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Clark Air Base

Clark Air Base is a Philippine Air Force base on Luzon Island in the Philippines, located 3 miles west of Angeles, about 40 miles northwest of Metro Manila. Clark Air Base was a United States military facility, operated by the U. S. Air Force under the aegis of Pacific Air Forces and their predecessor organizations from 1903 to 1991; the base covered 14.3 square miles with a military reservation extending north that covered another 230 square miles. The base was a stronghold of the combined Filipino and American forces during the final months of World War II and a backbone of logistical support during the Vietnam War until 1975. Following the departure of American forces in 1991 due to the eruption of Mount Pinatubo, the base became the site of Clark International Airport, as well as the Clark Freeport Zone and the Air Force City of the Philippine Air Force. In April 2016, an "Air Contingent" of USAF A-10s and HH-60s was deployed from U. S. air bases in Okinawa to Clark. The Air Contingent was composed of five A-10C Thunderbolt IIs from the 51st Fighter Wing, Osan AB, South Korea.

The primary mission of the contingent appears to be to patrol disputed South China Sea islands, "to provide greater and more transparent air and maritime domain awareness to ensure safety for military and civilian activities in international waters and airspace." The air contingent builds upon previous deployments by U. S. Navy P-8 Poseidon aircraft to Clark. Clark Air Base was established as Fort Stotsenburg in Sapang Bato, Angeles in 1903 under control of the U. S. Army. A portion of Fort Stotsenburg was set aside for the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps and named Clark Field in September 1919 after Harold M. Clark. Clark served as a landing field for U. S. Army Air Corps medium bombers and accommodated half of the heavy bombers stationed in the Philippines during the 1930s, it was large for an air field of its day, in the late summer and fall of 1941, many aircraft were sent to Clark in anticipation of a war with Imperial Japan. However, most of them were destroyed on the ground during an air raid nine hours after the Pearl Harbor attack.

The base was overrun by Japanese forces in early January 1942 and became a major center for Japanese air operations. Japanese aircraft flying out of Clark participated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the largest naval battle of the Second World War. During the war, the Allied prisoners on the Bataan Death March passed by the main gate of Clark Air Base as they followed the railway tracks north towards Camp O'Donnell. Clark Air Base was recaptured by Americans in January 1945, after three months of fierce fighting to liberate the Philippines, it was returned to U. S. Army Air Forces control. Clark grew into a major American air base during the Cold War, serving as an important logistics hub during the Vietnam War; the base was closed by the United States in the early 1990s due to the refusal by the Philippine government to renew the lease on the base. After extensive damage from the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption of 1991, the Philippine government attempted to reopen base lease talks, but terms could not be reached and the lease was not extended.

In November 1991, the United States Air Force lowered the U. S. transferred Clark Air Base to the Philippine government. With the United States military's withdrawal from Clark, the base was systematically looted by the local population and was left abandoned for several years, it became the Clark Freeport Zone, the site of Clark International Airport and parts of it are still owned and operated by the Philippine Air Force, retaining the same name, Clark Air Base. In June 2012, the Philippine government, under pressure from Chinese claims to their seas, agreed to the return of American military forces to Clark. During much of the Cold War, Clark Air Base's activity revolved around the 405th Fighter Wing renumbered as the 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing in September 1974 and its fleet of F-4 Phantom II fighter jets, it hosted an interceptor squadron and a flight school, all of which flew a variety of other combat aircraft. Transient aircraft of many types cargo jets, were common. Fighter planes visited to participate in aerial warfare exercises at Crow Valley about 30 miles to the northwest.

In November 1973, headquarters for the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing was transferred to Clark Air Base. With this move came two squadrons of C-130E transport aircraft, the 21st Tactical Airlift Squadron and the 776th Tactical Airlift Squadron. Clark was served by cargo and passenger flights to and from Andersen AFB, Guam. During the 1970s, passengers arrived via Trans International Douglas DC-8 and Braniff International DC-8s flights from Travis AFB, California. By 1980, the base had grown to such an extent that weekly Flying Tigers Boeing 747 service to St. Louis had begun; the 747 service was taken over by Tower Air sometime in the late 1980s and was augmented with a weekly Hawaiian Airlines L-1011 or Douglas DC-8 to Guam-Honolulu-Los Angeles. On 29 October 1987, unidentified gunmen killed three airmen. On 14 May 1990, suspected New People's Army communist rebels killed two airmen. Clark Air Base was arguably the most urbanized military facility in history and was the largest American base overseas.

At its peak around 1990, it had a permanent population of 15,000. It had a base ex

Georgian Bay Line

The Georgian Bay Line is the popular name of the Chicago and Georgian Bay Transit Company. From 1913 until 1967, the Georgian Bay Line provided transit service and cruise voyages to passengers on North America's Great Lakes; the company was founded by Robert Chenault Davis, who for many years was employed by the Goodrich Line in Chicago. Mr. Davis envisioned a fleet of ships dedicated to passengers rather than the passenger and freight ships that plied the Great Lakes; the initial board consisted of Mr. Davis and four other Chicagoans: Charles Bour of President Northern Railways Advertising Company; the company was capitalized with $250,000 in preferred stock from about 35 investors located in Chicago and Detroit. The Georgian Bay Line began operation in 1913 with the SS North American, launched on January 16, 1913. Due to a profitable first season, the company launched the SS South American on February 21, 1914. Built of steel, these ships were sister ships; the North American had an overall length of.

