A hovercraft known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is an amphibious craft capable of travelling over land, mud and other surfaces. Hovercraft use blowers to produce a large volume of air below the hull, above atmospheric pressure; the pressure difference between the higher pressure air below the hull and lower pressure ambient air above it produces lift, which causes the hull to float above the running surface. For stability reasons, the air is blown through slots or holes around the outside of a disk- or oval-shaped platform, giving most hovercraft a characteristic rounded-rectangle shape; this cushion is contained within a flexible "skirt", which allows the vehicle to travel over small obstructions without damage. The first practical design for hovercraft was derived from a British invention in the 1950s to 1960s, they are now used throughout the world as specialised transports in disaster relief, coastguard and survey applications, as well as for sport or passenger service. Large versions have been used to transport hundreds of people and vehicles across the English Channel, whilst others have military applications used to transport tanks and large equipment in hostile environments and terrain.
Although now a generic term for the type of craft, the name Hovercraft itself was a trademark owned by Saunders-Roe, hence other manufacturers' use of alternative names to describe the vehicles. There have been many attempts to understand the principles of high air pressure below hulls and wings. Hovercrafts are unique in that they can lift themselves while still, differing from ground effect vehicles and hydrofoils which require forward motion to create lift; the first mention in the historical record of the concepts behind surface-effect vehicles that used the term hovering was by Swedish scientist Emanuel Swedenborg in 1716. The shipbuilder Sir John Isaac Thornycroft patented an early design for an air cushion ship / hovercraft in the 1870s, but suitable, engines were not available until the 20th century. In 1915, the Austrian Dagobert Müller von Thomamühl built the world's first "air cushion" boat. Shaped like a section of a large aerofoil, the craft was propelled by four aero engines driving two submerged marine propellers, with a fifth engine that blew air under the front of the craft to increase the air pressure under it.
Only when in motion could the craft trap air under the front, increasing lift. The vessel required a depth of water to operate and could not transition to land or other surfaces. Designed as a fast torpedo boat, the Versuchsgleitboot had a top speed over 32 knots, it was tested and armed with torpedoes and machine guns for operation in the Adriatic. It never saw actual combat, as the war progressed it was scrapped due to the lack of interest and perceived need, its engines returned to the Air Force; the theoretical grounds for motion over an air layer were constructed by Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii in 1926 and 1927. In 1929, Andrew Kucher of Ford began experimenting with the "Levapad" concept, metal disks with pressurized air blown through a hole in the center. Levapads do not offer stability on their own. Several must be used together to support a load above them. Lacking a skirt, the pads had to remain close to the running surface, he imagined these being used in place of casters and wheels in factories and warehouses, where the concrete floors offered the smoothness required for operation.
By the 1950s, Ford showed a number of toy models of cars using the system, but proposed its use as a replacement for wheels on trains, with the Levapads running close to the surface of existing rails. In 1931, Finnish aero engineer Toivo J. Kaario began designing a developed version of a vessel using an air cushion and built a prototype Pintaliitäjä, in 1937. Kaario's design included the modern features of a lift engine blowing air into a flexible envelope for lift. Kaario never received funding to build his design, however. Kaario's efforts were followed in the Soviet Union by Vladimir Levkov, who returned to the solid-sided design of the Versuchsgleitboot. Levkov designed and built a number of similar craft during the 1930s, his L-5 fast-attack boat reached 70 knots in testing. However, the start of World War II put an end to Levkov's development work. During World War II, an American engineer, Charles Fletcher, invented a walled air cushion vehicle, the Glidemobile; because the project was classified by the U.
S. government, Fletcher could not file a patent. The idea of the modern hovercraft is most associated with a British mechanical engineer Sir Christopher Cockerell. Cockerell's group was the first to develop the use of a ring of air for maintaining the cushion, the first to develop a successful skirt, the first to demonstrate a practical vehicle in continued use. Cockerell came across the key concept in his design when studying the ring of airflow when high-pressure air was blown into the annular area between two concentric tin cans, one coffee and the other from cat food and a hair dryer; this produced a ring of airflow, as expected. This effect, which he called the "momentum curtain", could be used to trap high-pressure air in the area inside the curtain, producing a high-pressure plenum that earlier examples had to build up with more airflow. In theory, only a small amount of active airflow would be needed to create li
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
The English Channel called the Channel, is the body of water that separates Southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the busiest shipping area in the world, it is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2; until the 18th century, the English Channel had no fixed name either in French. It was never defined as a political border, the names were more or less descriptive, it was not considered as the property of a nation. Before the development of the modern nations, British scholars often referred to it as "Gaulish" and French scholars as "British" or "English"; the name "English Channel" has been used since the early 18th century originating from the designation Engelse Kanaal in Dutch sea maps from the 16th century onwards. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal.
