Mindelo is a port city in the northern part of the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde. Mindelo is the seat of the parish of Nossa Senhora da Luz, the municipality of São Vicente; the city is home to 93% of the entire island's population. Mindelo is known for its colourful and animated carnival celebrations, with roots in Portuguese traditions. A settlement at Mindelo was founded in 1793 by the Portuguese, it was named Nossa Senhora da Luz, renamed Leopoldina around 1820 after the Queen consort. In 1838 it was renamed Mindelo after the 1832 Landing at Mindelo, north of Porto, it became a coal deposit for ships of the British East India Company in 1838, followed by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company in 1850. The settlement became a town in 1858, had 1,400 inhabitants then, it became a city in 1879, had 3,717 inhabitants then. In 1884 a submarine communications cable was laid between Europe, Africa and North America, making Mindelo an important communications centre for the British Empire. From the beginning of the 20th century the port of Mindelo lost its importance for transatlantic navigation.
Causes for this were the shift from coal to oil as fuel for ships, the rise of competing ports like Dakar and the Canary Islands and the lack of investment in port infrastructure. Between 1910 and 1940 there were several strikes in Mindelo, on 7 June 1934 there were riots in the streets of Mindelo, caused by unemployment and poverty. One man was killed, several were injured. Between 1940 and 1958 three prolonged periods of severe drought, combined with soil erosion and overgrazing, brought famine in Cape Verde. In the whole archipelago, about 45,000 people died and 20,000 people emigrated. Mindelo attracted immigrants, notably from nearby Santo Antão, continued to grow. Mindelo was the cultural capital of the Portuguese-speaking world from November 2002 until November 2003. Mindelo is considered the cultural capital of Cape Verde. Mindelo is situated at a large natural harbour; the town is surrounded by low mountains: the Monte Cara and the Morro Branco headland to the west, the Monte Verde to the east.
The town is crossed by the river Ribeira de Julião. The Cesária Évora Airport lies 9 km southwest of Mindelo, near the village São Pedro. Ferries for Santo Antão leave from the port; the city is divided into the following localities for statistical reasons: Mindelo city has a desert climate, much akin to Santa Cruz de Tenerife or Las Palmas on the Canary Islands with only difference of being somewhat warmer during winter months. The average annual temperature in Mindelo is 23.6 °C. It is dry with only 127 mm annual precipitation, its economy consists of business, shipping and more tourism which developed more recently. Mindelo has several hotels and tourist agencies; the main streets of Mindelo are Avenida Marginal along the waterfront, the perpendicular Rua Libertadores de África. Many colonial buildings from the 19th and early 20th century have been preserved in the city centre. Sites of interest include: Paços do Concelho, built 1860-1873, the city hall of the municipality of São Vicente Palácio do Povo, the former Palácio do Governo, built in 1874, expanded in 1928-34 Our Lady of the Light Cathedral, Catholic church built in 1862, seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mindelo Centro Nacional de Artesanato e Design, built as the house of Senator Vera Cruz at the end of the 19th century, now houses exhibitions from Cape Verdean craftsmen Fortim d'El Rei, a former fortress built in 1852 Torre de Belém, on the waterfront, a 1918-1937 replica of the Belém Tower in Lisbon Farol do Ilhéu dos Pássaros, lighthouse on Ilhéu dos Pássaros Municipal market, built in 1878 the former Customs House, now the Cultural Centre of Mindelo, built 1858-1860 Former British Consulate, built in the 1870s Statue of Diogo Afonso on Mindelo Beach - after the explorer of the island Statue of Baltasar Lopes da Silva - after one of the most famous writers of Cape Verde Mindelo has been twinned with the following cities: Porto, Portugal Coimbra, Portugal Kronach, Germany New Bedford, United States St Helena Bay, Western Cape, South Africa University of Cape Verde, Faculty of Engineering and Maritime Sciences and School of Business and Governance Jean Piaget University of Cape Verde - Mindelo campus University of Mindelo - Cape Verde's third university Escola Jorge Barbosa - a campus of the University of Cape Verde Liceu Ludgero Lima - a middle school At the 2010 census, Mindelo had 70,468 inhabitants.
