A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general use around the world as a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and non-specialty grout. It was developed from other types of hydraulic lime in England in the mid 19th century, originates from limestone, it is a fine powder, produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker, grinding the clinker, adding 2 to 3 percent of gypsum. Several types of Portland cement are available; the most common, called ordinary Portland cement, is grey, but white Portland cement is available. Its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England, it was named by Joseph Aspdin who obtained a patent for it in 1824. However, his son William Aspdin is regarded as the inventor of "modern" Portland cement due to his developments in the 1840s. Portland cement is caustic, so it can cause chemical burns; the powder can cause irritation or, with severe exposure, lung cancer, can contain some hazardous components, such as crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium.
Environmental concerns are the high energy consumption required to mine and transport the cement, the related air pollution, including the release of greenhouse gases, dioxin, NOx, SO2, particulates. The production of Portland cement contributes to about 10% of world carbon dioxide emission. To meet the rising global population, the International Energy Agency estimated that the cement production is set to increase between 12 to 23% by 2050. There are several ongoing researches targeting a suitable replacement of Portland cement by supplementary cementitious materials; the low cost and widespread availability of the limestone and other naturally-occurring materials used in Portland cement make it one of the lowest-cost materials used over the last century. Concrete produced from Portland cement is one of the world's most versatile construction materials. Portland cement was developed from natural cements made in Britain beginning in the middle of the 18th century, its name is derived from its similarity to Portland stone, a type of building stone quarried on the Isle of Portland in Dorset, England.
The development of modern Portland cement began in 1756, when John Smeaton experimented with combinations of different limestones and additives, including trass and pozzolanas, relating to the planned construction of a lighthouse, now known as Smeaton's Tower. In the late 18th century, Roman cement was patented in 1796 by James Parker. Roman cement became popular, but was replaced by Portland cement in the 1850s. In 1811, James Frost produced a cement. James Frost is reported to have erected a manufactory for making of an artificial cement in 1826. In 1811 Edgar Dobbs of Southwark patented a cement of the kind invented 7 years by the French engineer Louis Vicat. Vicat's cement is an artificial hydraulic lime, is considered the'principal forerunner' of Portland cement; the name Portland cement is recorded in a directory published in 1823 being associated with a William Lockwood and others. In his 1824 cement patent, Joseph Aspdin called his invention "Portland cement" because of the its resemblance to Portland stone.
However, Aspdin's cement was nothing like modern Portland cement, but was a first step in the development of modern Portland cement, has been called a'proto-Portland cement'. William Aspdin had left his father's company. In the 1840's William Aspdin accidentally, produced calcium silicates which are a middle step in the development of Portland cement. In 1848, William Aspdin further improved his cement. In 1853, he moved to Germany, where he was involved in cement making. William Aspdin made what could be called'meso-Portland cement'. Isaac Charles Johnson further refined the production of'meso-Portland cement', claimed to be the real father of Portland cement. John Grant of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1859 set out requirements for cement to be used in the London sewer project; this became a specification for Portland cement. The next development in the manufacture of Portland cement was the introduction of the rotary kiln, patented by Frederick Ransome in 1885 and 1886; the Hoffmann'endless' kiln, said to give'perfect control over combustion' was tested in 1860, showed the process produced a better grade of cement.
This cement was made at the Portland Cementfabrik Stern at Stettin, the first to use a Hoffmann kiln.. The Association of German Cement Manufacturers issued a standard on Portland cement in 1878. Portland cement had been imported into the United States from Germany and England, in the 1870s and 1880s, it was being produced by Eagle Portland cement near Kalamazoo, in 1875, the first Portland cement was produced in the Coplay Cement Company Kilns under the direction of David O. Saylor in Coplay, Pennsylvania. By the early 20th century, American-made Portland cement had displaced most of the imported Portland cement. ASTM C150 defines Portland cement as'hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinkers which consist of hydraulic calcium silicates containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an inter ground addition'; the European Standard EN 197-1 uses the following definition: Portland cement clinker is a hydraulic material which shall consist of at l
Verde Canyon Railroad
The Verde Canyon Railroad is a heritage railroad running between Clarkdale and Perkinsville in the U. S. state of Arizona. The passenger excursion line operates on 20 miles of tracks of the Clarkdale Arizona Central Railroad, a shortline; the Verde Canyon Railroad has its depot, a railway museum in Clarkdale, about 25 miles southwest of Sedona. The tracks on which the Verde Canyon Railroad runs were opened in 1912 as part of a north–south branch line linking a copper smelter at Clarkdale and the copper mines at Jerome to Santa Fe Railway tracks passing through Drake; the Santa Fe Railway owned and operated the 38-mile branch line from 1912 to 1988. David L. Durbano bought the branch line in 1988. Passenger service between Clarkdale at milepost 38 and Perkinsville at milepost 18, resumed in 1990 under the name Verde Canyon Railroad. Milepost 0 of the AZCR is at Drake; the AZCR track to Drake is still used for hauling freight though the excursion line stops at Perkinsville. Excursions involve a 40-mile round trip from Clarkdale to Perkinsville and back.
