Northern Rivers is a region of the Australian state of New South Wales, located between 590 kilometres and 820 kilometres north of the state capital, Sydney. At its most northern point, the region is 102 kilometres south south–east of the Queensland capital and this area has a mild, sub-tropical climate. The Northern Rivers region is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, to the north is the border between New South Wales and Queensland, where the Darling Downs are located to the north–west and South East Queensland directly to the north. The southern boundary is the Dorrigo ranges, which mark the southern boundary for the Clarence River Basin. The defining characteristic of the region are the valleys of the Clarence and Tweed rivers and their sources, hence the regions name. The region contains the Southern Cross University, which is headquartered at Lismore and has campuses in Tweed Heads, the North Coast Institute of TAFE has campuses at Lismore, Casino, Kingscliff, Maclean and Wollongbar.
The Northern Rivers has its own based in Murwillumbah the Northern Rivers Symphony Orchestra as well as the Lismore Symphony Orchestra. The region has a history of Italian settlement, the locality of New Italy was settled in 1882 by Italian pioneers who attempted to cultivate the areas difficult interior. Mid North Coast New England South East Queensland The Northern Rivers Vaccination Supporters Northern Rivers Tourism Northern Rivers Geology Blog
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley. It is a river valley that remains open to the sea. Typically, rias have a dendritic, treelike outline although they can be straight and this pattern is inherited from the dendritic drainage pattern of the flooded river valley. The drowning of river valleys along a stretch of coast and formation of rias results in an extremely irregular, there are islands, which are summits of partly submerged, pre-existing hill peaks. A ria coast is a coastline having several parallel rias separated by prominent ridges, the sea level change that caused the submergence of a river valley may be either eustatic, or isostatic. The result is often a large estuary at the mouth of a relatively insignificant river. The word ria comes from Portuguese ria or Galician ría, which is related to Spanish and Galician río, Rias are present all along the Galician coast in Spain. As originally defined, the term was restricted to drowned river valleys cut parallel to the structure of the rock that was at right angles to the coastline.
However, the definition of ria was expanded to other flooded river valleys regardless of the structure of the country rock, for a period of time, European geomorphologists regarded rias to include any broad estuarine river mouth, including fjords. These are long, narrow inlets with steep sides or cliffs, in the 21st century, the preferred usage of ria by geologists and geomorphologists is to refer solely to drowned unglaciated river valleys. It therefore excludes fjords by definition, since fjords are products of glaciation, the country has no rias as such, the Ria de Aveiro in Aveiro, and Ria Formosa in Eastern Algarve are actually lagoons. Atlantic coast of Spain Galicia, The Rias Baixas, like the Ria of Vigo, Ria of Pontevedra, Ria de Arousa, Ria of Muros and Noia, Ria of Corcubion and Ria de Aldán. The Rias Altas like the Ria of Corunna, Ria of Ares and Betanzos, Ria of Cedeira, Ria of O Barqueiro, Ria of Ferrol, Ria of Ortigueira, Ria of Viveiro, Ria of Foz and Ria of Ribadeo. Asturias, Ria of Avilés, Ria of Ribadeo, Ria of Navia, Ria of Villaviciosa, Ria of Ribadesella, Ria of Llanes, basque Country, Ria of Bilbao, mouth of the rivers Nervión, and Cadagua.
Andalusia, Ria of Carreras, Ria of Huelva at the mouth of the rivers Odiel, The rias in northern Brittany are called Abers, Aber Wrach, Aber Benoît, Aber Ildut. Ireland, Lough Swilly located on the tip of Ireland on the Inishowen peninsula region is an example of an Irish ria. Wales, Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire is a ria, others include the River Towy and the River Loughor. On the north coast is the River Camel and the River Taw, in Essex is the Blackwater River and River Crouch
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of the Earths oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, the Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 metres. Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere are in the Pacific Ocean, the oceans current name was coined by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the Spanish circumnavigation of the world in 1521, as he encountered favourable winds on reaching the ocean. He called it Mar Pacífico, which in both Portuguese and Spanish means peaceful sea, important human migrations occurred in the Pacific in prehistoric times. Long-distance trade developed all along the coast from Mozambique to Japan and therefore knowledge, extended to the Indonesian islands but apparently not Australia. By at least 878 when there was a significant Islamic settlement in Canton much of trade was controlled by Arabs or Muslims.
