Obando the Municipality of Obando, is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 59,197 people, it is 16 kilometres away from the Philippine capital Manila and is part of Manila's conurbation which reaches San Ildefonso in its northernmost part. In the 18th century, the municipalities now known as Meycauayan and Obando comprised only one town, the Municipality of Meycauayan; the town of Polo and Obando, formed. In the year 1623, the municipality of Polo was organized which included the present-day territories of the Town of Obando. By virtue of a decree promulgated during the time of Governor and Captain General of the Archipelago, Francisco Jose de Obando y Solis, the town was created and separated from its mother town Polo on May 14, 1753. In the Governor's untimely death at the hands of the British during the Seven Years' War, the creation and establishment of the town was made and attended by the Alcalde Mayor of the province, Don Francisco Morales y Mozabe, the Provincial Minister, S. Gregorio, Rev. Fr.
Alejandro Ferrer, together with numerous religious devotees. The minister, chosen to administer the town was Rev. Fr. Manuel De Olivendia. In 1907, Obando was made an independent town of Bulacan. Through the untiring efforts of the municipal officials, a portion of Gasak, Navotas was reclaimed to form a part of Obando; the municipal officials, believing that this portion was once a part of the municipality but was adopted by Navotas in the course of time, effortlessly pushed through its claim to regain the area. The concerted action of all those concerned paid off when on January 30, 1975, by virtue of a Presidential Decree No. 646, a portion of 1.78 square kilometers of Gasak, Navotas was returned to Obando. This is fishpond and sandy beach and believed that when developed, this will serve as a good tourist attraction. By resolution of 1975 Municipal Council, the area was made into a barangay and named it Nuestra Señora de Salambao in honor of one of its patron saints. Obando is bordered by Valenzuela City in the east, Navotas City and Malabon City in the south, Bulakan in the north, the waters of Manila Bay in the west.
Flat and low-lying coastal plains characterize the general topography of Obando. The area was an estuary, but it filled up from the peripheral parts of each sand bar and sand spit and formed up into current figure that consisted of commercial district industrial district, residential area and fishpond. Within the municipality are two rivers and three creeks namely Meycauayan River, in the north, Pinagkabalian River, in the south and Paco Creek, Hulo Creek and Pag-asa Creek traversing the town parallel to the provincial road. Obando, just like the other towns of Bulacan, has two pronounced seasons: wet season; the wet season is from May to October and the dry season is from November to April. The rainfall of the wet season accounts for about 80% of the annual rainfall, due to west monsoons and typhoons. Obando is politically subdivided into 11 barangays. Barangays Binuangan and Salambao are located along the Paliwas River, can only be reached by means of motorized boats. In the 2015 census, the population of Obando, was 59,197 people, with a density of 1,100 inhabitants per square kilometre or 2,800 inhabitants per square mile.
In 2002, Obando had an estimated population of 58,245 wherein 49% are male and 51% are female. Of the current population, about 14% live in rural barangays while the rest constitute the urban population. There are 12,349 households; the average monthly income of a household is P9,000.00 below the P9,540.00 minimum for a family of 6 threshold set by Department of Social Welfare and Development. River pollution caused by the Tanza, Navotas dumpsite remains a problem. In 2002, under the leadership of Mayor Nesty Joaquin, the Sangguniang Bayan of Obando, Bulacan passed a controversial resolution allowing all the Phileco barges that contains tons of Metro Manila's garbage to pass the river of Obando and dumped it in a river-turned "controlled" dumpsite facility in Tanza, Navotas, only 1 km away from Obando. Mass actions followed. Studies showed that the operation of the dump was polluting the river and had caused several diseases among residents old folks and children; the Obando Landfill poses a concern because of the possibility of flooding.