Scenes from How the West Was Won were filmed at Perkinsville in 1960s. The route follows the Verde River, crossing bridges and trestles, passes through a 680-foot-long curved tunnel. Between milepost 30 and Perkinsville, most of the land along the railroad right-of-way is in the Prescott National Forest or the Coconino National Forest; the railroad carries about 100,000 passengers per year. In 2005 the Verde Canyon Railroad celebrated its one-millionth passenger, the following month was named an "Arizona Treasure" by Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano; the John Bell Railroad Museum is part of the depot complex in Clarkdale. Housed in an old boxcar, the museum displays rail artifacts and photographs, many of which came from Bell's personal collection. List of heritage railroads in the United States List of historic properties in Clarkdale, Arizona "Rail: The Official Magazine of the Verde Canyon Railroad". Clarkdale, Arizona: Verde Canyon Railroad. 2011. OCLC 41598511. Verde Canyon Railroad
The Yavapai–Apache Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Verde Valley, Arizona. Tribal members share two culturally distinct backgrounds and speak two indigenous languages, the Yavapai language and the Western Apache language; the Yavapai–Apache Nation Indian Reservation, at 34°37′10″N 111°53′46″W, consists of five non-contiguous parcels of land located in three separate communities in eastern Yavapai County. The two largest sections, 576 acres together – 90 percent of the reservation's territory, are in the town of Camp Verde. Smaller sections are located in the town of Clarkdale 60.17 acres, the unincorporated community of Lake Montezuma. The reservation's total land area is 642 acres; the total resident population of the reservation was 743 persons as of the 2000 census. The 2010 Census reported 1,615 people on the reservation. Of these, 512 lived in Camp Verde, 218 in Clarkdale, only 13 in Lake Montezuma; the Yavapai–Apaache have live in the southwest since 1100 C. E, their use of the land helped them to survive as gatherers.
Chief YumaFrank, Chief Viola Jimulla, Carlos Montezuma were some of the first leaders of this nation. Beginning in 1865 the Yavapai were moved to several reservations such as: Colorado River Reservation, Fort McDowell, RioVerde, San Carlos, Camp Verde, Middle Verde and Prescott; the Yavapai–Apache Nation operates the Cliff Castle Casino, a popular gaming, recreation and lodging attraction in the Verde Valley. Yavapai people Apache people Dilzhe'e Apache Yavapai–Apache Nation Reservation, Arizona United States Census Bureau Rasmussen, R. E. H American Indian Tribes. Salem Press, 2000. Yavapai–Apache Nation, official website Yavapai–Apache Nation, Arizona Intertribal Council Cliff Castle casino and hotel Yavapai
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cottonwood is a city in Yavapai County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 11,265. Cottonwood is located at 34°43′56″N 112°1′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.7 square miles, all land. Cottonwood has a semi-arid steppe climate. In January the normal high temperature is 55 °F with a low of 26 °F. In July the normal high temperature is 97 °F with a low of 68 °F. Annual precipitation is around 13 inches; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,179 people, 3,983 households and 2,369 families residing in the city. The population density was 860.3 people per square mile. There were 4,427 housing units at an average density of 414.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.24% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 1.57% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.66% from other races, 2.59% from two or more races. 20.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,983 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were Married Couples living together, 10.8% had a female as Head of Household with no Husband present, 40.5% were non-families.
34.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 23.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,444, the median income for a family was $37,794. Males had a median income of $24,308 versus $19,977 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,518. About 8.9% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.5% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over. The city became one of the Arizona municipalities to approve of civil unions for same-sex partners. Cottonwood-Oak Creek School District operates public schools.
The Cottonwood Public Library is part of the Yavapai County Library Network and serves the city of Cottonwood along with surrounding cities including Clarkdale, Camp Verde, Jerome and unincorporated areas of the Verde Valley in Yavapai County. Junior Brown - country singer and guitarist Alvie Self - singer, member Rockabilly Hall of Fame List of historic properties in Cottonwood, Arizona Cottonwood Airport City of Cottonwood Verde Independent - Local newspaper