the rhythm and is an integral part of the songs. A sampled or synthesized clap is a staple of electronic and pop music. Classical works performed by clapping Steve Reich, Clapping Music Robert Paterson, Voices Pascal Zavaro, Kino-Klap Classical works which include clapping Carlos Surinach, Ritmo Jondo David Chesky, Flute Concerto et Violin ConcertoThe clapping patterns known as keplok are important in Javanese gamelan.
A type of synthesized clap is popular in many hip hop songs as well. This is derived from and mimics the technique used in older popular music, in which multiple instances of real handclaps were recorded or a single recording was made of a group of performers clapping in unison; this was done for the purpose of reinforcing the snare drum beat on the 2nd and 4th beats of the bar. Modern R&B, hip hop, rap omit the snare drum, making the claps a more obvious and central feature of the beat. Clapping is useful in opening up blocked blood circulation. Clapping can be used in acoustics to check the reverberation time of a room; this is determined by measuring the clap's decay time. See: Counting. Clapping is used to help people recognize the rhythm in sounds, it can be used to help musicians count out rhythms. It is used to teach phonological awareness to students learning the ways words are constructed, they clap out syllables to learn to break words into their component sounds. Iceland at the UEFA European Championship during UEFA Euro 2016, Iceland's fans became known for their'volcano clap' with a'huh' chant, though it may have originated with fans of Scottish club Motherwell F.
C.. Canberra Raiders fans became known for the'Viking clap', a nod to the viking chant made famous by fans of the Iceland national football team. Fans of the Minnesota Vikings have adopted the'Viking clap' to show support for the team, chanting'skol' rather than the original'huh' chant; the term "clap hands" or "clap hands Charlie" is used in aviation to mean an aircraft collision or wing-to-wing contact, the phrase being derived from the refrain in the popular song "Clap Hands! Here Comes Charley!"In the mid 2010's, a practice of clapping as a way to emphasize talking points emerged among African American women when clapping out individual syllables in words. This was pointed out in popular media by the comedian Robin Thede on The Nightly Show with Larry Wilmore, it has since become more applied both online using the "hand clap" emoji, in person. Brown, T. Pierce. "Is Clapping Hands in Worship Appropriate?", GospelGazette.com
The Delaware General Assembly is the legislature of the U. S. state of Delaware. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the Delaware Senate with 21 senators and the Delaware House of Representatives with 41 representatives, it meets at Legislative Hall in Dover, convening on the second Tuesday of January of odd-numbered years, with a second session of the same Assembly convening in even-numbered years. The sessions are required to adjourn by the last day of June of the same calendar year; however the Governor can call a special session of the legislature at any time. Members are elected from single-member districts, all apportioned to equal populations after each decennial Census. Elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November and about one-half of the Senate is elected every two years for a four-year term, the entire House of Representatives is elected every two years for a two-year term. Vacancies are filled through special elections. There are no term limits for either chamber.
With 62 seats, the Delaware General Assembly is the second-smallest bicameral state legislature in the United States – ahead of Alaska and behind Nevada. The Delaware General Assembly was one of the thirteen legislatures that participated in the American War of Independence. Created by the Delaware Constitution of 1776, its membership and responsibilities have been modified by the Delaware Constitution of 1792, the Delaware Constitution of 1831, the Delaware Constitution of 1897, Supreme Court of the United States decision in Reynolds v. Sims in 1965. Significant actions of the General Assembly include the calling of the constitutional convention which became the first to ratify the United States Constitution in 1787, its rejection of secession from the Union on January 3, 1861 though Delaware was a slave state. Significant was its repeated refusal to legislate the end of slavery or voting rights for women, requiring federal law to enforce those changes; until 1898 the General Assembly was apportioned by county, with a total of 30 members elected county-wide "at-large" with equal numbers from each of the three counties.
