Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Kiowa County, Kansas
Kiowa County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 2,553; the largest city and county seat is Greensburg. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1867, Kiowa County was named after the Kiowa tribe. On May 4, 2007, Greensburg was devastated by an EF5 tornado during the May 2007 tornado outbreak. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 723 square miles, of which 723 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. Kiowa County has a large number of iron-rich meteorites in its soil due to the Brenham meteor fall over 10 thousand years ago. Edwards County Pratt County Barber County Comanche County Clark County Ford County As of the census of 2000, there were 3,278 people, 1,365 households, 924 families residing in the county; the population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 1,643 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.19% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.98% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races.
2.04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,365 households out of which 27.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.60% were married couples living together, 5.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 30.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 21.80% from 25 to 44, 24.60% from 45 to 64, 21.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,576, the median income for a family was $40,950. Males had a median income of $29,063 versus $20,764 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,207.
About 7.40% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.50% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. Like all of the High Plains, Kiowa County is overwhelmingly Republican; the only Democrat to win a majority in the county has been Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936, who achieved the feat against Kansas native Alf Landon. Woodrow Wilson won a plurality in 1916, but since 1944 only three Democrats have reached thirty percent of the county’s vote, Michael Dukakis in 1988 during a major drought and consequent farm crisis is the last Democrat to receive so much as twenty percent. Although the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 to allow the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with the approval of voters, Kiowa County has remained a prohibition, or "dry", county. Greensburg USD 422 Mullinville USD 424 Haviland USD 474 Barclay College, Haviland Greensburg Haviland Mullinville Belvidere Brenham Joy Wellsford Kiowa County has only one township, none of the cities within the county are considered governmentally independent.
Notes Standard Atlas of Kiowa County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. CountyKiowa County - Official Kiowa County - Directory of Public OfficialsHistoricalKiowa County from American History and Genealogy Project MapsKiowa County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Ford County, Kansas
Ford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 33,848, its county seat and most populous city is Dodge City. The county is named in honor of Colonel James Hobart Ford. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,099 square miles, of which 1,098 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is water. Hodgeman County Edwards County Kiowa County Clark County Meade County Gray County U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 54 U. S. Route 56 U. S. Route 283 U. S. Route 400 K-34 The Dodge City Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Ford County; as of the 2000 census, there were 33,848 people, 10,852 households, 7,856 families residing in the county. The population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 11,650 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 75.3% White, 2.1% Black or African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 17.8% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 51.2% of the population. There were 10,852 households out of which 40.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 22.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.42. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.10% under the age of 18, 11.20% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 17.30% from 45 to 64, 11.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 107.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,860, the median income for a family was $42,734. Males had a median income of $27,189 versus $22,165 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,721.
About 9.90% of families and 12.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.40% of those under age 18 and 8.40% of those age 65 or over. Ford County has been Republican for most of its history in recent elections. Only eight Democratic presidential candidates from 1888 to the present day have carried the county, the most recent being Jimmy Carter in 1976. Ford County was a prohibition, or "dry", county until the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 and voters approved the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with a 30% food sales requirement. Spearville USD 381 Dodge City USD 443 Bucklin USD 459 Dodge City Community College Bucklin Dodge City Ford Spearville Fort Dodge Wilroads Gardens Wright Ford County is divided into fourteen townships; the city of Dodge City is considered governmentally independent and is excluded from the census figures for the townships. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size.
Numerous figures of the American Old West lived in Dodge City during its period as a frontier cowtown. These included, most notably, lawmen Wyatt Earp and Bat Masterson as well as gunfighter Doc Holliday. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ford County, Kansas Handbook of Ford County, Kansas. S. Burch Publishing Co. Atlas and Plat Book of Ford County, Kansas. Standard Atlas of Ford County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. CountyFord County - Official Ford County - Directory of Public OfficialsHistoricalFord County History from FCHS, Dodge City, KS Ford County GenWeb Ford County from American History and Genealogy Project MapsFord County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
Comanche County, Kansas
Comanche County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 1,891, its county seat and most populous city is Coldwater. The county is named after the Comanche Native Americans. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 790 square miles, of which 788 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. Kiowa County Barber County Woods County, Oklahoma Harper County, Oklahoma Clark County As of the 2000 census, there were 1,967 people, 872 households, 540 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,088 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.97% White, 0.05% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.78% of the population. There were 872 households out of which 24.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.40% were married couples living together, 6.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.00% were non-families.