It has been known as the "British Channel" or the "British Sea". It was called Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy; the same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, which gives the alternative name of canalites Anglie—possibly the first recorded use of the "Channel" designation. The Anglo-Saxon texts call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ; the common word channel was first recorded in Middle English in the 13th century and was borrowed from Old French chanel, variant form of chenel "canal". The French name la Manche has been in use since at least the 17th century; the name is said to refer to the Channel's sleeve shape. Folk etymology has derived it from a Celtic word meaning channel, the source of the name for the Minch in Scotland, but this name was never mentioned before the 17th century, French and British sources of that time are clear about its etymology; the name in Breton means "Breton Sea", its Cornish name means "British Sea". The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows: The IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as "a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point".
The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, Leathercoat Point is at the north end of St Margaret's Bay, Kent. The Strait of Dover, at the Channel's eastern end, is its narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo, near its midpoint, it is shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the former land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries, it reaches a maximum depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurd's Deep, 48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several major islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast, the Channel Islands, British Crown dependencies off the coast of France.
The coastline on the French shore, is indented. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a small parallel strait known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland; the Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel acts as a funnel that amplifies the tidal range from less than a metre as observed at sea to more than 6 metres as observed in the Channel Islands, the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula and the north coast of Brittany; the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. In the UK Shipping Forecast the Channel is divided into the following areas, from the east: Dover Wight Portland Plymouth The Channel is of geologically recent origin, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. Before the Devensian glaciation and Ireland were part of continental Europe, linked by an unbroken Weald-Artois Anticline, a ridge that acted as a natural dam holding back a large freshwater pro-glacial lake in the Doggerland region, now submerged under the North Sea.
During this period the North Sea and all of the British Isles were covered by ice. The lake was fed by meltwater from the Baltic and from the Caledonian and Scandinavian ice sheets that joined to the north, blocking its exit; the sea level was about 120 m lower. Between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago, at least two catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods breached the Weald–Artois anticline; the first flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, which excav
Marion Barbara'Joe' Carstairs was a wealthy British power boat racer known for her speed and her eccentric lifestyle. Carstairs was born in 1900 in Mayfair, England, the daughter of Frances Evelyn Bostwick, an American heiress, the second child of Jabez Bostwick and his wife Helen. Joe Carstairs' legal father was Scottish army officer Captain Albert Carstairs, first of the Royal Irish Rifles and the Princess of Wales's Own. Captain Carstairs re-enlisted with the Army the week. At least one biographer has suggested. Carstairs' mother, an alcoholic and drug addict married Captain Francis Francis, with whom she had two more children, Evelyn Francis and Francis Francis Jr.. She divorced Captain Francis to marry French count Roger de Périgny in 1915, but left him because of his infidelity, her fourth and last husband, whom she married in 1920, was Serge Voronoff, a Russian–French surgeon who become famous in the 1920s and 1930s for his practice of transplanting monkey testicle tissue into male humans for the claimed purpose of rejuvenation.
For some years Evelyn had believed in Voronoff's theories, she funded his research and acted as his laboratory assistant at the Collège de France in Paris. Evelyn died in March 1921. Joe Carstairs married a childhood friend, the French aristocrat Count Jacques de Pret, on 7 January 1918 in Paris; the purpose of the marriage was to allow Carstairs access to her trust fund independently of her mother. The marriage was annulled after her mother's death, on the grounds of non-consummation. By means of a Deed poll, she renounced her married name and resumed using the name Carstairs in February 1922. Carstairs lived a colourful life, she dressed as a man, had tattooed arms, loved machines and speed. Lesbian, she had numerous affairs with women, including Dolly Wilde—Oscar Wilde's niece and a fellow ambulance driver from Dublin with whom she had lived in Paris—and a string of actresses, most notably Greta Garbo, Tallulah Bankhead, Marlene Dietrich. During World War I, Carstairs served in France with the American Red Cross.