After 1898 the total membership was increased to 52 and they were elected from districts corresponding to the geographical boundaries of hundreds within the counties. However, there was little recognition of disparities in population, except for the addition of two extra senators and five extra representatives elected from much more populous New Castle County. After the Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims in 1965, the General Assembly was forced to redistrict so that all members of both houses were elected from districts of equal population. By 1972, the total membership had increased to its present 62. In 1924, Florence Wood Hanby became the first woman elected to the Delaware General Assembly, winning a seat in the Delaware House of Representatives, it is the only legislature with the power to unilaterally amend its constitution without requiring a referendum or any other approval. List of Delaware General Assembly sessions Delaware Compensation Commission Official website
A double burden is the workload of people who work to earn money, but who are responsible for significant amounts of unpaid domestic labor. This phenomenon is known as the Second Shift as in Arlie Hochschild's book of the same name. In couples where both partners have paid jobs, women spend more time than men on household chores and caring work, such as childrearing or caring for sick family members; this outcome is determined in large part by traditional gender roles that have been accepted by society over time. Labor market constraints play a role in determining who does the bulk of unpaid work. Efforts have been made to document the effects of this double burden on couples placed in such situations. Many studies have traced the effects of the gendered division of labor, in most cases there was a notable difference between the time men and women contribute to unpaid labor; the traditional female homemaker–male breadwinner model characterized female employment prior to World War II. At the turn of the 20th century in the continental United States, only 18 percent of women over the age of 15 reported receiving income non-farm employment.
These women were young, single and native-born. In contrast, married women in the non-farm labor force were "predominantly blacks or immigrants and poor". Working mothers exited the labor force once their children were old enough to earn money; the outpouring of occupational opportunities in the early 1920s, such as in "cafeterias, nurseries and other facilities seemed to release women from domestic chores and freed them to participate in the sphere of production."This migration of women into the workforce shook the traditional ideology of gender roles, but it was the catalyst to the double burden becoming noticeable. The 1930s "encouraged women to fulfill what Stalin termed the "great and honorable duty that nature has given" them. Evident in the Soviet Union, "an sponsored cult of motherhood, buttressed by anti-abortion legislation" accompanied by a "depression of living standards" led to industry's immense demand for laborers which got women into the industrial workforce in unprecedented numbers".
Urban women thus found themselves assuming the "double burden" of waged work outside the home and the lion's share of unpaid labor within it." The Second World War is seen as a catalyst for increasing female employment. Best exemplified by Rosie the Riveter propaganda of an efficient, woman worker, World War II increased demand for female labor to replace that of the "16 million men mobilized to serve in the Armed Forces". While a substantial number of women worked in war factories, the majority of jobs were in the service sector; this caused the gendered expectations for that time to be altered and roles to be both tested and reassigned for the incoming decades. The post-World War II period is marked by high levels of female participation in the workforce in industrialized countries. Although a large proportion of women exited the workforce following World War II, the idea of working class women was able to take root and normalize. "In 2001, 47 percent of U. S. workers were women, 61 percent of women over the age of 15 were in the labor force."
Besides an increased demand for women's labor, other factors contributed to the growth of their participation, such as more educational opportunities and marriage and childbearing ages. The idea of the double burden is more evolved with the times concerning both sexes and their newfound roles; the role of a provider and caregiver is sometimes expected of women, but as more women enter the workforce, an'independent' ideology seems to take effect and forces some women to decide between a career and family. Some may choose one or the other, others may choose to carry the burden of both lifestyles; some "modern men tend to believe in the principle of equal sharing of domestic labor, but fail to live up to that belief." The constant tug of war regarding one's time and where it could, should but will be spent creates a new speed bump, a little bit higher than the previous ones. Modern times illuminate the dilemma that many dual-income couples face when trying to reconcile unpaid domestic work and paid employment.
The burden of encompassing both ideologies plays a toll on both sexes in today's societies. Due to globalization in the past thirty years, the power of the unskilled worker has diminished, thus, the informal economy has flourished. In Latin America, there is an abundant number of workers to help out with domestic work, domestic service is cheap, diminishing the family tensions surrounding the issue of domestic work. About half of the working population is employed in the informal sector, leading to "unemployment and social exclusion"; because of this, there has been a serious delay in providing welfare for the care of children and the elderly, because the pressure to provide aid for working families is minimal. In addition, domestic workers, many of them women leave their countries to work in the informal sector in northern countries in order to increase income for their families delaying the pressure for governments to provide aid to these families. However, there has been a change since the 2000s in thinking about unpaid work due to the influx of paid jobs for women and the shortage of people available to do domestic work.