It is the second largest city in Cape Verde after Praia. Mindelo has several sports teams that includes the city, Académica and Derby are clubs that includes the entire island. Académica do Mindelo – football, athletics Batuque FC - football GS Castilho – football, cricket FC Derby – football CS Mindelense – football, the oldest club in Cape VerdeThe main football stadium is Estádio Municipal Adérito Sena. Basketball and futsal are played at Polivalente de Amarante in the southwest. Bana – singer Bau – guitar and cavaquinho player Bela Duarte – artist B. Leza – writer and singer Josimar Dias – footballer Cesária Évora – folk singer Fantcha – singer Humberto Duarte Fonseca – scientist Corsino Fortes – writer Fock – footballer Sergio Frusoni – poet António Aurélio Gonçalves – writer, critic and professor Leão Lopes – community developer, documentary-maker, politician Manuel Lopes – writer, one of the founders of Claridade João Cleofas Martins - photographer and humorist Ovídio
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th
Baltasar Lopes da Silva
Baltasar Lopes da Silva was a writer and linguist from Cape Verde, who wrote in both Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole. With Manuel Lopes and Jorge Barbosa, he was the founder of Claridade. In 1947 he published Chiquinho, considered the greatest Cape Verdean novel and O dialecto crioulo de Cabo Verde which describes different dialects of creoles of Cape Verde, he sometimes wrote under the pseudonym Osvaldo Alcântara. Ressaca, his work of poems can be found on the CD Poesia de Cabo Verde e Sete Poemas de Sebastião da Gama by Afonso Dias. Baltasar Lopes da Silva was born in the village of Calejão on the island of São Nicolau in Cape Verde on April 23, 1907, he attended the seminary in Ribeira Brava in his native island. He headed to Portugal and studied at the University of Lisbon; when he was at Lisbon, Baltasar Lopes studied with the most important writers and authors of the Portuguese culture including Vitorino Nemésio and Luís da Câmara Reis. He graduated with degrees in Law and Romance Philology, he was one of the excellent students at the university.
Afterwards, he returned to Cape Verde and was professor at Liceu Gil Eanes in Mindelo, São Vicente island, for a few years, he was the lyceum's rector. He returned to Portugal again and educated in Leiria for a short time, during the difficulties of relationship with Portuguese politics that occurred that time, he returned to Cape Verde where he continued his education and advocacy, his last days were spent in Lisbon, where he was transferred for treatment of a cerebrovascular disease and died shortly afterwards on May 28, 1989. Baltasar Lopes, with the collaboration of other writers, such as Manuel Lopes, Manuel Ferreira, António Aurélio Gonçalves, Francisco José Tenreiro, Jorge Barbosa, Daniel Filipe, founded the Cape Verdean journal Claridade in 1936. Claridade published essays and short stories, its contributors wrote about the problems of their society, such as drought and emigration, bringing clarity to the study of Cape Verdean reality with regard to the most disadvantaged social groups.
In 1947, Lopes published the novel Chiquinho. Chiquinho describes in detail the customs, people and social problems of Cape Verde in early twentieth century, it is a coming-of-age novel about the people of Cape Verde and the step that many Cape Verdeans had to take to achieve a better life: emigration. The novel is organized into three parts: 1. "Childhood", in which the protagonist Chiquinho lives with his family and community in the village of Caleijão on the island of São Nicolau and learns his first letters. 2. "São Vicente," in which Chiquinho continues his education in high school on the island of São Vicente, where he meets new friends and his first love Nuninha. Chiquinho and his classmates found the Grémio, an association and a journal, similar to Claridade, in the sense that it attempts to change the social environment of the archipelago. 3. "The Waters", the third and final part of the novel, in which Chiquinho returns to his island and becomes a teacher. This part is focused on the calamity of drought, a major problem in Cape Verde, which results in famine and many deaths.