After the war, she served with the Royal Army Service Corps in France, re-burying the war-dead, in Dublin with the Women's Legion Mechanical Transport Section, which acted as transport for British officers during the Irish War of Independence. In 1920, with three former colleagues from the Women's Legion Mechanical Transport Section, she started the'X Garage,' a car-hire and chauffeuring service that featured a women-only staff of drivers and mechanics. Carstairs lived in a flat above the garage, situated near Cromwell Gardens in London's fashionable South Kensington district. Several of the X-Garage staff had served as drivers during the war and spoke French, German, or Italian; the cars and drivers could be hired for long-distance trips and the business specialised in taking grieving relatives for visits to war-graves and former battlefields in France and Belgium. They were hired for journeys within London and the garage had an arrangement with the Savoy Hotel to transport guests to the theatre or to shows.
During the early 1920s, X-Garage cars were a familiar sight in London's fashionable circles. In 1925, X-Garage closed and Carstairs inherited a fortune via her mother and grandmother from Standard Oil, she purchased her first motorboat and was given a Steiff doll by a girlfriend, Ruth Baldwin, naming it Lord Tod Wadley. She became exceptionally attached to this doll, keeping it with her until her death, although—unlike Donald Campbell's mascot'Mr Whoppit'—she didn't take it into her speedboats for fear of losing it, she had clothes made for it in Saville Row and had its name placed with her own on the name plaque on the door of her London apartment. Between 1925 and 1930, Carstairs spent considerable time in powerboats and became a successful racer, although the Harmsworth Trophy she longed for always eluded her, she did establish herself as the fastest woman on water. Intrigued by the hydrofoil designs of Alexander Graham Bell and Casey Baldwin in Nova Scotia, Carstairs ordered a 30-foot hydrofoil boat from the Bell Boatyard in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, intended to achieve 115 mph and capture the Harmsworth Cup.
However circumstances caused her to withdraw and the boat was completed with a more economical engine delivering 57 mph. During this time, the North American press erroneously began referring to her as "Betty," a nickname she loathed. Carstairs was known for her generosity to her friends, she was close to several male racing drivers and land speed record competitors, using her considerable wealth to assist them. She paid $10,000 of her money to fund the building of one of the Blue Bird land speed record cars for Sir Malcolm Campbell, who once described her as, "the greatest sportsman I know." She was generous to John Cobb, whose Railton Special was powered by the pair of engines from her powerboat Estelle V. Meanwhile, Carstairs invested $40,000 purchasing the island of Whale Cay in the Bahamas where she lavishly hosted such guests as Marlene Dietrich and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, she not only constructed a Great House for herself and her guests, but a lighthouse, school and cannery. She expanded these properties by buying the additional islands of Bird Cay, Cat Cay, Devil's Cay, half of Hoffman's Cay and a tract of land on Andros.
After selling Whale Cay in 1975, Carstairs relocated to Florida. Carstairs died in Naples, Flori
East Cowes is a town and civil parish to the north of the Isle of Wight, on the east bank of the River Medina next to its neighbour on the west bank, Cowes. The two towns are connected by the Cowes Floating Bridge, a chain ferry operated by the Isle of Wight Council. East Cowes is the site of Norris Castle, Osborne House, the former summer residence of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; the Prince had a major influence on the architecture of the area, for example on the building of St Mildred's Church in nearby Whippingham, which features distinctive turrets imitating those found on a German castle. The name Estcowe comes from one of two sandbanks each side of the River Medina estuary, so called after a supposed likeness to cows; the name was subsequently transferred to fortifications built during the reign of Henry VIII on the east bank to dispel a French invasion, referred to as cowforts or cowes, which subsequently gave the name to the town. The naming of Cowes was done in a similar fashion.
