U.S. Route 84
U. S. Route 84 is an east–west U. S. Highway, it started as a short Georgia–Alabama route in the original 1926 scheme, but by 1941 it had been extended all the way to Colorado. The highway's eastern terminus is a short distance east of Midway, Georgia, at an interchange with Interstate 95; the road continues toward the nearby Atlantic Ocean as a county road. Its western terminus is in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, at an intersection with U. S. 160. The section from Brunswick, Georgia to Roscoe, Texas has been designated by five state legislatures as part of the El Camino East/West Corridor; the designation was in recognition of its history as a migration route from the Atlantic coast to the present Mexico–United States border, one of the routes that Spanish settlers called El Camino Real. The designation is intended to promote the route for both tourism and NAFTA-facilitated trade with Mexico. States are asking for federal funds to widen the US 84 El Camino East/West Corridor; the western terminus of US 84, Pagosa Springs, was made famous by C. W. McCall in the 1975 song and album Wolf Creek Pass.
US 84 ends 1 mile east of downtown Pagosa Springs at a T-intersection with US 160. South of Pagosa Springs, the 28 miles of the Colorado section of US 84 pass through a portion of San Juan National Forest; the highway climbs Confar Hill, a drainage divide between the Rio Blanco and Navajo River, before descending into the village of Chromo and passing into New Mexico. US 84 enters Rio Arriba County, New Mexico 28 miles south of its terminus at US 160. About 6 miles south of the Colorado–New Mexico state line, US 64 comes from the west and travels concurrently with US 84 for the next 28 miles. Only 3 miles east of this intersection, the concurrency crosses the Continental Divide at Sargent Pass, elevation 7,718 feet above sea level or more than 3,100 feet lower than Wolf Creek Pass, the next Continental Divide highway pass to the north. Therefore, only 37 miles of US 84 are located west of the Continental Divide. About 12 miles east of the intersection, US 64/US 84 enters the town of Chama. At a T-intersection, New Mexico State Road 17 enters from the north and terminates at said intersection, while US 64 and US 84 enter from the south and west.
After heading south from Chama, US 64 and US 84 combine for about 14 miles to Tierra Amarilla, where US 64 departs from US 84 and heads southeast, while US 84 continues south. About 57 miles down the road, US 84 is joined by US 285 south of the small community of Chili. About 5 miles further, US 84/US 285 enters the city of Española from the north as North Paseo de Onate Street. At the south end of the town, US 84/US 285 becomes an expressway. About 9 miles further, US 84/US 285 becomes a limited-access freeway. 15 miles further south, the two return to surface street status, travel past downtown Santa Fe via St. Francis Drive. On the south side of Santa Fe at Interstate 25's exit 282A, US 84/US 285 merges with northbound I-25/US 85. All four highways head east and to the south to avoid the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Just before turning north, US 285 continues south. After winding north and south, the freeway begins heading north, US 84 exits about 55 miles at exit 339 near Romeroville and travels in an east/southeast direction, while I-25/US 85 continue north to Colorado.
Following a path southeast and south for 42 miles, US 84 merges with I-40 at I-40's exit 256. After 17 miles I-40/US 84 enters Santa Rosa. About 21 miles from its confluence with I-40, US 84 diverges at exit 277; the highway travels south/southeast for 42 miles until merging with US 60 in downtown Fort Sumner. From the intersection with US 60, US 60/US 84 travels east, passing through Taiban and Melrose before intersecting US 70 after 61 miles in Clovis. From the intersection with US 70, US 64/US 70/US 84 travels east 8.7 miles entering Texico. Here, about 280 feet before the Texas–New Mexico state line, US 60 splits from US 70/US 84 with US 70/US 84 continuing east into Farwell, Texas. Despite being an east-west route, US-84 is signed as north-south between Ft. Sumner and the Colorado border. US 70/US 84 crosses into Texas at Farwell. After passing through Farwell, US 70/US 84 veers to the southeast, continuing as a concurrency until Muleshoe. From Muleshoe, US 70 leaves the route, while US 84 continues on a southeasterly direction across the level plains of the Llano Estacado.