Of all households 35.90% were made up of individuals and 21.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.81. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 4.50% from 18 to 24, 21.00% from 25 to 44, 26.50% from 45 to 64, 25.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,415, the median income for a family was $36,790. Males had a median income of $24,844 versus $18,221 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,037. About 8.50% of families and 10.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.70% of those under age 18 and 7.70% of those age 65 or over. Although the Kansas Constitution was amended in 1986 to allow the sale of alcoholic liquor by the individual drink with the approval of voters, Comanche County has remained a prohibition, or "dry", county.
Comanche County USD 300 Coldwater Protection Wilmore Buttermilk Comanche County is divided into four townships. None of the cities within the county are considered "governmentally independent", all figures for the townships include those of the cities. In the following table, the population center is the largest city included in that township's population total, if it is of a significant size. Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Comanche County, Kansas Notes Standard Atlas of Comanche County, Kansas. A. Ogle & Co. CountyComanche County - Official Comanche County - Directory of Public OfficialsMapsComanche County Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Highway Maps: Current, Historic, KDOT Kansas Railroad Maps: Current, 1996, 1915, KDOT and Kansas Historical Society
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Preferred terms include mixed race, biracial, polyethnic, half-and-half, Métis, Dougla, mulatto, Criollo, zambo, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo; some of the terms are considered offensive. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found. In many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, people with multiracial backgrounds make up the majority of the population. Other countries where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, France, Spain, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius and Fiji. While defining race is controversial,race remains a used term for categorization. Insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will be subjective. According to U. S. sociologist Troy Duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African.
Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. In the United States: Many state and local agencies comply with the U. S. Office of Management and Budget 1997 revised standards for the collection and presentation of federal data on race and ethnicity; the revised OMB standards identify a minimum of five racial categories: White. The most significant change for Census 2000 was that respondents were given the option to mark one or more races on the questionnaire to indicate their racial identity. Census 2000 race data are shown for people who reported a race either alone or in combination with one or more other races. In the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish, caboclo, cafuzo and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and métis in French for people of multiracial descent; these terms are in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world.
In Canada, the Métis are a recognized ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent, who have status in the law similar to that of First Nations. Terms such as mulatto for people of African descent and mestizo for people of Native American descent are still used by English-speaking people of the western hemisphere, but when referring to the past or to the demography of Latin America and its diasporic population. Half-breed is a historic term. Mestee, once used, is now used for members of mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Redbones, Brass Ankles and Mayles. In South Africa, much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person and Asians not of African descent. While the term is accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era. In Latin America, where mixtures became tri-racial after the introduction of African slavery, a panoply of terms developed during the colonial period, including terms such as zambo for persons of Amerindian and African descent.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, were illustrations of the different classifications. At one time, Latin American census categories have used such classifications, but in Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times, for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except the Asian Brazilians of some European descent and vice versa, tend to be thrown into the single category of "pardo", although race lines in Brazil do not denote ancestry but phenotype, as such a westernized Amerindian of copper-colored skin is a "pardo", a caboclo in this case, despite being not multiracial, but a European-looking person with one or more African or Indigenous American ancestor is not a "pardo" but a "branco", or a white Brazilian; the same applies to Afro-Brazilians and European or Amerindian ancestors. Most Brazilians of all racial groups are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. In English, the terms miscegenation and amalgamation were used for unions between whites and other ethnic groups.
These terms are now considered offensive and are becoming obsolete. The terms mixed-race, biracial or multiracial are becoming accepted. In other languages, translations of miscegenation did not become politically incorrect. In the United States, the 2000 census was the first in the history of the country to offer respondents the option of identifying themselves as belonging to more than one race; this multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing. Multiracial Americans numbered 6.1 million in 2006, or 2.0% of the population. There is considerable evidence. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their mul
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w