International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Caitlín R. Kiernan
Caitlín Rebekah Kiernan is an Irish-born American author of science fiction and dark fantasy works, including ten novels, many comic books, more than two hundred and fifty published short stories and vignettes. She is the author of scientific papers in the field of paleontology. Kiernan is a two-time recipient of both the World Bram Stoker awards. Born in Dublin, Kiernan moved to the United States as a young child with her mother Susan Ramey Cleveland. Much of her childhood was spent in the small town of Leeds and her early interests included herpetology and fiction writing; as a teenager, she lived in Trussville, and, in high school, began doing volunteer work at the Red Mountain Museum in Birmingham and spending summers on her first archaeological and paleontological digs. Kiernan attended college at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of Colorado at Boulder, studying geology and vertebrate paleontology, she held both museum and teaching positions before turning to fiction writing in 1992.
In 1984, Kiernan co-founded the Birmingham Paleontological Society. In 1988, she co-authored a paper describing the new genus and species of mosasaur, Selmasaurus russelli, her first novel, The Five of Cups, was written between June 1992 and early 1993, though it was not published until 2003. In 1998 her first published novel, was released, her first published short story was "Persephone", a dark science fiction tale, released in 1995. Her most recent scientific publications are a paper on the biostratigraphy of Alabama mosasaurs, published in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology and "First record of a velociraptorine theropod from the Eastern Gulf Coastal United States." Kiernan's short fiction was selected for Year's Best Fantasy and Horror series, The Mammoth Book of Best New Horror, The Year's Best Science Fiction, her short stories have been collected in several volumes. To date, her work has been translated into German, French, Spanish, Finnish, Polish, Russian and Japanese. In May 1996, Kiernan was approached by Neil Gaiman and editors at DC/Vertigo Comics to begin writing for The Dreaming, a spin-off from Gaiman's The Sandman.
Kiernan wrote for the title from 1996 until its conclusion in 2001, working with Gaiman and focusing not only on pre-existing characters, but on new characters. In 2012, Kiernan returned to comics, scripting Alabaster: Wolves and continuing with Alabaster: Grimmer Tales and Alabaster: The Good, the Bad, the Bird, she wrote the novelisation for the Beowulf film. Josh Boone's Mid-World Productions has optioned both The Red Tree and The Drowning Girl to develop into feature films. Kiernan is writing the screenplay for The Red Tree. Boone will be writing The Drowning Girl. Judy Cairo will be producing. In her blog Kiernan stated, "A few people have asked questions about the films and preserving the queerness of the novels; this is something. Though no details can be released yet and nothing is certain, the hope is that we can cast a transgender actress as Abalyn Armitage." In her blog she stated: I'm getting tired of telling people that I'm not a'horror' writer. I'm getting tired of them not believing.
Most of them seem suspicious of my motives. I've never tried to fool anyone. I've said I don't write genre'horror.' A million, billion times have I said that. It's not. It's. You may as well call it awe fiction. I don't think of horror as a genre. I think of it – to paraphrase Doug Winter – as an emotion, no one emotion will characterize my fiction. Additionally, much of her earlier work, such as Silk, is set among or alludes to the aesthetics of the goth and punk rock subcultures, elements which are absent in her novels. Kiernan has stated, regarding the role of plot in creative writing: "anyone can come up with the artifice/conceit of a'good story.' Story bores me. Which is; because that's purposeful. I have no real interest in plot. Atmosphere, language, theme, etc. that's the stuff that fascinates me. Ulysses should have freed writers from plot."In his review of her novel 2009 The Red Tree, H. P. Lovecraft scholar S. T. Joshi writes: "Kiernan ranks with the most distinctive stylists in our field – Edgar Allan Poe, Lord Dunsany, Thomas Ligotti.
With Ligotti's regrettable retreat into fictional silence, hers is now the voice of weird fiction." In their introduction to The Weird and Jeff VanderMeer write that Kiernan has "become the best weird writer of her generation." Between 1996 and 1997, Kiernan fronted an Athens, Georgia-based "goth-folk-blues band," Death's Little Sister, named for Neil Gaiman's character, Delirium. She was the band's vocalist and lyricist, the group enjoyed some success on local college radio and played shows in Athens and Atlanta. Other members included Barry Dillard, Michael Graves, Shelly Ross. Kiernan has said in interviews that she left the band in February 1997 because of her increased responsibilities writing for DC Comics and because her novel Silk had sold, she was involved in Crimson Stain Mystery, a studio project, two years later. CSM produced one EP to accompany a s
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
Sarah Bear Elizabeth Wishnevsky is an American author who works in speculative fiction genres, writing under the name Elizabeth Bear. She won the 2005 John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer, the 2008 Hugo Award for Best Short Story for "Tideline", the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "Shoggoths in Bloom", she is one of only five writers who have gone on to win multiple Hugo Awards for fiction after winning the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer. Bear's first novel Hammered was published in January 2005 and was followed by Scardown in July and Worldwired in November of the same year; the trilogy features Canadian Master Warrant Officer Jenny Casey, the main character in the short story "Gone to Flowers". Hammered won the Locus Award for Best First Novel in 2006; the Chains That You Refuse, a collection of her short fiction, was published May 2006 by Night Shade Books. Blood and Iron, the first book in the fantasy series entitled "The Promethean Age", debuted June 27, 2006, she is a coauthor of the ongoing Shadow Unit website/pseudo-TV series.