Environment Secretary Ramon J. P. Paje has been asked to revoke the environmental compliance certificate that his department issued to a landfill project for aggravating the situation in Obando town of Bulacan. Coalition president Roy Alvarez warned Paje the flooding in Obando is proof that the fishing town is a flood-prone area and the construction of a sanitary landfill is a blunder; the threat of extreme weather disturbances due to climate change and constructing a landfill in a flood disaster hotspot like Obando, Alvarez said. Citizens’ groups, religious associations, an environmental health coalition and a fisherfolk alliance, had asked Paje to stop the construction of the 44-hectare landfill in Barangay Salambao in Obando, they cited the proximity of the waste disposal facility to Manila Bay. The protesters said that the Obando landfill project is illegal and violative of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act, they expressed belief the landfill will prejudice the health of Obando River
A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion characterized by the principles of its founder's religious practice. The order is composed of laypeople and, in some orders, clergy. Religious orders exist in many of the world's religions. In Buddhist societies, a religious order is one of the number of monastic orders of monks and nuns, many of which follow under a different school of teaching, such as Thailand's Dhammayuttika order - a monastic order founded by King Mongkut. A well-known Chinese Buddhist order is the ancient Shaolin order in Ch'an Buddhism and in modern times the Order of Hsu Yun. A Catholic religious institute is a society whose members pronounce vows that are accepted by a superior in the name of the Church and who live a life of brothers or sisters in common. Catholic religious orders and congregations are the two historical categories of Catholic religious institutes.
Religious institutes are distinct from secular institutes, another kind of institute of consecrated life, from lay ecclesial movements. In the Catholic Church, members of religious institutes, unless they are deacons or priests in Holy Orders, are not clergy, but belong to the laity. While the state of consecrated life is neither clerical nor lay, institutes themselves are classified as one or the other, a clerical institute being one that "by reason of the purpose or design intended by the founder or by virtue of legitimate tradition, is under the direction of clerics, assumes the exercise of sacred orders, is recognized as such by the authority of the Church". Well-known Roman Catholic religious institutes, not all of which were classified as "orders" rather than "congregations", include Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, Piarists, Oblates of Mary Immaculate and the Congregation of Holy Cross. Several religious orders evolved during the Crusades to incorporate a military mission thus became "religious military orders", such as the Knights of the Order of Saint John.
It is typical of non-monastic religious institutes to have a motherhouse or generalate that has jurisdiction over any number of dependent religious communities, for its members to be moved by their superior general to any other of its communities, as the needs of the institute at any one time demand. In accordance with the concept of independent communities in the Rule of St Benedict, the Benedictines have autonomous abbeys. Hence they can not move -- abbess -- to another abbey. An "independent house" may make a new foundation which remains a "dependent house" until it is granted independence by Rome and itself becomes an abbey; the autonomy of each house does not prevent them being affiliated into congregations – whether national or based on some other joint characteristic – and these, in turn, form the supra-national Benedictine Confederation. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, there is only one type of monasticism; the profession of monastics is considered by monks to be a Sacred Mystery. The Rite of Tonsure is printed in the Euchologion, the same book as the other Sacred Mysteries and services performed according to need.
See also: Active Lutheran orders Martin Luther had concerns with the spiritual value of monastic life at the time of the Reformation. After the foundation of the Lutheran Churches, some monasteries in Lutheran lands and convents adopted the Lutheran Christian faith. Other examples of Lutheran religious orders include the "Order of Lutheran Franciscans" in the United States. A Lutheran religious order following the Rule of St. Benedict, "The Congregation of the Servants of Christ," was established at St. Augustine's House in Oxford, Michigan, in 1958 when some other men joined Father Arthur Kreinheder in observing the monastic life and offices of prayer; this order has strong ties in Germany. In 2011, an Augustinian religious order, the Priestly Society of St. Augustine was established by the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church, its headquarters is at Christ Lutheran Church ALCC. Kent Island, Fr. Jens Bargmann, Ph. D. is the Grand Prior. Religious orders in England were dissolved by King Henry VIII upon the separation of the English church from Roman primacy.