Although the increase in jobs for women has had benefits in policy changes for families with working parents, there has been debates about the conditions of the work places. In Mexico, there is an influx of the maquila industry, which produce
Magra Hat railway station is Kolkata Suburban Railway Station on the Sealdah–Diamond Harbour line of Sealdah railway division. It is under the jurisdiction of Eastern Railway zone of Indian Railways. Magra Hat railway station is situated beside Dakshin Barasat road, South 24 Parganas district in the Indian State of West Bengal. Munber of EMU trains stop at this railway station; the Eastern Bengal Railway constructed a 1,676 mm wide Broad Gauge Railway from Sealdah to Diamond Harbour in 1883. The electrification of the Sealdah railway station to Diamond Harbour including Magra Hat railway station was completed with 25 kV AC overhead system in 1965–67
Tadashi Tokieda is a Japanese mathematician, working in mathematical physics. He is a professor of mathematics at Stanford University, he is very active in inventing and studying toys that uniquely reveal and explore real-world surprises of mathematics and physics. In comparison with most mathematicians, he had an unusual path in life: he started as a painter, became a classical philologist, before switching to mathematics. Tokieda grew up to be a painter, he studied at Lycée Sainte-Marie Grand Lebrun in France as a classical philologist. According to his personal homepage, he taught himself basic mathematics from Russian collections of problems, he is a 1989 classics graduate from Sophia University in Tokyo and has a 1991 bachelor's degree from Oxford in mathematics. He obtained his PhD at Princeton under the supervision of William Browder. Tokieda joined the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign as a J. L. Doob Research Assistant Professor for the 1997 academic year, he has been involved in the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences since its beginning in 2003.
In 2004 he was elected a Fellow of Trinity Hall, where he became the Director of Studies in Mathematics and the Stephan and Thomas Körner Fellow. He was the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Fellow in 2013–2014 at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University. In the academic year 2015–2016 he was the Poincaré Distinguished Visiting Professor at Stanford, he is fluent in Japanese and English and knows ancient Greek, classical Chinese, Finnish and Russian. So far he has lived in eight countries. In March 2020, Tokieda was interviewed on The Joy of X, Steven Strogatz's podcast for Quanta Magazine. Tokieda, Tadashi. "Roll Models". The American Mathematical Monthly. 120: 265–282. Doi:10.4169/amer.math.monthly.120.03.265. Childress, Stephen. "A bug on a raft: recoil locomotion in a viscous fluid". Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 669: 527–556. Doi:10.1017/S002211201000515X. Montaldi, James. "Openness of momentum maps and persistence of extremal relative equilibria". Topology. 42: 833–844. ArXiv:math/0201282.
Doi:10.1016/S0040-938300047-2. Aref, Hassan. "Vortex Crystals". Advances in Applied Mechanics. 39: 1–79. Doi:10.1016/s0065-215639001-x. Tokieda, Tadashi. "Tourbillons dansants". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série I. 333: 943–946. Doi:10.1016/S0764-444202162-0. Tokieda, Tadashi. "Mechanical Ideas in Geometry". The American Mathematical Monthly. 105: 697–703. Doi:10.2307/2588986. JSTOR 2588986. Tadashi Tokieda at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Personal Homepage at the Wayback Machine at the University of Cambridge "Toy inspires new spin on Earth's magnetic field", New Scientist
Diethyl carbonate is a carbonate ester of carbonic acid and ethanol with the formula OC2. At room temperature diethyl carbonate is a clear liquid with a low flash point. Diethyl carbonate is used as a solvent such as in erythromycin intramuscular injections, it can be used as a component of electrolytes in lithium batteries. It has been proposed as a fuel additive to support cleaner diesel fuel combustion because its high boiling point might reduce blended fuels' volatility, minimize vapor buildup in warm weather that can block fuel lines, it can be made by reacting phosgene with ethanol. Because chloroform can react with oxygen to form phosgene, chloroform can be stabilized for storage by adding 1 part of ethanol to 100 parts of chloroform, so that any phosgene that forms is converted into diethyl carbonate. 2 CH3CH2OH + COCl2 → CO32 + 2HCl Ethylene carbonate