Clara Schumann was a German pianist and piano teacher. Regarded as one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era, she exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital from displays of virtuosity to programs of serious works, she composed solo piano pieces, a piano concerto, chamber music, choral pieces, songs. She grew up in Leipzig, where her father, Friedrich Wieck, was a professional pianist and teacher, her mother an accomplished singer, she was a child prodigy, trained by her father. She began touring at age eleven, was successful in Paris and Vienna, among other cities, she married composer Robert Schumann, the couple had eight children. Together, they maintained a close relationship with him, she premiered many works by Brahms in public. After Robert Schumann's early death, she continued her concert tours in Europe for decades with the violinist Joseph Joachim and other chamber musicians. Beginning in 1878, she was an influential piano educator at Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium in Frankfurt, where she attracted international students.
She edited the publication of her husband's work. Schumann was buried in Bonn beside her husband. Several films have focused on Schumann's life, the earliest being Träumerei of 1944. A 2008 film, Geliebte Clara, was directed by Helma Sanders-Brahms. An image of Clara Schumann from an 1835 lithograph by Andreas Staub was featured on the 100 Deutsche Mark banknote from 1989 to 2002, her compositions have received attention again from the late 20th century around her bicentenary in 2019, the reason for new books and exhibitions. Clara Josephine Wieck was born in Leipzig on 13 September 1819 to Friedrich Wieck and Marianne Wieck, her mother was a famous singer in Leipzig who performed weekly piano and soprano solos at the Gewandhaus. Clara's parents had irreconcilable differences, in part due to her father's unyielding nature. Prompted by an affair between her mother and Adolph Bargiel, her father's friend, the Wiecks were divorced in 1825, with Marianne marrying Bargiel. Five-year-old Clara remained with her father while Marianne and Bargiel moved to Berlin, limiting contact between Clara and her mother to written letters and occasional visits.
From an early age, Clara's father planned her life down to the smallest detail. She had started receiving basic piano instruction from her mother at the age of four. After her mother moved out, she began taking daily one-hour lessons from her father, they included subjects such as piano, singing, harmony and counterpoint. She had to practice for two hours every day, her father followed the methods in his own book, Wiecks pianistische Erziehung zum schönen Anschlag und zum singenden Ton Her musical studies came at the expense of her broader general education, although she still studied religion and languages under her father's control. Clara Wieck made her official debut on 28 October 1828 at the Gewandhaus at age nine; the same year, she performed at the Leipzig home of Ernst Carus, director of the mental hospital at Colditz Castle. There, she met another gifted young pianist, invited to the musical evening, Robert Schumann, nine years older. Schumann admired Clara's playing so much that he asked permission from his mother to stop studying law, which had never interested him much, take music lessons with Clara's father.
While taking lessons, he stayed about a year. From September 1831 to April 1832, Clara toured Paris and other European cities, accompanied by her father. In Weimar, she performed a bravura piece by Henri Herz for Goethe, who presented her with a medal with his portrait and a written note saying: "For the gifted artist Clara Wieck". During that tour, the violinist Niccolò Paganini, in Paris, offered to appear with her, her Paris recital was poorly attended because many people had fled the city due to an outbreak of cholera. The tour marked her transition from a child prodigy to a young woman performer. From December 1837 to April 1838, at the age of 18, Wieck performed a series of recitals in Vienna. Franz Grillparzer, Austria's leading dramatic poet, wrote a poem entitled "Clara Wieck and Beethoven" after hearing her perform Beethoven's Appassionata sonata during one of these recitals, she performed to laudatory critical reviews. Chopin described her playing to Franz Liszt, who came to hear one of Wieck's concerts and subsequently praised her extravagantly in a letter, published in the Parisian Revue et Gazette Musicale and in translation, in the Leipzig journal Neue Zeitschrift für Musik.
On 15 March, she was named a Königliche und Kaiserliche Österreichische Kammer-virtuosin, Austria's highest musical honor. An anonymous music critic, describing her Vienna recitals, said: "The appearance of this artist can be regarded as epoch-making... In her creative hands, the most ordinary passage, the most routine motive acquires a significant meaning, a colour, which only those with the most consummate artistry can give." Robert Schumann was a little more. In 1837, when she was 18, he proposed to her and she accepted. Robert asked her father for her hand in marriage. Friedrich was str
Macclesfield Forest is an area of woodland, predominantly conifer plantation, located around 3 mi south east of Macclesfield in the civil parish of Macclesfield Forest and Wildboarclough, in Cheshire, England. The existing woodland is the last substantial remnant of the Royal Forest of Macclesfield, a once-extensive ancient hunting reserve; the area includes two reservoirs and Ridgegate. Macclesfield Forest lies on the western edge of the Peak District, within the South West Peak, is inside the boundary of the National Park; the hills of Tegg's Nose and Shutlingsloe stand to the north west and respectively. Nearby villages include Wildboarclough. Macclesfield Forest is owned by United Utilities. Most of the woodland is designated a Site of Biological Importance, while part of the area including Trentabank Reservoir is a nature reserve managed by the Cheshire Wildlife Trust. Other wildlife includes a small herd of Red Deer. Recreational uses of the area include walking, horse riding, mountain biking and bird watching.