Along this stretch, US 84 travels parallel to the BNSF Railway, crosses a sandy section called the Muleshoe Dunes, passes Littlefield, the birthplace of country singer Waylon Jennings. US 84 continues in a southeasterly direction through cotton fields and small towns such as Anton and Shallowater entering Lubbock, the largest city in the South Plains and the birthplace of Buddy Holly. Signed as Avenue Q, US 84 passes through the heart of downtown Lubbock before making a sharp easterly turn on the southeast side of the city, where it is known as the Slaton Highway. After bypassing the town of Slaton, US 84 makes another gentle turn to the east, following a southeasterly heading through Post and Roscoe, where it merges with I-20. From this point, US 84 follows I-20, until Abilene, where it leaves the interstate, making a hard southerly turn and forming the western side of a three-quarter loop around the city. From the south side of Abilene, US 84 continues as a concurrency with US 83 (signed as US 84 West/East
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marengo County, Alabama
Marengo County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,027; the largest city is Demopolis and the county seat is Linden. It is named in honor of Battle of Marengo near Turin, where French leader Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the Austrians on June 14, 1800. Marengo County was created by the Alabama Territorial legislature on February 6, 1818, from land acquired from the Choctaw Indians by the Treaty of Fort St. Stephens on October 24, 1816; the name of the county commemorates Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Marengo over the Austrian armies on June 14, 1800. This name was chosen in honor of the first European-American settlers, Bonapartists exiled from France after Napoleon's downfall, who in 1817 settled the area around Demopolis, they were trying to develop a Olive Colony. The county seat was known as the Town of Marengo, but in 1823 the name was changed to Linden. Linden is a shortened version of Hohenlinden, scene of the Battle of Hohenlinden, a French victory in Bavaria on December 3, 1800 during Napoleon's campaign.
County courthouse fires occurred in 1848 and 1965, but most of the courthouse records were in a vault and saved in both instances. Situated in Alabama's Black Belt and having a rich soil, the county was developed by planters for numerous cotton plantations, dependent on the labor of gangs of enslaved African Americans; the enslaved black population comprised the majority of the county decades before the American Civil War. In 1860 the population consisted of 24,409 slaves, 6761 free whites, one "free person of color," for a total combined population of 31,171. At this time there were 778 farms in the county. Demopolis was home to the fourth-oldest Jewish congregation in B'nai Jeshurun, it was established in 1858. After the American Civil War, the economy continued to be based on agriculture. In the transition to free labor, many freedmen turned to sharecropping or tenant farming as a way to establish some independence, they did not want to work in owner-controlled field gangs. The county population began to diminish after World War II.
People left the farms for manufacturing jobs elsewhere with the wartime buildup of the defense industry on the West Coast. The movement of blacks out of Mississippi and other parts of the Deep South was considered part of their Great Migration, by which 5 million African Americans left the South from 1940 to 1970; the former cotton fields were converted to other uses. Some were used for pastures for cattle and horses, others for woodlands for timber, others developed as commercial catfish ponds for farming grain-fed catfish. Beginning in the 1960s, industry began to move into the area. Marengo County is situated in the west-central area of the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 983 square miles, of which 977 square miles is land and 5.8 square miles is water. The entire western county border is formed by the Tombigbee River and a small northwestern portion is formed by the Black Warrior River. U. S. Highway 43 U. S. Highway 80 State Route 5 State Route 10 State Route 25 State Route 28 State Route 69 As of the 2010 census, there were 21,027 people residing in the county.
51.7% were Black or African American, 46.4% White, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% of some other race and 0.8% of two or more races. 1.7% were Hispanic or Latino. In 2000 there were 22,539 people, 8,767 households, 6,277 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 10,127 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.71% Black or African American, 47.28% White, 0.08% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races. 0.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,767 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.40% were married couples living together, 19.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.40% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.08. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.50% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 88.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,025, the median income for a family was $35,475. Males had a median income of $36,053 versus $19,571 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,308. About 22.20% of families and 25.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.70% of those under age 18 and 25.30% of those age 65 or over. According to the New York Times, by 2017, the rural Black Belt that stretches across the middle of the state is home to poor counties that are predominantly African-American; these counties include Dallas, Lowndes and Perry." For the 2014-15 school year, the Marengo County School District is operating three K–12 schools, one each in Dixons Mills, Sweet Water. and Thomaston.