In 2008, she donated her archive to the department of Rare Books and Special Collections at Northern Illinois University. She is an instructor at the Viable Paradise writer's workshop and has taught at Clarion West Writers Workshop; the opening quote in Criminal Minds episode "Lauren" was a direct quote of the second and third lines of Bear's book Seven for a Secret: "The secret to lying is to believe with all your heart. That goes for lying to yourself more than lying to another." She is one of the regular panelists on podcast SF Squeecast, which won the 2012 and 2013 Hugo Awards for "Best Fancast". Bear married novelist Scott Lynch in October 2016. Hammered Scardown Worldwired Blood and Iron Whiskey and Water The Stratford Man: Volume I: Ink and Steel Volume II: Hell and Earth One Eyed Jack Dust Chill Grail All the Windwracked Stars By the Mountain Bound The Sea thy Mistress A Companion to Wolves, co-written with Sarah Monette The Tempering of Men, co-written with Sarah Monette An Apprentice to Elves, co-written with Sarah Monette New Amsterdam Seven for a Secret The White City Ad Eternum Garrett Investigates Range of Ghosts Shattered Pillars Steles of the Sky The Stone in the Skull The Red-Stained Wings Carnival Undertow Bone and Jewel Creatures Karen Memory Stone Mad Ancestral Night The Chains That You Refuse Shoggoths in Bloom "Okay, Glory" in Twelve Tomorrows.
"The Heart's Filthy Lesson" in Old Venus. "This Chance Planet" at Tor.com, October, 2014. "In the House of Aryaman, a Lonely Signal Burns" in Asimov's Science Fiction, January 2012. Reprinted in The Year's Best Science Fiction: Thirtieth Annual Collection. Copy online "Gallows Pole, Bottle Tree" in Naked City: New Tales of Urban Fantasy. "The Horrid Glory of Its Wings" at Tor.com, December 2009. "Swell" in Eclipse Three. "Mongoose" in Lovecraft Unbound "The Red in the Sky is Our Blood" in METAtropolis. "Snow Dragons" in Subterranean Magazine, Summer, 2009. "Two Dreams on a Train" reprinted in Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology, 2009. "Inelastic Collisions" in Inferno. "The Girl Who Sang Rose Madder" at Tor.com, September 2008. "Boojum" in Fast Ships, Black Sails. "Shoggoths in Bloom" in Asimov's Science Fiction, March 2008. "Sonny Liston Takes the Fall" in The Del Rey Book of Science Fantasy. "Your Collar" in Subterranean Magazine, 2008. "Annie Webber" in Nature, 2008. "Hobnoblin Blues" in Realms of Fantasy, February 2008.
"The Ladies" in Coyote Wild, December 2007. "Black is the Color" in Subterranean Magazine, Summer 2007. "Matte" in Fictitious Force, 2007. "The Rest of Your Life in a Day" in Jim Baen's Universe, October 2007. "Cryptic Coloration" in Jim Baen's Universe, June 2007. "Tideline" in Asimov's Science Fiction, June 2007. "Limerant" in Subterranean Magazine #6 "Abjure the Realm" in Coyote Wild, Winter 2007. "War Stories" in Jim Baen's Universe, February 2007. "Something Dreaming Game" in Fast Forward 1 "Orm the Beautiful" in Clarkesworld Magazine, January 2007. "Love Among The Talus" in Strange Horizons, December 11, 2006. "Lucifugous" in Subterranean Magazine #5. "Follow Me Light" reprinted in Best New Paranormal Romance and Year's Bear Fantasy and Horror "Sounding" in Strange Horizons, September 18, 2006. "Two Dreams on Trains" reprinted in Year's Best Science Fiction #23. "Wax" reprinted in Fantasy: The Best of the Year 2006 edition "Ile of Dogges"
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
N. K. Jemisin
Nora K. Jemisin is an American science fiction and fantasy writer and a psychologist, her fiction explores a wide variety including cultural conflict and oppression. She has won several awards including the Locus Award; as of her August 2018 win, the three books of her Broken Earth series have made her the only author to have won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in three consecutive years. In 2009 and 2010, Jemisin's short story "Non-Zero Probabilities" was a finalist for the Nebula and Hugo Best Short Story Awards, respectively, her debut novel, The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms, the first volume in her Inheritance Trilogy, was nominated for the 2010 Nebula Award, short-listed for the James Tiptree Jr. Award. In 2011, it was nominated for the Hugo Award, World Fantasy Award, Locus Award, winning the 2011 Locus Award for Best First Novel; the Hundred Thousand Kingdoms won the Sense of Gender Awards in 2011. It was followed by two further novels in the same trilogy – The Broken Kingdoms in 2010 and The Kingdom of Gods in 2011.