At the end of the novel, Chiquinho emigrates to the United States with the hope of a better life. Baltasar Lopes da Silva belonged to a family of great literary figures of Cape Verde including António Aurélio Gonçalves and poet José Lopes da Silva. Chiquinho A Caderneta Cabo Verde visto por Gilberto Freyre O dialecto crioulo de Cabo Verde, a description of the Cape Verdean creole language. Antologia da Ficção Cabo-Verdiana Contemporânea Cântico da Manhã Futura, volume of poetry published under the name Osvaldo Alcântara Os Trabalhos e os Dias A street named after the writer is located in the north of Mindelo northeast of the city center, he was featured on a Cape Verdean $500 escudo note, issued between 1992 and 2000. On the back is its ships. Leão Lopes Baltasar Lopes 1907-1989, University of Rennes 2, 2002, 3 volumes, pgs. 22, 151, 281 Baltasar da Silva Lopes on britannica.com Baltazar Lopes da Silva
Cape Verdean Creole
Cape Verdean Creole is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken on the islands of Cape Verde. It is called kriolu or kriol by its native speakers, it is the native creole language of all Cape Verdeans and is used as a second creole language by the Cape Verdean diaspora. The creole has particular importance for creolistics studies, it is the most spoken Portuguese-based creole language. The current designation of this creole is Cape Verdean Creole. However, in everyday usage the creole is called kriolu by its speakers; the names Cape Verdean and Cape Verdean language have been proposed for whenever the creole will be standardized. The history of Cape Verdean Creole is hard to trace due to a lack of written documentation and to ostracism during the Portuguese administration of Cape Verde. There are presently three theories about the formation of Creole; the monogenetic theory claims that the creole was formed by the Portuguese by simplifying the Portuguese language in order to make it accessible to African slaves.
That is the point of view of authors like Prudent, Chaudenson, Lopes da Silva. Authors like Adam and Quint argue that Creole was formed by African slaves using the grammar of Western African languages and replacing the African lexicon with the Portuguese one. Linguists like Chomsky and Bickerton argue that Creole was formed spontaneously, not by slaves from continental Africa, but by the population born in the islands, using the grammar with which all human beings are born. According to A. Carreira, Cape Verdean Creole was formed from a Portuguese pidgin, on the island of Santiago, starting from the 15th century; that pidgin was transported to the west coast of Africa by the lançados. From there, that pidgin diverged into two proto-Creoles, one, the base of all Cape Verdean Creoles, another, the base of the Guinea-Bissau Creole. Cross referencing information regarding the settlement of each island with the linguistic comparisons, it is possible to form some conjectures; the spreading of Cape Verdean Creole within the islands was done in three phases: In a first phase, the island of Santiago was occupied, followed by Fogo.
In a second phase, the island of São Nicolau was occupied, followed by Santo Antão. In a third phase, the remaining islands were occupied by settlers from the first islands: Brava was occupied by population from Fogo, Boa Vista by population from São Nicolau and Santiago, Maio by population from Santiago and Boa Vista, São Vicente by population from Santo Antão and São Nicolau, Sal by population from São Nicolau and Boa Vista. In spite of Creole being the first language of nearly all the population in Cape Verde, Portuguese is still the official language; as Portuguese is used in everyday life and Cape Verdean Creole live in a state of diglossia. Due to this overall presence of Portuguese, a decreolization process occurs for all the different Cape Verdean Creole variants. Check in this fictional text: Santiago variant: Quêl mudjêr cú quêm m’ encôntra ónti stába priocupáda púrqui êl sqêci dí sês minínus nâ scóla, í cándu êl bâi procurâ-’s êl câ olhâ-’s. Alguêm lembrâ-’l quí sês minínus sâ tâ pricisába dí material pâ úm pesquisa, entõ êl bâi encontrâ-’s nâ biblioteca tâ procúra úqui ês cría.
Pâ gradêci â túdu quêm djudâ-’l, êl cumêça tâ fála, tâ flâ cômu êl stába contênti di fúndu di curaçãu. São Vicente variant: Quêl m’djêr c’ quêm m’ encontrá ônt’ táva priocupáda púrq’ êl sq’cê d’ sês m’nín’s nâ scóla, í cónd’ êl bái procurá-’s êl câ olhá-’s. Alguêm lembrá-’l qu’ sês m’nín’s táva tâ pr’cisá d’ material pâ úm pesquisa, entõ êl bâi encontrá-’s nâ biblioteca tâ procurá úq’ ês cría. Pâ gradecê â túd’ quêm j’dá-’l, êl c’meçá tâ fála, tâ dzê côm’ êl táva contênt’ d’ fúnd’ d’ curaçãu. Translation to Portuguese: Aquela mulher com quem eu encontrei-me ontem estava preocupada porque ela esqueceu-se das suas crianças na escola, e quando ela foi procurá-las ela não as viu. Alguém lembrou-lhe que as suas crianças estavam a precisar de material para uma pesquisa, então ela foi encontrá-las na biblioteca a procurar o que elas queriam. Para agradecer a todos os que ajudaram-na, ela começou a falar, dizendo como ela estava contente do fundo do coração. Translation to English: That woman with whom I met yesterday was worried because she forgot her children at school, when she went to seek them she didn’t see them.