One former county school in the Demopolis area was closed by the school board following the 2013-14 school year. Demopolis and Linden have city-run school systems, the Demopolis City S
Washington County, Alabama
Washington County is a county in the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,581; the county seat is Chatom. The county was named in honor of the first President of the United States, it is a dry county, with the exception of Chatom. The area of today's Washington County was long inhabited by various indigenous people. In historic times, European traders encountered first Choctaw and Creek Indians, who had moved southwest from Georgia as early European settlers encroached on their land. Washington County was organized on June 4, 1800 from the Tombigbee District of the Mississippi Territory by proclamation of territorial governor Winthrop Sargent, it was the first county organized in what would become Alabama, as settlers moved westward after the American Revolutionary War. Washington County is the site of the first territorial capital of Alabama. In 1807 former U. S. Vice President Aaron Burr was arrested at Wakefield in Washington County, during his flight from being prosecuted for alleged treason.
Though the U. S. government removed most of the Choctaw and Creek to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s, some Native Americans remained behind and become state citizens. They struggled to maintain their Choctaw culture through years during which the U. S. government imposed a binary system of dividing people into "all other" people of color. In 1979 Alabama recognized the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, its members are concentrated along the border of Washington counties. In the 19th century, the county was developed for cotton plantations, with labor supplied by thousands of African-American slaves. Many were transported by slave traders to the Deep South in a forced migration. During the American Civil War, more than three quarters of the adult white men in the county were serving in the Confederate Army by 1863. In that year, a group of children petitioned the Confederate government to avoid drafting more white men, so they might serve as a home guard militia; the petition claimed it was needed to guard against a potential slave uprising, since there were numerous plantations with large numbers of slaves.
While the county continued to rely on agriculture into the 20th century, the infestation of the boll weevil destroyed many crops. Mechanization reduced the need for labor, thousands of African Americans left the South in the Great Migration to Northern and Midwestern industrial cities, where they could get better jobs and escape the legal segregation of the South; the county has developed other businesses and industry petrochemical. Due to damage from Hurricane Frederic, the county was declared a disaster area in September 1979. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,089 square miles, of which 1,080 square miles is land and 8.4 square miles is water. This makes Washington County larger than the state of Rhode Island in terms of land area; the county is located 60 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico, exceeds 682,000 acres of land. About 88 percent of the land area is situated pine plantations; the Tombigbee River borders Washington County to the east. From the southern point of the river, the boundary runs diagonally south-west, bisecting the community of Calvert.
From there, the southern boundary runs west following the 31°08' N parallel, towards the Mississippi state line, stopping just short before descending due south into Mobile County and forming part of a rectangle that connects with the state line. The western boundary is defined by the Alabama-Mississippi state line; the northern boundary runs west from the state line along the 31°41' N parallel until reaching the Tombigbee River. Choctaw County Clarke County Baldwin County Mobile County Greene County, Mississippi Wayne County, Mississippi U. S. Highway 43 U. S. Highway 45 State Route 17 State Route 56 The Norfolk Southern Railroad runs north out of the Port of Mobile and along the eastern corridor of Washington County, providing transport of raw materials to several chemical and electrical plants situated along the Tombigbee River. According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial makeup of the county is as follows: 65.5% White 24.9% Black 8.0% Native American 0.1% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.2% Two or more races 0.9% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2000, there were 18,097 people, 6,705 households, 5,042 families residing in the county.
The population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 8,123 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.98% White, 26.89% Black or African American, 7.12% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,705 households out of which 37.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.10% were married couples living together, 12.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.80% were non-families. 22.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years.
For every 100 females
Treaty of Mount Dexter
The Treaty of Mount Dexter was signed between the United States and the Choctaws. The treaty was signed November 16, 1805; the 4,142,720-acre area ceded was from the Natchez District to the Tombigbee Alabama River watershed in present-day Mississippi. The preamble begins with, THOMAS JEFFERSON, President of the United States of America, by James Robertson, of Tennessee, Silas Dinsmoor, of New Hampshire, agent of the United States to the Chaktaws, commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States, on the one part, the Mingoes and warriors of the Chaktaw nation of Indians, in council assembled, on the other part, have entered into the following agreement... 1. Cession to the United States. Reservation. 2. Consideration. 3. Payment to certain Indians for past services. 4. Claim of John M'Grew. 5. Boundaries. 6. A certain former grant confirmed. 7. When to take effect; this treaty conveyed large amounts of land in what is now southeastern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama, including much of the western portion of Clarke County, Alabama, to the United States.