In 2016, Jemisin's novel The Fifth Season won the Hugo Award for Best Novel, making her the first African-American writer to win a Hugo award in that category. Its sequels, The Obelisk Gate and The Stone Sky, won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Jemisin was born in Iowa City and grew up in New York City and Mobile, Alabama, she lived in Massachusetts for ten years and moved to New York City. Jemisin attended Tulane University from 1990 to 1994, where she received a B. S. in psychology. She went on to earn her Master of Education from the University of Maryland. A graduate of the 2002 Viable Paradise writing workshop, Jemisin has published short stories and novels. Jemisin was a member of the Boston-area writing group BRAWLers, is a member of Altered Fluid, a speculative fiction critique group, she was a co-Guest of Honor of the 2014 WisCon science fiction convention in Wisconsin. She was the Author Guest of Honor at Arisia 2015 in Massachusetts. During her delivery of the Guest of Honour speech at the 2013 Continuum in Australia, Jemisin pointed out that 10% of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America membership voted for alt-right writer Theodore Beale in his bid for the SFWA presidential position.
She went on to call Beale "a self-described misogynist, anti-Semite, a few other flavors of asshole" and noted that silence about these issues was the same as enabling them. Beale responded by calling her an "educated but ignorant savage". A link to his comments was tweeted on the SFWA Authors Twitter feed, Beale was subsequently expelled from the organization. In January 2016, Jemisin started a bimonthly column for The New York Times. In May 2016, Jemisin mounted a Patreon campaign which raised sufficient funding to allow her to quit her job as a counseling psychologist and focus full-time on her writing. In the following year, Bustle called Jemisin "the sci-fi writer every woman needs to be reading". Jemisin works in Brooklyn, New York, she is first cousin once removed to stand-up television host W. Kamau Bell. Romantic Times Reviewers' Choice Award, Best Fantasy Novel 2010 Locus Award, Best First Novel 2011 Sense of Gender Award, 2011 Romantic Times Reviewers' Choice Award, Best Fantasy Novel 2012 Hugo Award, Best Novel 2016 Hugo Award, Best Novel 2017 Nebula Award, Best Novel 2018 Locus Award, Best Fantasy 2018 Hugo Award, Best Novel 2018 American Libraries Association Alex Award, 2019 Recommended Reading Shortlist for the Parallax Award, Carl Brandon Society 2006 Hugo Award, Best Short Story 2010 Nebula Award, Best Short Story 2010 James Tiptree Jr. Award, Best Novel 2010 Nebula Award, Best Novel 2011 Hugo Award, Best Novel 2011 World Fantasy Award, Best Novel 2011 David Gemmell Morningstar Award, Best Fantasy Newcomer 2011 IAFA William L. Crawford Award, 2011 Prix Imaginales, Best Foreign Novel 2011 Nebula Award, Best Novel 2012 Nebula Award, Best Novel 2013 World Fantasy Award, Best Novel 2013 Nebula Award, Best Novel 2015 World Fantasy Award, Best Novel 2016 Locus Award, Best Novel 2016 Nebula Award, Best Novel 2016 Hugo Award, Best Short Story 2017 World Fantasy, Novel The Hundred Thousand Kingdoms The Broken Kingdoms The Kingdom of Gods A novella entitled The Awakened Kingdom set as a sequel to the Inheritance Trilogy was released along with an omnibus of the trilogy on December 9, 2014.