They replaced the earlier name of Shamblord. The settlement of Shamblord at East Cowes was first recorded in 1303, it grew as East Shamblord, became a much more significant settlement than the Western Shamblord. As the Isle of Wight was the target of frequent French invasions, with some notable incursions, the fort built at East Cowes was destroyed and should not be confused with the "East Cowes Castle" built subsequently by John Nash. During the reign of Queen Victoria, who made her summer home at Osborne by acquiring and rebuilding Osborne House, East Cowes was the subject of planned estate of grand houses and parks; the scheme, not finding the finances it needed, was folded, but a few residences built in the early stages still survive to this day such as the former Albert Grove residences of Kent House and Powys House on York Avenue. In East Cowes Norris Castle was designed in the Norman style by James Wyatt in the late eighteenth century; the building today remains a private home. In 1798, the architect John Nash, began building his home, East Cowes Castle, where he entertained the Prince Consort and other prominent guests.
East Cowes Castle was notable for its Gothic towers and turrets, elaborate castellation. Nash died in 1835 and is buried in the tower of St James' Church which he designed. East Cowes Castle was damaged by bombing in World War II It was demolished during the 1960s, although the ice house remains and is visible in Sylvan Avenue. Cowes and East Cowes became a single urban district in 1933. During World War II, both Cowes and East Cowes became the targets of frequent bombing due to its industry and proximity to Southampton and the Royal Navy's home at Portsmouth; the shipyard of J. Samuel White was badly damaged by air attack in early May 1942 but, when rebuilt, innovative ship construction methods had been introduced; the first warship completed by the renewed yard was HMS Cavalier. During the air raid, the local defences had been fortuitously augmented by the Polish destroyer Blyskawica, which put up such a determined defence that, in 2002, the crew's courage was honoured by a local commemoration lasting several days to mark the 60th anniversary of the event.
In 2004, over to the west, an area of Cowes was named Francki Place in honour of the ship's commander. To celebrate the Silver Jubilee of the Queen's coronation in 1977, the main hangar doors of what was the British Hovercraft Corporation were painted with the world's largest image of the Union Flag, which can still be seen today. In January 2015, the car carrier MV Hoegh Osaka bound for Bremerhaven, ran aground on Bramble Bank after developing a heavy list five miles north of the entrance to the River Medina, it has since been re-floated and returned to service. East Cowes is linked to the mainland by Red Funnel’s vehicle ferry service; the Cowes Floating Bridge links East Cowes with Cowes throughout the day. It is a chain ferry, is one of the few remaining not to be replaced by a physical bridge. Southern Vectis operate bus route 4 linking the town with Ryde and bus routes route 5 and 25 linking the town with Newport including intermediate villages; the Isle of Wight Coastal Path runs through East Cowes.
Local industry in both Cowes and East Cowes has always centred on the building and design of marine craft and materials associated with boatmaking, including the early flying boats, sailmaking. East Cowes was once home to the aircraft manufacturer Saunders Roe, who built the large, flying boat The Saunders-Roe Princess, as well as the Black Knight rocket and the Black Arrow satellite carrier rocket, they developed and tested the first hovercraft, the SR. N1; the former Saunders-Roe factory at Venture Quays now produces wind turbines, which can be seen laid on the quay for shipping out. Due to local objections no wind turbines have been allowed to be erected on the Isle of Wight. East Cowes has a Non-League football club East Cowes Victoria Athletic A. F. C. which plays at Beatrice Avenue. They are home to the islands most supported small sided team FC Bayern Bru who play in the islands Leisure Leagues 6-a-side league at Beatrice Avenue, they won the league title in their inaugural season in the winter of 2013.