In February, 1809, a survey was begun to establish the actual boundary lines between the United States and the Choctaw Nation. The United States contracted with Levin Wailes for this survey; the main signers included James Robertson, Silas Dinsmoor, Mingo Hoomastubbee, Pushmataha. List of Choctaw Treaties Treaty of Hopewell Treaty of Fort Adams Treaty of Fort Confederation Treaty of Hoe Buckintoopa Treaty of Fort St. Stephens Treaty of Doak's Stand Treaty of Washington City Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek List of treaties Choctaw Corner Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties
Baldwin County, Alabama
Baldwin County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. According to the 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the population is 203,709; the county seat is Bay Minette. The county is named in honor of Senator Abraham Baldwin, though he never lived in what is now Alabama; the U. S. federal government designates Baldwin County as the Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is located on the eastern side of Mobile Bay. Part of its western border with Mobile County is formed by the Spanish River, a brackish distributary river. Baldwin County was established on December 1809, ten years before Alabama became a state; the county had been a part of the Mississippi Territory until 1817, when the area was included in the separate Alabama Territory. Statehood was gained by Alabama in 1819. There have been numerous border changes to the county as population grew and other counties were formed. Numerous armies have invaded during the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Civil War. In the first days of Baldwin County, the town of McIntosh Bluff on the Tombigbee River was the county seat.
The county seat was transferred to the town of Blakeley in 1810, to the city of Daphne in 1868. In 1900, by an act of the legislature of Alabama, the county seat was authorized for relocation to the city of Bay Minette. To achieve the relocation, the men of Bay Minette devised a scheme, they fabricated a murder to lure his deputy out of the Daphne. While the law was chasing down the fictitious killer during the late hours, the group of Bay Minette men stealthily traveled the seventeen miles to Daphne, stole the Baldwin County Courthouse records, delivered them to the city of Bay Minette, where Baldwin County's county seat remains. A New Deal mural, completed by WPA artists during the Great Depression, depicts these events, it hangs in the Bay Minette United States Post Office. Due to its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, Baldwin County endures tropical weather systems, including hurricanes. Since the late 20th century, the county was declared a disaster area in September 1979 due to damage from Hurricane Frederic, in July 1997 due to Hurricane Danny, in September 1998 from Hurricane Georges, in September 2004 due to damage from Hurricane Ivan, again in August 2005 due to damage from Hurricane Katrina.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,027 square miles, of which 1,590 square miles is land and 438 square miles is water, it is the largest county by area in Alabama and the 12th-largest county east of the Mississippi River. It is larger than the US state of Rhode Island. Monroe County - northeast Escambia County, Florida - east Escambia County - east Mobile County - west Washington County - northwest Clarke County - northwest Two separate areas in Baldwin County have been designated as "Outstanding Alabama Water" by the Alabama Environmental Management Commission, which oversees the Alabama Department of Environmental Management; as of April 2007, only two other areas in Alabama have received what is the "highest environmental status" in the state. A portion of Wolf Bay and 42 miles of the Tensaw River in northern Baldwin County have received the designation. Officials believe. Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge Interstate 10 Interstate 65 U. S. Highway 31 U.
S. Highway 90 U. S. Highway 98 State Route 59 State Route 104 State Route 180 State Route 181 State Route 182 State Route 225 State Route 287 Bay Minette, 1R8, has a single runway 08/26, 5,497' Fairhope, KCQF, has a single runway 01/19, 6,604' Foley, 5R4, has a single runway 18/36, 3,700' Gulf Shores, Jack Edwards Airport JKA has two runways, 09/27 at 6,962' and 17/35 at 3,596'There are numerous private airports and heliports in Baldwin County. Considerable military airspace overlies much of adjacent bay and coastal waters. Commercial, scheduled service is from Pensacola International Airport. Whereas according to the 2010 United States Census Bureau: 85.7% White 9.4% Black 0.7% Native American 0.7% Asian 0.4% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.5% Two or more races 4.4% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2010, there were 182,265 people, 73,180 households, 51,151 families residing in the county. The population density was 110 people per square mile. There were 104,061 housing units at an average density of 54 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 85.7% White, 9.4% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.0% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. 4.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 73,180 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23% under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.46 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,250, the median income for a family was $47,028.
Males had a med
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th