They carried passengers between Chicago, Mackinac Island, Sault Ste. Marie, Duluth, Georgian Bay, Detroit and Buffalo, sometimes intermediate ports. In the 1940s, the Georgian Bay Line acquired a third vessel, SS Alabama, a refugee from the bankrupt Goodrich Transit Company where Mr. Davis had begun his career; the three ships tied up at the foot of 16th Street in Holland, each winter and until they were permanently assigned elsewhere. Up until World War II vessels like those operated by the Georgian Bay Line were an essential part of the transportation infrastructure of the Great Lakes; the line sold large quantities of point-to-point tickets to revenue passengers who paid publicly tariffed rates to be moved from one port to another. After the war, with inexpensive motor fuel and reliable, paved roads, point-to-point passenger volume declined and the Georgian Bay Line shifted its emphasis to the cruise ship trade. Both vessels advertised weeklong cruises through the upper Great Lakes, with the South American traditionally visiting Lake Superior and the North American taking the Lake Michigan run.

Mackinac Island, in the Straits of Mackinac, was the division point where the Y-shaped arms of the Georgian Bay Line's service territory came together. The Georgian Bay Line's long-term viability was compromised by the seasonal nature of Great Lakes cruise trade; the boats were traditionally fitted out each spring in May and mothballed each fall in late September. After the invention of the passenger jet airplane in the 1950s, North American tourists found themselves able to fly to ports in locations, such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, where twelve-month cruising was possible. In addition, cruise ships operating in international waters could hire crews from the Third World and did not have to obey U. S. or Canadian labor laws. The Georgian Bay Line lost money in the 1960s. In 1963, after the GBL retired the North American, the South American and the Greene Line's Delta Queen were the last two long-distance cruise ships sailing under the U. S. flag. Neither vessel could meet modern fire-safety standards.

In 1966, citing the danger to passengers of a catastrophic fire, Congress passed a law ordering both passenger vessels to tie up to the docks permanently. A series of temporary exceptions were carved out for the Delta Queen, but not for the South American. In 1967, the final Georgian Bay Line boat made its last trip; the North American sank while under tow to what would have been a new life as part of a merchant marine academy, the South American was scrapped in 1992. The Alabama was still afloat until 2005, when she was scrapped. Mary A. Dempsey, "Remembering the Georgian Bay Line", Michigan History Magazine Jan/Feb 1997, pages 28–37. Richard Braun, "The Georgian Bay Line", Ships and the Sea magazine August 1952, pages 10–15 Manitowoc Maritime Museum, Georgian Bay Lines collection The Marine Historical Society of Detroit North American South American

Richard de Ferings

Richard de Ferings, was the archbishop of Dublin. Ferings was an official of the archdiocese of Canterbury, in which capacity he won the friendship of Archbishop John Peckham. In 1279 he was present at the Council of Reading. In 1280 he was for a short time an official of the diocese of Winchester, having been appointed by Peckham during a vacancy of the bishopric. Next year Peckham made him Archdeacon of Canterbury, in 1284 gave him the rectory of Tunstall, near Sittingbourne, Kent, to be held in commendam with the archdeaconry. Ferings remained archdeacon until 1299, when he was appointed by Pope Boniface VIII to the archbishopric of Dublin; the feuds of the two rival chapters had long made the elections to that see constant subjects of disputes. In 1297 William of Hothum, himself a nominee of the pope after a contested election, died soon after his consecration. Early in 1298 the canons of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin elected Adam of Belsham, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin chose their dean, Thomas of Chadsworth, for whom the canons had tried to secure the archbishopric.

In their hurry neither body had secured the royal licence to elect. Both were accordingly summoned to answer for the contempt, the temporalities of Christ Church were for a time seized by King Edward. Ferings's appointment by the pope was not opposed by the king, his consecration was abroad, as it is not noticed in the English authorities, though the date is given as 1299 in the ‘Annals of Ireland’ published with the ‘Chartulary of St. Mary's Abbey, Dublin’, it was not, until June 1300 that Ferings received from the crown the temporalities of his see, after a renunciation of all the words in the bull of appointment which were prejudicial to the royal authority. Ferings spent little of his time in Ireland, his conciliatory temper led him to several attempts to make peace with disappointed candidates and angry chapters. Before his consecration he had appointed his old rival, Thomas of Chadsworth, his vicar, though he subsequently feared lest the infirmities of age made him unfit for the post, urged the canons of St. Patrick's and Chadsworth himself to recommend a fit substitute if he were incapable.