For three hundred years, there were no formal religious orders in Anglicanism, although some informal communities – such as that founded by Nicholas Ferrar at Little Gidding – sprang into being. With the advent of the Oxford Movement in the Church of England and worldwide Anglicanism in the middle of the 19th century, several orders appeared. In 1841, the first order for women was established; the first order for men was founded 25 years later. Anglican religious voluntarily commit themselves for life, or a term of years, to holding their possessions in common or in trust. There are presently thirteen active religious orders for men, fifty-three for women, eight mixed gender; the Methodist Church of Great Britain, its ancestors, have established a number of orders of Deaconesses
Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico
Santa Clara Pueblo is a census-designated place in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, United States and a federally recognized tribe of Native American Pueblo people. Santa Clara Pueblo was established about 1550; the pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos, the people are from the Tewa ethnic group of Native Americans who speak the Tewa language. The pueblo is on the Rio Grande, between Ohkay Owingeh to the north and San Ildefonso Pueblo to the south. Santa Clara Pueblo is famous for producing hand-crafted pottery blackware and redware with deep engravings; the pueblo is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Santa Clara Pueblo is located at 35°58′16″N 106°5′21″W, about 1.5 miles south of Española on NM 30. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.1 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 census found that 1,018 people lived in the CDP, while 1,182 people in the United States reported being Santa Claran and 1,425 people reported being Santa Claran or in combination with another group.
Pueblo peoples lived in the area for millennia before they met Juan de Oñate and his exploration party on July 11, 1598. Pueblo archaeology shows that Ancient Pueblo Peoples lived in the general region as far back as 1200BC. First visited in 1541, a segment of Francisco Coronado's expeditionary force met with the residents of the nearby Caypa pueblo. After annexation of the region into the Spanish Kingdom, as part of the 1601 expansion of Oñate's colonial capital, a chapel was built there by 1617. Fray Alonso de Benavides established a mission in 1628. History shows; the pueblo would join forces with others and would fight against the Spanish royal government in 1680 in the revolt. The original and unoccupied chapel was destroyed. Two other chapel buildings would be constructed there; the current church replaced the former in 1918. In 1782, a small pox outbreak decimated the population; the eighth section of the Act of July 22, 1854 mandated a census of the newly acquired possessions of the US government.
In review of the land's title, the pueblo presented a Spanish Royal decree dated October 15, 1713 that the title to land and various pueblos could be expected. Though lost, the decree on the title papers, if they existed, assured protection of the pueblos' right to protection of their homelands from encroachment; the result of the title research led the pueblo community to be of the first recognized by Congress. Among the arts practiced at Santa Clara Pueblo, pottery is one of the most well-known. Traditionally, pottery was made by girls and women, while many potters today are women, there are many men who make pottery as well. Santa Clara Pueblo potters are known for their black polished and red polished pottery in a distinctive style the use of incised work. "Knife-wing" or eagle feather designs are common on Santa Clara pottery There are a number of well-known ceramic artists from Santa Clara. Four approaches are used in the decoration of the majority of Santa Clara Pueblo ceramics: painted designs, impressed patterns, incised designs, resist-firing with incised or sgraffito designs.
Angela Baca, matriarch of the Santa Clara melon potters Gregory Cajete and educator Tammy Garcia, ceramic artist and sculptor Luther Gutierrez, potter Margaret Gutierrez, potter Joseph Lonewolf, potter Nora Naranjo-Morse, contemporary artist and filmmaker Jeff Roller, traditional pottery artist and bronze sculptor Linda and Merton Sisneros, potters Paul Speckled Rock, award-winning potter and bronze sculptor, gallery owner Anita Louise Suazo, traditional potter Roxanne Swentzell, contemporary ceramicist and bronze sculptor, Native plant activist, mother of ceramic and performance artist Rose B. Simpson Rose B. Simpson, internationally recognized mixed-media and performance artist Margaret Tafoya, celebrated Santa Clara traditional potter Pablita Velarde, celebrated Santa Clara painter Nancy Youngblood, distinguished Santa Clara Potter Nathan Youngblood, traditional potter Suzette A. Shije,Politician and Acting Cabinet Secretary of NM Indian Affairs Department Puye Cliff Dwellings - the ruins of an abandoned pueblo and National Monument managed by Santa Clara Pueblo.