In 219 BC Xu Fu sailed out into the Pacific searching for the elixir of immortality, from 1404 to 1433 Zheng He led expeditions into the Indian Ocean. The east side of the ocean was discovered by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa in 1513 after his expedition crossed the Isthmus of Panama and he named it Mar del Sur because the ocean was to the south of the coast of the isthmus where he first observed the Pacific. Later, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed the Pacific East to West on a Castilian expedition of world circumnavigation starting in 1519, Magellan called the ocean Pacífico because, after sailing through the stormy seas off Cape Horn, the expedition found calm waters. The ocean was often called the Sea of Magellan in his honor until the eighteenth century, sailing around and east of the Moluccas, between 1525 and 1527, Portuguese expeditions discovered the Caroline Islands, the Aru Islands, and Papua New Guinea. In 1542–43 the Portuguese reached Japan, in 1564, five Spanish ships consisting of 379 explorers crossed the ocean from Mexico led by Miguel López de Legazpi and sailed to the Philippines and Mariana Islands.
The Manila galleons operated for two and a half centuries linking Manila and Acapulco, in one of the longest trade routes in history, Spanish expeditions discovered Tuvalu, the Marquesas, the Cook Islands, the Solomon Islands, and the Admiralty Islands in the South Pacific. In the 16th and 17th century Spain considered the Pacific Ocean a Mare clausum—a sea closed to other naval powers, as the only known entrance from the Atlantic the Strait of Magellan was at times patrolled by fleets sent to prevent entrance of non-Spanish ships. On the western end of the Pacific Ocean the Dutch threatened the Spanish Philippines, Spain sent expeditions to the Pacific Northwest reaching Vancouver Island in southern Canada, and Alaska. The French explored and settled Polynesia, and the British made three voyages with James Cook to the South Pacific and Australia and the North American Pacific Northwest, one of the earliest voyages of scientific exploration was organized by Spain in the Malaspina Expedition of 1789–1794.
It sailed vast areas of the Pacific, from Cape Horn to Alaska and the Philippines, New Zealand and the South Pacific. Growing imperialism during the 19th century resulted in the occupation of much of Oceania by other European powers, and later, Japan, in Oceania, France got a leading position as imperial power after making Tahiti and New Caledonia protectorates in 1842 and 1853 respectively. After navy visits to Easter Island in 1875 and 1887, Chilean navy officer Policarpo Toro managed to negotiate an incorporation of the island into Chile with native Rapanui in 1888, by occupying Easter Island, Chile joined the imperial nations
Kyogle Council is a local government area in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. Kyogle Council comprises a large and diverse region with natural attributes, including the Border Ranges National Park and other heritage listed areas. The Mayor of Kyogle Council is Clr, at the 2011 census, there were 9,228 people in the Kyogle local government area, of these 50.3 per cent were male and 49.7 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.3 per cent of the population, the median age of people in the Kyogle Council area was 45 years, which was significantly higher than the national median of 37 years. Children aged 0 –14 years made up 19.1 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years, of people in the area aged 15 years and over,46.6 per cent were married and 15.1 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Kyogle Council area between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 1.06 per cent, and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 census, the median weekly income for residents within the Kyogle Council area was significantly lower than the national average.
At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the Kyogle local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 85 per cent of all residents. In excess of 23 per cent of all residents in the Kyogle Council at the 2011 census nominated no religious affiliation, affiliation with Christianity was 55 per cent, which was slightly higher than the national average of 50.2 per cent. Kyogle Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as three separate wards, each electing three Councillors, the Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office. The Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council
William IV of the United Kingdom
William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death. The third son of George III and younger brother and successor to George IV, he was the last king, William served in the Royal Navy in his youth and was, both during his reign and afterwards, nicknamed the Sailor King. He served in North America and the Caribbean, in 1789, he was created Duke of Clarence and St Andrews. Since his two brothers died without leaving legitimate issue, he inherited the throne when he was 64 years old. Although William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, through his brother, the Viceroy of Hanover, he granted his German kingdom a short-lived liberal constitution. William was succeeded in the United Kingdom by his niece, William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of King George III and Queen Charlotte. He had two brothers and Frederick, and was not expected to inherit the Crown.