The area is believed to have been occupied during the Bronze Age. After the Norman Conquest the modern area known as Macclesfield Forest formed part of the much larger region of the Royal forest of Macclesfield, a hunting reserve owned by the Earls of Chester, which stretched from the foothills of the Pennines east into the High Peak near Whaley Bridge and south to the Staffordshire Moorlands. South of the forest stands the Greenway Cross, a standing stone carved on each side with a cross, erected as a waymarker by Dieulacres Abbey in Leek during the Middle Ages. Tradition holds that poachers in the royal forest were executed at a nearby gallows, which might be the source of the name of the Hanging Gate public house, from the Norse gata, meaning "path". Ridgegate Reservoir was constructed in the late 19th century to provide drinking water for the town of Macclesfield, with Trentabank Reservoir following in the 1920s; the conifer plantation dates from 1930–50, was planted around the reservoirs to protect water catchment areas from pollution.
Macclesfield Forest lies within the South West Peak. The eastern two-thirds of the forest fall within the Peak District National Park, the area has been covered by the Park's ranger service since the 1970s. A total of 401 hectares has been designated a Site of Biological Importance; the area ranges in elevation from around 225 metres to 475 metres, includes two hills, Toot Hill in the east and Nessit Hill in the south. Within the forest are two reservoirs and Ridgegate, which are fed by Bollin Brook, they are the highest of a series of four reservoirs, the lower two being the Bottoms and Teggsnose Reservoirs, south of Tegg's Nose. A continuous area of 400 hectares is covered with woodland or plantation; the forest is managed for timber by United Utilities. Macclesfield Borough Council plans to increase the area of the former royal forest, covered by woodland; the predominant species are Sitka spruce and Japanese Larch, with some Scots Pine, Lodgepole Pine, Corsican pine and Norway Spruce. There are areas of semi-natural mixed and broadleaved woodland oak and beech.
The woodland supports mosses and thirty species of fungi, including fly agaric, honey fungus and the sickener. The area includes areas of acidic unimproved upland grassland, including a hectare within the Trentabank nature reserve. A heronry is located by Trentabank Reservoir within the reserve; the heronry is visible from several viewpoints, close-up CCTV pictures of the nests can be seen in the Trentabank ranger station. Other birds observed in the woodland include crossbills, goldcrests, pied flycatchers, garden warblers and woodcocks, while the reservoirs support abundant waterfowl including cormorants, goldeneyes, mallards, tufted ducks, great crested grebe, little grebe and common sandpipers. A herd of around twelve red deer, the remnant of the royal forest herd, still frequents the forest. Small mammals present in the woodland include weasels. St Stephen's Church, known as Forest Chapel, is located to the east of Macclesfield Forest at SJ974721. In pink sandstone with a stone and slate roof, the church dates from 1673.
It is listed at grade II. St Stephen's still holds a rush-bearing ceremony every August, in which rushes are cut from nearby fields and marshes and strewn on the church floor and plaited into decorations as a symbol of renewal; the tradition ceased in most other churches in the 17th century. Other attractions in the area include a small arboretum near the
Courageuse was a 12-pounder Concorde class frigate of the French Navy. She was launched in 1778; the British captured her in 1799 and thereafter used her as a receiving ship or prison hulk at Malta before breaking her up in 1802. In 1790, under Captain de Grasse-Briançon, Courageuse was part of the Toulon squadron under Vice-admiral de Poute de Nieuil. From 2 August, she ferried troops and civil commissioners to Corsica, cruised in the area before making a port call to Ajaccio and returning to Toulon on 30 October. In 1792, under Captain de La Croix de Saint-Vallier, Courageuse sailed off Smyrna and Tripoli, returning to Smyrna on 6 December. In January 1793, she escorted a convoy to Marseille, from there returned to Toulon, arriving on 12 May. Courageuse took part in the Croisière du Grand Hiver in the winter of 1794-1795, under Captain Dalbarade, she was part of the naval division under Rear-admiral Renaudin, which arrived in Toulon on 2 April 1795. In the summer of 1795, she was part of the station of the Gulf of Roses, under Lieutenant Pourquier, supporting the Army of the Pyrenees in the Siege of Roses.
On 9 July, she defended herself against a Spanish squadron, composed of 16 gunboats, supported by three frigates and two ships of the line. Courageuse, supported by artillery fire from French-held forts fended off the attack. In the fleet of Toulon, Courageuse took part in the Mediterranean campaign of 1798. Under Captain Trullet, Courageuse was part of the Syrian naval station under Rear-admiral Perrée, she ferried ammunition of the French Army besieging Acre. HMS Centaur captured Courageuse in the Action of 18 June 1799. French sources report. British sources report, she served as a receiving ship until at least 1803. Alternatively, served as a receiving or prison ship at Malta where she was broken up in 1802. A few weeks after Centaur captured Courqageuse, HMS Alcmene captured the French privateer Courageux near the Azores, she may have been taken into service as HMS Lutine. She was sold for breaking up at the Peace of Amiens; the coincidence of two prizes with identical names being at the same place at the same time and both being taken into the Royal Navy in the theatre has resulted in some confusion of the vessels.
The capture on 29 March 1800 of a Courageux, taken into Minorca, the existence in 1800 of a French naval brig at Toulon named Courageux only adds to the confusion. Fonds Marine. Campagnes. Inventaire de la sous-série Marine BB4. Tome premier: BB4 1 à 482 James, William; the Naval History of Great Britain: From the Declaration of War by France In 1793 to the Accession of George IV. London, UK: R. Bentley. OCLC 656581450. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours. 1. Group Retozel-Maury Millau. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922. Troude, Onésime-Joachim. Batailles navales de la France. 2. Challamel ainé. Troude, Onésime-Joachim. Batailles navales de la France. 3. Challamel ainé. Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1793–1817: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 1861762461. Winfield, Rif & Stephen S Roberts French Warships in the Age of Sail 1786 - 1861: Design Construction and Fates.. ISBN 9781848322042 List of ship names of the Royal Navy