A triptych entitled Shades in Shadow was released on July 28, 2015. It contained three short stories, including a prequel to the trilogy; the Killing Moon The Shadowed Sun The Fifth Season The Obelisk Gate The Stone Sky "L'Alchimista", published in Scattered, Smothered, Two Cranes Press, 2004. Honorable Mention in The Year's Best 18th collection. Available as an Escape Pod episode "Too Many Yesterdays, Not Enough Tomorrows", Ideomancer, 2004. "Cloud Dragon Skies", Strange Horizons, 2005. An Escape Pod episode "Red Riding-Hood's Child", Fishn
Science fiction magazine
A science-fiction magazine is a publication that offers science fiction, either in a hard-copy periodical format or on the Internet. Science-fiction magazines traditionally featured speculative fiction in short story, novella or novel form, a format that continues into the present day. Many contain editorials, book reviews or articles, some include stories in the fantasy and horror genres. Malcolm Edwards and Peter Nicholls write that early magazines were not known as science fiction: "if there were any need to differentiate them, the terms scientific romance or'different stories' might be used, but until the appearance of a magazine devoted to sf there was no need of a label to describe the category; the first specialized English-language pulps with a leaning towards the fantastic were Thrill Book and Weird Tales, but the editorial policy of both was aimed much more towards weird-occult fiction than towards sf."Major American science-fiction magazines include Amazing Stories, Astounding Science Fiction, Galaxy Science Fiction, The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction and Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine.
The most influential British science-fiction magazine was New Worlds. Many science-fiction magazines have been published in languages other than English, but none has gained worldwide recognition or influence in the world of anglophone science fiction. There is a growing trend toward important work being published first on the Internet, both for reasons of economics and access. A web-only publication can cost as little as one-tenth of the cost of publishing a print magazine, as a result, some believe the e-zines are more innovative and take greater risks with material. Moreover, the magazine is internationally accessible, distribution is not an issue—though obscurity may be. Magazines like Strange Horizons, InterGalactic Medicine Show, Jim Baen's Universe, the Australian magazine Andromeda Spaceways Inflight Magazine are examples of successful Internet magazines. Web-based magazines tend to favor shorter stories and articles that are read on a screen, many of them pay little or nothing to the authors, thus limiting their universe of contributors.
However, multiple web-based magazines are listed as "paying markets" by the SFWA, which means that they pay the "professional" rate of 6c/word or more. These magazines include popular titles such as Strange Horizons, InterGalactic Medicine Show, Clarkesworld Magazine; the SFWA publishes a list of qualifying magazine and short fiction venues that contains all current web-based qualifying markets. The World Science Fiction Convention awarded a Hugo Award each year to the best science fiction magazine, until that award was changed to one for Best Editor in the early 1970s. Magazines were the only way to publish science fiction until about 1950, when large mainstream publishers began issuing science fiction books. Today, there are few paper-based science-fiction magazines, most printed science fiction appears first in book form. Science-fiction magazines began in the United States, but there were several major British magazines and science-fiction magazines that have been published around the world, for example in France and Argentina.
The first science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, was published in a format known as bedsheet the size of Life but with a square spine. Most magazines changed to the pulp magazine format the size of comic books or National Geographic but again with a square spine. Now, most magazines are published in digest format the size of Reader's Digest, although a few are in the standard 8.5" x 11" size, have stapled spines, rather than glued square spines. Science-fiction magazines in this format feature non-fiction media coverage in addition to the fiction. Knowledge of these formats is an asset when locating magazines in libraries and collections where magazines are shelved according to size; the premiere issue of Amazing Stories and published by Hugo Gernsback, displayed a cover by Frank R. Paul illustrating Off on a Comet by Jules Verne. After many minor changes in title and major changes in format and publisher, Amazing Stories ended January 2005 after 607 issues. Except for the last issue of Stirring Science Stories, the last true bedsheet size sf magazine was Fantastic Adventures, in 1939, but it changed to the pulp size, it was absorbed by its digest-sized stablemate Fantastic in 1953.
Before that consolidation, it ran 128 issues. Much fiction published in these bedsheet magazines, except for classic reprints by writers such as H. G. Wells, Jules Verne and Edgar Allan Poe, is only of antiquarian interest; some of it was written by teenage science fiction fans, who were paid little or nothing for their efforts. Jack Williamson for example, was 19, his writing improved over time, until his death in 2006, he was still a publishing writer at age 98. Some of the stories in the early issues were by scientists or doctors who knew little or nothing about writing fiction, but who tried their best, for example, Dr. David H. Keller; the two best original sf stories published in a bedsheet science fiction magazine were "A Martian Odyssey" by Stanley G. Weinbaum and "The Gostak and the Doshes" by Dr. Miles Breuer, who influenced Jack Williamson. "The Gostak and the Doshes" is one of the few stories from that era still read today. Other stories