Someone reminded her that her children were needing some material for a research, so she found them at the library searching what they needed. To thank to everyone who helped her, she started speaking, telling how she was glad from the bottom of her heart. In this text, several situations of decreolization / Portuguese intromission can be noted: cú quêm / c’ quêm – Portuguese order of words com quem.
Os Flagelados do Vento Leste
Os Flagelados do Vento Leste is a novel published in 1960 by Cape Verdean author Manuel Lopes. Along with Claridade, Baltazar Lopes participated with Manuel Lopes and Jorge Barbosa with founded members of the review and the name was the movement in the main activists of the same; the novel was awarded. The novel was adapted into a movie directed by António Faria in 1987. Os Flagelados do Vento Leste at livroditera.blogspot.com Os Flagelados do Vento Leste on IMDb
The Azores the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean about 1,360 km west of continental Portugal, about 1,643 km west of Lisbon, in continental Portugal, about 1,507 km northwest of Morocco, about 1,925 km southeast of Newfoundland, Canada, its main industries are agriculture, dairy farming, livestock and tourism, becoming the major service activity in the region. In addition, the government of the Azores employs a large percentage of the population directly or indirectly in the service and tertiary sectors; the main capital of the Azores is Ponta Delgada. There are an islet cluster, in three main groups; these are Corvo, to the west. They lie in a northwest-southeast direction. All the islands have volcanic origins, although some, such as Santa Maria, have had no recorded activity since the islands were settled. Mount Pico, on the island of Pico, is the highest point in Portugal, at 2,351 m.
If measured from their base at the bottom of the ocean to their peaks, which thrust high above the surface of the Atlantic, the Azores are some of the tallest mountains on the planet. The climate of the Azores is mild for such a northerly location, being influenced by its distance from the continents and by the passing Gulf Stream. Due to the marine influence, temperatures remain mild year-round. Daytime temperatures fluctuate between 16 °C and 25 °C depending on season. Temperatures above 30 °C or below 3 °C are unknown in the major population centres, it is generally wet and cloudy. The culture, dialect and traditions of the Azorean islands vary because these once-uninhabited and remote islands were settled sporadically over a span of two centuries. A small number of alleged hypogea, earthen structures carved into rocks that were used for burials, have been identified on the islands of Corvo, Santa Maria and Terceira by Portuguese archaeologist Nuno Ribeiro, who speculated that they might date back 2000 years, implying a human presence on the island before the Portuguese.
These kinds of structures have been used in the Azores to store cereals and suggestions by Ribeiro that they might be burial sites are unconfirmed. Detailed examination and dating to authenticate the validity of these speculations is lacking, it is unclear whether these structures are natural or man-made and whether they predate the 15th-century Portuguese colonization of the Azores. Therefore, clear confirmation of a pre-Portuguese human presence in the archipelago has not yet been published; the islands were known in the fourteenth century, parts of them appear in the Catalan Atlas. In 1427, a captain sailing for Prince Henry the Navigator Gonçalo Velho, may have rediscovered the Azores, but this is not certain. In Thomas Ashe's 1813 work, A History of the Azores, the author identified a Fleming, Joshua Vander Berg of Bruges, who made landfall in the archipelago during a storm on his way to Lisbon, he stated that the Portuguese claimed it for Portugal. Other stories note the discovery of the first islands by sailors in the service of Henry the Navigator, although there are few documents to support the claims.