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert Seb Clover – in 2003, Clover set the world record as the youngest cross-Atlantic solo yachtsman, lived in East Cowes Sir Christopher Cockerell, inventor of the hovercraft, lived at White Cottage. Sir George Shedden Roscow George Shedden - Colonial Bishop of Nassau John Nash – architect John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort - World War II Field Marshal and commander of the British Expeditionary Force Lord Mountbatten of Burma, l
Junior Offshore Group
The Junior Offshore Group is an organiser of offshore yacht races in the UK using IRC handicap system. Aimed at smaller yachts, though the size of the smallest yacht keeps getting bigger as the years go by. In the UK racing is from the JOG startline off Cowes and races are Cross Channel (Cherbourg, St Vaast, Fecamp, St Peter Port etc. or inshore. A new race "The Illingworth Challenge Race" started 2008 is the longest, from Cowes to La Trinite and looks like being held in alternate years. JOG fleets and racing exist in countries such as Australia centered in the capital cities; some State yachting authorities there have separate JOG sub-committees to organise events across a number of participating Clubs. The JOG was founded 7 December 1950 at the Royal Ocean Racing Club, its first President was the yacht designer John Illingworth. Official website
The Corporation of Trinity House of Deptford Strond, known as Trinity House, is a private corporation governed under a Royal Charter. Trinity House has three core functions: it is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England, the Channel Islands and Gibraltar, responsible for the provision and maintenance of navigational aids, such as lighthouses, lightvessels and maritime radio/satellite communication systems. Trinity House is an official deep sea pilotage authority, providing expert navigators for ships trading in Northern European waters, it is a maritime charity, dispersing funds for the welfare of retired seamen, the training of young cadets and the promotion of safety at sea. Funding for the work of the lighthouse service comes from "light dues" levied on commercial vessels calling at ports in the British Isles, based on the net registered tonnage of the vessel; the rate is set by the Department of Transport, annually reviewed. Funding for the maritime charity is generated separately.
The corporation was founded in 1514. Its first master was Thomas Spert, sailing master of Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose and of Henry Grace à Dieu; the Master of the Corporation is the Princess Royal. Previous Masters of Trinity House have included Sir Thomas Spert, master of the warship Henry Grace a Dieu under Henry VIII. Other prominent individuals in Britain connected with commercial shipping or the Admiralty, have been associated with Trinity House, including Winston Churchill, he gained his status as an Elder Brother of Trinity House as a result of his position as First Lord of the Admiralty before and during World War I. On naval-related forays during the Second World War, Churchill was seen in Trinity House cap or uniform. Winston Churchill had a Trinity House vessel named after him, THV Winston Churchill. Trinity House is ruled by a court of thirty-one Elder Brethren, presided over by a Master; these are appointed from 300 Younger Brethren who act as advisors and perform other duties as needed.
The Younger Brethren are appointed from lay people with maritime experience naval officers and ships' masters, but harbourmasters, pilots and anyone with useful experience. The headquarters of the corporation is the present Trinity House, designed by architect Samuel Wyatt and built in 1796, it has a suite of five state rooms with views over Trinity Square, the Tower of London and the River Thames. The Corporation came into being in 1514 by Royal Charter granted by Henry VIII under the name "The Master and Assistants of the Guild, Fraternity, or Brotherhood of the most glorious and undivided Trinity, of St. Clement in the Parish of Deptford-Strond in the County of Kent." The charter came as a result of a petition put forward on 19 March 1513 by a guild of Deptford-based mariners. They were troubled by the poor conduct of unregulated pilots on the Thames and asked the king for licence to regulate pilotage; the first Master was Thomas Spert, sailing master of Henry's flagship Mary Rose and the Henry Grace à Dieu.
The name of the guild derives from the patron saint of mariners. As John Whormby, a Clerk to the Corporation, wrote in 1746, their general business was: to improve the art and science of mariners. In 1566, Queen Elizabeth I's Seamarks Act enabled Trinity House: at their wills and pleasures, at their costs, make and set up such, so many beacons and signs for the sea… whereby the dangers may be avoided and escaped, ships the better come into their ports without peril. With the increasing number of ships lost along the Newcastle to London coal route, Trinity House established the Lowestoft Lighthouse in 1609, a pair of wooden towers with candle illuminants; until the late 18th century, coal, or wood fires were used as lighthouse illuminants, improved in 1782 with the circular-wick oil-burning Argand lamp, the first ‘catoptric’ mirrored reflector in 1777, Fresnel’s ‘dioptric’ lens system in 1823. The Nore lightship was established as the world's first floating light in 1732. In 1836, Trinity House accepted powers to levy out the last private lighthouse owners and began refurbishing and upgrading its lighthouse estate.
In 1803, the Corporation established the Blackwall Depot as a buoy workshop, six district depots were established at Harwich, Great Yarmouth, East Cowes, Penzance and Swansea. In December 2002, Trinity House announced that the Great Yarmouth and East Cowes depots would close. Today, Trinity House's operational headquarters is in Harwich, supported by depots in Swansea and a flight operations base at St Just in Cornwall, its operations are supported by three vessels. A small secretariat is based at Tower Hill. D