In 1300 he succeeded in persuading the canons of St. Patrick's and the monks of Christ Church to agree to a ‘final and full concord,’ which, while recognising that both churches were of metropolitical and cathedral rank, gave Christ Church, as the elder foundation, a certain honorary precedence, it was to conciliate the wounded pride of St. Patrick's that he continued to make Chadsworth his vicar-general during his frequent absences abroad. In 1303 he endowed St. Patrick's with the new prebends of Stagonil and Tipperkevin, the latter of which supported two prebendaries, in 1304 he exempted the prebendal churches from the visitations of dean and archdeacon. In the same year he confirmed the arrangements of his predecessors in reference to St. Patrick's. In 1302 he resigned to Edmund Butler the manor of Hollywood, near Dublin, which had for some time been in the possession of the see. In 1303 Ferings was summoned to the English parliament in his capacity of archbishop of Dublin. There are other precedents for this somewhat unusual course.

His absence from Ireland was so far recognised by the king that he gave Ferings special permission to have the revenues of his see sent to England for his support, in letters of protection granted to him Edward speaks of his being in England ‘by the king's order’. During his archbishopric the great valuation of the Irish churches was taken, he died on 17 October 1306. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Ferings, Richard de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900


Chiuduno is a comune in the Province of Bergamo, in Italian region of Lombardy. Chiuduno borders the following municipalities: Bolgare, Carobbio degli Angeli, Grumello del Monte, Telgate; the settlement has Gaulish origins, was a Roman centre as Claudunum on the road between Bergamo and Brescia. It is however mentioned for the first time in a document from 795, in the Middle Ages it developed and received a fortress. Castle, of which only a tower and other parts remain. Another fortification on the border with the territory of Carobbio degli Angeli

Tasneem Alsultan

Tasneem Alsultan is a Saudi-American photographer. She is known for her work on gender and social issues in Saudi Arabia and is a member of the Rawiya women’s Middle Eastern photography collective, she has covered stories in Saudi Arabia for both Vogue Italia and Vanity Fair Italy and has herself been featured in publications such as the New York Times Lens Blog Tasneem was born in Tucson, but completed the majority of early schooling in the U. K, she returned to Saudi Arabia at the age of 16, earning her undergraduate degree at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah. She holds a master's degree in social linguistics and anthropology from Portland State University. After graduating, she taught English courses at colleges in both the U. S. and Saudi Arabia until taking up documentary photography full-time. One of her most popular projects, "Saudi Tales of Love," explores the realities of marriage and widowhood in Saudi Arabia through the eyes of Saudi women. Alsultan has mentioned that the project was influenced by her own personal experience with arranged marriage at the age of 17, which ended in divorce.

Alsultan has a personal photography business where she photographs Saudi weddings. In 2016, her wedding photography was profiled by National Geographic, where she stated that she has photographed more than 120 weddings worldwide. In April 2016, Tasneem was selected by the British Journal of Photography as one of the 16 emerging photographers to watch in 2016, was selected by PDN as one of the 30 photographers to watch in 2017, she has extended her social documentary photography to Kuwait, where she is working on a project that focuses on capturing the unique challenges facing LGBTQ individuals in the country. 2017 "Saudi Tales of Love wins first prize in Contemporary Issues ‘Professional’ at the Sony World Photography Awards and exhibited in Somerset House, London, UK Photographing the Female, Focus Photo Festival, Sun Mill Studios Compound Lower Parel, India ‘Saudi Tales of Love’ Gulf Photo Plus, UAE Rawiya Photo Collective: ‘We Do Not Choose Our Dictators’, Fort Worth Contemporary Arts, Texas, USA Middle East now, Italy Rawiya Photo Collective: ‘We Do Not Choose Our Dictators’, New York, USA La Quatrieme Image, France2016 ‘Saudi Tales of Love’ Photo Kathmandu Festival 2016, Nepal Where Are We Now?, East Wing presentation at Paris Photo 2016 Tiblisi Photo Festival, Georgia Slideshow at Visa Pour L’Image


Nessma TV is a commercial TV channel located in Tunisia, it has a range covering Tunisia, Algeria and Mauritania. Mediaset owns 25% of it. All programmes broadcast on this channel have subtitles in Maghrebi Arabic, it broadcasts such programs like Maghreb version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, called Man sa yarbah al malyoon. The TV channel was launched on March 16, 2007, by Nabil and Ghazi Karoui in partnership with Tarak Ben Ammar and Silvio Berlusconi, it was created it as a subsidiary of Karoui World Group. Bissiyassa Braquage Couzinetna Hakka Dhayf Al Ousboua Envoyé spécial Maghreb Imine Issar Jek El Mersoul Les guignols du Maghreb Memnoua Al Rjel Moustawdaa Nessma Ness El CAN Ness El Hand Ness Hollywood Ness Nessma Ness Sport NetMag Non Solo Moda PlayR Star Academy Maghreb Aşk-ı Memnu Bab al-Hara Cello Kurtlar Vadisi Muhteşem Yüzyıl Nsibti Laaziza Official website