Santa Clara Indian Reservation National Register of Historic Places listings in Rio Arriba County, New Mexico Indian Pueblo Cultural Center - Santa Clara Pueblo Santa Clara Pueblo Community Library Santa Clara Pueblo at National Park Service Santa Clara Pueblo pottery gallery Children of the Clay: A Family of Pueblo Potters, the Swentzell family of Santa Clara Pueblo
The Holy Land is an area located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River. Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical Land of Israel and with the region of Palestine; the term "Holy Land" refers to a territory corresponding to the modern State of Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan, parts of southern Lebanon and of southwestern Syria. Jews and Muslims all regard it as holy. Part of the significance of the land stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem, as the historical region of Jesus' ministry, as the site of the Isra and Mi'raj event of c. 621 CE in Islam. The holiness of the land as a destination of Christian pilgrimage contributed to launching the Crusades, as European Christians sought to win back the Holy Land from the Muslims, who had conquered it from the Christian Byzantine Empire in the 630s. In the 19th century the Holy Land became the subject of diplomatic wrangling as the Holy Places played a role in the Eastern Question which led to the Crimean War of 1853-1856.
Many sites in the Holy Land have long been pilgrimage destinations for adherents of the Abrahamic religions, including Jews, Christians and Bahá'ís. Pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, to confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, to connect to the Holy Land. Jews do not refer to the Land of Israel as "Holy Land"; the Tanakh explicitly refers to it as "holy land" in only one passage. The term "holy land" is further used twice in the deuterocanonical books; the holiness of the Land of Israel is implied in the Tanakh by the Land being given to the Israelites by God, that is, it is the "promised land", an integral part of God's covenant. In the Torah many mitzvot commanded to the Israelites can only be performed in the Land of Israel, which serves to differentiate it from other lands. For example, in the Land of Israel, "no land shall be sold permanently". Shmita is only observed with respect to the land of Israel, the observance of many holy days is different, as an extra day is observed in the Jewish diaspora.
According to Eliezer Schweid: The uniqueness of the Land of Israel is...'geo-theological' and not climatic. This is the land which faces the entrance of the spiritual world, that sphere of existence that lies beyond the physical world known to us through our senses; this is the key to the land's unique status with regard to prophecy and prayer, with regard to the commandments From the perspective of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, the holiness of Israel had been concentrated since the sixteenth century for burial, in the "Four Holy Cities": Jerusalem, Hebron and Tiberias - as Judaism's holiest cities. Jerusalem, as the site of the Temple, is considered significant. Sacred burials are still undertaken for diaspora Jews who wish to lie buried in the holy soil of Israel. According to Jewish tradition, Jerusalem is the location of the binding of Isaac; the Hebrew Bible mentions the name "Jerusalem" 669 times because many mitzvot can only be performed within its environs. The name "Zion", which refers to Jerusalem, but sometimes the Land of Israel, appears in the Hebrew Bible 154 times.
The Talmud mentions the religious duty of colonising Israel. So significant in Judaism is the act of purchasing land in Israel, the Talmud allows for the lifting of certain religious restrictions of Sabbath observance to further its acquisition and settlement. Rabbi Johanan said that "Whoever walks four cubits in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed entrance to the World to Come". A story says. Shammua' and R. Johanan HaSandlar left Israel to study from R. Judah ben Bathyra, they only managed to reach Sidon when "the thought of the sanctity of Palestine overcame their resolution, they shed tears, rent their garments, turned back". Due to the Jewish population being concentrated in Israel, emigration was prevented, which resulted in a limiting of the amount of space available for Jewish learning. However, after suffering persecutions in Israel for centuries after the destruction of the Temple, Rabbis who had found it difficult to retain their position moved to Babylon, which offered them better protection.
Many Jews wanted Israel to be the place in order to be buried there. The sage Rabbi Anan said "To be buried in Israel is like being buried under the altar." The saying "His land will absolve His people" implies that burial in Israel will cause one to be absolved of all one's sins. For Christians, the Land of Israel is considered holy because of its association with the birth, ministry and resurrection of Jesus, whom Christians regard as the Savior or Messiah, because it is the land of the Jewish people. Christian books, including editions of the Bible had maps of the Holy Land. For instance, the Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae of Heinrich Bünting, a German Protestant pastor, featured such a map, his book was popular, it provided "the most complete available summary of biblical geography and described the geography of the Holy Land by tracing the travels of major figures from the Old and New testaments."As a geographic term, the description "Holy Land" loosely encompasses modern-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan and south-western Syria
The pope known as the supreme pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome and ex officio leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. Since 1929, the pope has been head of state of Vatican City, a city-state enclaved within Rome, Italy; the current pope is Francis, elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI. While his office is called the papacy, the episcopal see and ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See, it is the Holy See, the sovereign entity of international law headquartered in the distinctively independent Vatican City State, established by the Lateran Treaty in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See to ensure its temporal and spiritual independence. The primacy of the Bishop of Rome is derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, giving him the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built; the apostolic see of Rome was founded by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in 1st century, according to Catholic tradition.