Although it is said that the archipelago received its name from the goshawk, a common bird at the time of discovery, it is unlikely that the bird nested or hunted in the islands. There were no large animals on Santa Maria, so after its discovery and before settlement began, sheep were let loose on the island to supply future settlers with food. Settlement did not take place however. There was not much interest among the Portuguese people to live in an isolated archipelago so far from civilization. Gonçalo Velho Cabral patiently gathered resources and settlers for the next three years and sailed to establish colonies first on Santa Maria and on São Miguel. Settlers cleared bush and rocks to plant crops—grain, grape vines, sugar cane, other plants suitable for local use and of commercial value, they brought domesticated animals, such as chickens, cattle, sheep and pigs and built houses and established villages. The archipelago was settled from mainland Portugal. Portuguese settlers came from the provinces of Algarve, Minho and Ribatejo as well as Madeira.
São Miguel was first settled in 1449, the settlers – from the Estremadura, Alto Alentejo and Algarve areas of mainland Portugal, under the command of Gonçalo Velho Cabral – landed at the site of modern-day Povoação. Many early settlers were Portuguese Sephardic Jews who fled the pressures of inquisition in mainland Portugal. In 1522, Vila Franca do Campo the capital of the island, was devastated by an earthquake and landslide that killed about 5,000 people, the capital was moved to Ponta Delgada; the town of Vila Franca do Campo was rebuilt on the original site and today is a thriving fishing and yachting port. Ponta Delgada received its city status in 1546. From the first settlement, the pioneers applied themselves to agriculture and by the 15th century Graciosa exported wheat, barley and brandy; the goods were sent to Terceira because of the proximity of the island. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Gra
African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde
The African Party of Independence of Cape Verde is a former socialist party and a social-democratic political party in Cape Verde. Its members are nicknamed "os tambarinas" in Portuguese, they identify themselves with the color yellow. In 1956, its forerunner, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, was founded by the Bissau-Guinean nationalist leader Amílcar Cabral. PAIGC fought to overthrow the Portuguese Empire, unify Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, use its vanguardism to advance socialist revolution. From 1961 on, the PAIGC fought a guerrilla warfare campaign in cooperation with its fraternal party umbrella group, the CONCP, during the Portuguese Colonial War. By 1973 the PAIGC controlled Guinea-Bissau, while Portugal's own Carnation Revolution in 1974 dissolved the empire, relinquishing Cape Verde within the next year. After the wars of national liberation, the PAIGC established a socialist state within both territories under Amilcar Cabral's brother, Luís Cabral.
Following a military coup in Guinea-Bissau that ousted Cabral in November 1980, the Cape Verde portion of the party became the PAICV in January 1981. At an extraordinary party congress in February 1990, the PAICV approved the introduction of multiparty democracy. Pereira stepped down as General Secretary of PAICV in July 1990, Prime Minister Pedro Pires replaced him in August 1990; the PAICV won 23 of the 79 National Assembly seats in the January 1991 multiparty parliamentary election, losing to the Movement for Democracy. Pereira was subsequently defeated in the February 1991 presidential election, PAICV again fared poorly in the December 1991 local elections. At a party congress in August 1993, Pires was replaced as General Secretary by Aristides Lima and was instead elected as President of PAICV; the PAICV won 21 out of 72 National Assembly seats in the December 1995 parliamentary election. At a PAICV congress in September 1997, Pires faced José Maria Neves in a leadership contest, Pires was elected with 68% of the vote.
Pires stepped down as PAICV President in 2000 in preparation for a presidential bid in the next year's election and he was succeeded by Neves. In the presidential election held on 11 and 25 February 2001, PAICV candidate Pedro Pires, who won 46.52% of the vote in the first round, narrowly defeated the MpD's Carlos Veiga by a margin of only 12 votes in the run-off. In the parliamentary election held on 22 January 2006, PAICV won 52.28% of the popular vote and 41 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly. In the presidential election held on 12 February 2006, Pedro Pires again narrowly defeated Carlos Veiga, winning 50.98% of the vote. In the parliamentary election held on 7 February 2011, the PAICV led by Jose Maria Neves won 52.68% of the popular vote and 38 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly. In the presidential election held on 7 and 21 August 2011, Manuel Inocêncio Sousa lost to Jorge Carlos Fonseca with 32.66% of the votes in the first round and 45.74% in the second round. The PAICV, which advertises itself as an Africa-oriented political party in contrast to the somewhat neoliberal and europhile MpD, enjoys its greatest support in the municipalities most comparable to those on the African mainland: the dense urban areas such as Praia, rural agricultural areas such as Santa Cruz and São Filipe.
The party is a full member of the Socialist International. Official website