He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber of St Jamess Palace on 20 September 1765 and his godparents were his paternal uncles, the Duke of Gloucester and Prince Henry, and his paternal aunt, Princess Augusta, hereditary duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. He spent most of his life in Richmond and at Kew Palace. At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman and his experiences in the navy seem to have been little different from those of other midshipmen, though in contrast to other sailors he was accompanied on board ships by a tutor. He did his share of the cooking and got arrested with his shipmates after a brawl in Gibraltar. He served in New York during the American War of Independence, I am fully persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral. The plot did not come to fruition, the British heard of it and assigned guards to William and he became a lieutenant in 1785 and captain of HMS Pegasus the following year.
The two were friends, and dined together almost nightly. At Nelsons wedding, William insisted on giving the bride away and he was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, and was promoted to rear-admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year. William sought to be made a duke like his brothers, and to receive a similar parliamentary grant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to stand for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon, Williams political record was inconsistent and, like many politicians of the time, cannot be certainly ascribed to a single party. William ceased his active service in the Royal Navy in 1790, the following year he spoke in favour of the war, expecting a command after his change of heart, none came
Bonalbo, a rural village in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia, is located 815 kilometres north-east of Sydney. In the 2011 census and the area had a population of 543. The towns name derives from the Gidabal word bunawalbu meaning bloodwood trees, the first European settler in the area was J. D. McLean, a Scots settler who drove his sheep up from the Hunter Valley in 1841 when the depression struck. He established the Bunalbo or Duck Creek run and became a major pastoralist and it was at this time that cedar-getters first moved into the area. Bonalbo township developed on a part of McIntyres holding which fronted on to Peacock Creek, the depression of the 1890s drove a number of selectors away, including McIntyre who sold his land to Paddy McNamee. New selectors appeared in the 1900s when McNamee proved the land was arable, by 1910 there were about 100 selectors in the area living on densely timbered land and with no roads to facilitate access to the wider world. Land was purchased from McNamee and the township was established in 1911 with McNamee building and owning the shop, hotel.
He may have built the post office and hall, in the 1920s, a railway branch line was intended to connect Casino with Bonalbo but construction was abandoned due to the advent of the Second World War. Historically the towns economy was supported by farming and the timber industry. The current population of the town and surrounding areas is around 500 people, Bonalbo is a very pretty little town, with amenities which are attractive to retirees. All amenities are within walking distance of the centre of town, jacqui Lawrence, a slalom kayaking Olympic Silver medalist, attended Bonalbo Central School. Clarence River List of never used railways Old Bonalbo, New South Wales Tooloom National Park Media related to Bonalbo at Wikimedia Commons
Clarence Valley Council
Clarence Valley Council is a local government area in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. The council services an area of 10,441 square kilometres and draws its name from the Clarence River, the area under management is adjacent to the Pacific Highway, the Gwydir Highway and the North Coast railway line. The Clarence Valley region includes the coastal plain and lower valleys of the Clarence, most of the valley is agricultural, however the oceanside towns of Yamba and Iluka are popular holiday resorts. The Mayor of Clarence Valley Council is Richie Williamson, an independent politician and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.7 per cent of the population which is more than double the national and state averages of 2.5 per cent. The median age of people in the Clarence Valley Council area was 46 years, children aged 0 –14 years made up 18.6 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 21.3 per cent of the population. Of people in the area aged 15 years and over,49.3 per cen% were married and 14.
6% were either divorced or separated, population growth in the Clarence Valley Council area between the 2006 census and the 2011 Census was 3.15 per cent. When compared with total growth of Australia for the same period, being 8.32 per cent. At the 2011 Census, the proportion of residents in the Clarence Valley local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 82 per cent of all residents, Clarence Valley Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as one entire ward. All Councillors are elected for a fixed term of office. The Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council. The most recent election was held on 10 September 2016, and the makeup of the Council is as follows, The current Council, elected in 2016, in order of election, is, Clarence Valley Council Website
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, and classified as an interim Australian bioregion. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea and it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, the sea is characterised by its warm and stable climate, with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the worlds largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, all previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, and fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are particularly rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs, in addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows, the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. The Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South, the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering. The geological formation processes are proceeding, as partly evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea, on 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami. The epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara and it was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude 5.0 or greater. The resulting tsunami killed at least 52 people and destroyed more than 900 homes, the sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations.
They include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia, the Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro which includes the East Australian Current and it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea. This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is strongest around February and weakest around August, the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation and this irregularity results in concomitant fluctuations of the sea water composition near the river delta. The surface water temperature varies on the south of the sea from 19 °C in August to 24 °C in February and it is rather warm and stable at 27–28 °С in the north all through the year
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840