The papacy is one of the most enduring institutions in the world and has had a prominent part in world history. In ancient times the popes helped spread Christianity, intervened to find resolutions in various doctrinal disputes. In the Middle Ages, they played a role of secular importance in Western Europe acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs. In addition to the expansion of the Christian faith and doctrine, the popes are involved in ecumenism and interfaith dialogue, charitable work, the defense of human rights. In some periods of history, the papacy, which had no temporal powers, accrued wide secular powers rivaling those of temporal rulers. However, in recent centuries the temporal authority of the papacy has declined and the office is now exclusively focused on religious matters. By contrast, papal claims of spiritual authority have been firmly expressed over time, culminating in 1870 with the proclamation of the dogma of papal infallibility for rare occasions when the pope speaks ex cathedra—literally "from the chair"—to issue a formal definition of faith or morals.
Still, the Pope is considered one of the world's most powerful people because of his extensive diplomatic and spiritual influence on 1.3 billion Catholics and beyond, as well as the official representative of the Catholic Church being the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, with a vast international network of charities. The word pope derives from Greek πάππας meaning "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied in the east, to all bishops and other senior clergy, became reserved in the west to the Bishop of Rome, a reservation made official only in the 11th century; the earliest record of the use of this title was in regard to the by deceased Patriarch of Alexandria, Pope Heraclas of Alexandria. The earliest recorded use of the title "pope" in English dates to the mid-10th century, when it was used in reference to the 7th century Roman Pope Vitalian in an Old English translation of Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum.
The Catholic Church teaches that the pastoral office, the office of shepherding the Church, held by the apostles, as a group or "college" with Saint Peter as their head, is now held by their successors, the bishops, with the bishop of Rome as their head. Thus, is derived another title by which the pope is known, that of "Supreme Pontiff"; the Catholic Church teaches that Jesus appointed Peter as leader of the Church, the Catholic Church's dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium makes a clear distinction between apostles and bishops, presenting the latter as the successors of the former, with the pope as successor of Peter, in that he is head of the bishops as Peter was head of the apostles. Some historians argue against the notion that Peter was the first bishop of Rome, noting that the episcopal see in Rome can be traced back no earlier than the 3rd century; the writings of the Church Father Irenaeus who wrote around AD 180 reflect a belief that Peter "founded and organized" the Church at Rome.
Moreover, Irenaeus was not the first to write of Peter's presence in the early Roman Church. Clement of Rome wrote in a letter to the Corinthians, c. 96, about the persecution of Christians in Rome as the "struggles in our time" and presented to the Corinthians its heroes, "first, the greatest and most just columns", the "good apostles" Peter and Paul. St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote shortly after Clement and in his letter from the city of Smyrna to the Romans he said he would not command them as Peter and Paul did. Given this and other evidence, such as Emperor Constantine's erection of the "Old St. Peter's Basilica" on the location of St. Peter's tomb, as held and given to him by Rome's Christian community, many scholars agree that Peter was martyred in Rome under Nero, although some scholars argue that he may have been martyred in Palestine. First-century Christian communities would have had a group of presbyter-bishops functioning as leaders of their local churches. Episcopacies were established in metropolitan areas.
Antioch may have developed such a structure before Rome. In Rome, there were many who claimed to be the rightful bishop, though again Irenaeus stressed the validity of one line of bishops from the time of St. Peter up to his contemporary Pope Victor I and listed them; some writers claim that the emergence of a single bishop in Rome did not occur until the middle of the 2nd century. In their view, Linus and Clement were prominent presbyter-bishops
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall; the word fresco is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is associated with Italian Renaissance painting. Buon fresco pigment is mixed with room temperature water and is used on a thin layer of wet, fresh plaster, called the intonaco; because of the chemical makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed with the water will sink into the intonaco, which itself becomes the medium holding the pigment. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster; the chemical processes are as follows: calcination of limestone in a lime kiln: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2 slaking of quicklime: CaO + H2O → Ca2 setting of the lime plaster: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O In painting buon fresco, a rough underlayer called the arriccio is added to the whole area to be painted and allowed to dry for some days.
Many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia, a name used to refer to these under-paintings. Later,new techniques for transferring paper drawings to the wall were developed; the main lines of a drawing made on paper were pricked over with a point, the paper held against the wall, a bag of soot banged on them on produce black dots along the lines. If the painting was to be done over an existing fresco, the surface would be roughened to provide better adhesion. On the day of painting, the intonaco, a thinner, smooth layer of fine plaster was added to the amount of wall, expected to be completed that day, sometimes matching the contours of the figures or the landscape, but more just starting from the top of the composition; this area is called the giornata, the different day stages can be seen in a large fresco, by a sort of seam that separates one from the next. Buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster.
A layer of plaster will require ten to twelve hours to dry. Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, the unpainted intonaco must be removed with a tool before starting again the next day. If mistakes have been made, it may be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them a secco. An indispensable component of this process is the carbonatation of the lime, which fixes the colour in the plaster ensuring durability of the fresco for future generations. A technique used in the popular frescoes of Michelangelo and Raphael was to scrape indentations into certain areas of the plaster while still wet to increase the illusion of depth and to accent certain areas over others; the eyes of the people of the School of Athens are sunken-in using this technique which causes the eyes to seem deeper and more pensive. Michelangelo used this technique as part of his trademark'outlining' of his central figures within his frescoes. In a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or more giornate, or separate areas of plaster.
After five centuries, the giornate, which were nearly invisible, have sometimes become visible, in many large-scale frescoes, these divisions may be seen from the ground. Additionally, the border between giornate was covered by an a secco painting, which has since fallen off. One of the first painters in the post-classical period to use this technique was the Isaac Master in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. A person who creates fresco is called a frescoist. A secco or fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster; the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. It is important to distinguish between a secco work done on top of buon fresco, which according to most authorities was in fact standard from the Middle Ages onwards, work done a secco on a blank wall. Buon fresco works are more durable than any a secco work added on top of them, because a secco work lasts better with a roughened plaster surface, whilst true fresco should have a smooth one.
The additional a secco work would be done to make changes, sometimes to add small details, but because not all colours can be achieved in true fresco, because only some pigments work chemically in the alkaline environment of fresh lime-based plaster. Blue was a particular problem, skies and blue robes were added a secco, because neither azurite blue nor lapis lazuli, the only two blue pigments available, works well in wet fresco, it has become clear, thanks to modern analytical techniques, that in the early Italian Renaissance painters quite employed a secco techniques so as to allow the use of a broader range of pigments. In most early examples this work has now vanished, but a whole painting done a secco on a surface roughened to give a key for the paint may survive well
Christianity has used symbolism from its beginnings. Each saint has a reason why they led an exemplary life. Symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church. A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them; the study of these forms part of iconography in art history. They were used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art, they are carried in the hand by the Saint. Attributes vary with either time or geography between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can be recognised by a distinctive facial type – as can Christ. In the case of saints their actual historical appearance can be used.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs. The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people, being shown and of their story; the following is a list of some of these attributes. Mary is portrayed wearing blue, her attributes include a blue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily and rosary beads. Delaney, John P.. Dictionary of Saints. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7. Lanzi, Fernando. Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703. Post, W. Ellwood. Saints and Symbols. SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948. Walsh, Michael. A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7. Whittemore, Carroll E.. Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014. Calendar of saints Christian symbolism Christianization of saints and feasts Doctor of the Church Iconography List of canonizations, for a list of Catholic canonizations by date Martyrology Patron saint Weather saints "Christian Iconography".
Augusta State University. Archived from the original on 2014-03-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown "Hagiographies and icons for many Orthodox saints". Orthodox Church in America. "Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index". Archived from the original on 2005-05-31. "Saints' Badges or Shields". "On the Canonizations of John Paul II". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28