Richard II (play)
King Richard the Second is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in 1595. It is based on the life of King Richard II of England and is the first part of a tetralogy, referred to by some scholars as the Henriad, followed by three plays concerning Richard's successors: Henry IV, Part 1. Although the First Folio edition of Shakespeare's works lists the play as a history play, the earlier Quarto edition of 1597 calls it The tragedie of King Richard the second; the play spans only the last two years of Richard's life, from 1398 to 1400. The first Act begins with King Richard sitting majestically on his throne in full state, having been requested to arbitrate a dispute between Thomas Mowbray and Richard's cousin, Henry Bolingbroke Henry IV, who has accused Mowbray of squandering money given to him by Richard for the king's soldiers and of murdering Bolingbroke's uncle, the Duke of Gloucester. Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, believes it was Richard himself, responsible for his brother's murder.
After several attempts to calm both men, Richard acquiesces and it is determined that the matter be resolved in the established method of trial by battle between Bolingbroke and Mowbray, despite the objections of Gaunt. The tournament scene is formal with a long, ceremonial introduction, but as the combatants are about to fight, Richard interrupts and sentences both to banishment from England. Bolingbroke is sentenced to ten years' banishment, but Richard reduces this to six years upon seeing John of Gaunt's grieving face, while Mowbray is banished permanently; the king's decision can be seen as the first mistake in a series leading to his overthrow and death, since it is an error which highlights many of his character flaws, displaying as it does indecisiveness and arbitrariness. In addition, the decision fails to dispel the suspicions surrounding Richard's involvement in the death of the Duke of Gloucester – in fact, by handling the situation so high-handedly and offering no coherent explanation for his reasoning, Richard only manages to appear more guilty.
Mowbray predicts that the king will sooner or fall at the hands of Bolingbroke. John of Gaunt dies and Richard II seizes all of his land and money; this angers the nobility, who accuse Richard of wasting England's money, of taking Gaunt's money to fund war in Ireland, of taxing the commoners, of fining the nobles for crimes committed by their ancestors. They help Bolingbroke to return secretly to England, with a plan to overthrow Richard II. There remain, subjects who continue faithful to the king, among them Bushy, Bagot and the Duke of Aumerle, cousin of both Richard and Bolingbroke; when King Richard leaves England to attend to the war in Ireland, Bolingbroke seizes the opportunity to assemble an army and invades the north coast of England. Executing both Bushy and Green, he wins over the Duke of York, whom Richard has left in charge of his government in his absence. Upon Richard's return, Bolingbroke not only reclaims his lands but lays claim to the throne. Crowning himself King Henry IV, he has Richard taken prisoner to the castle of Pomfret.
Aumerle and others plan a rebellion against the new king, but York discovers his son's treachery and reveals it to Henry, who spares Aumerle as a result of the intercession of the Duchess of York while executing the other conspirators. After interpreting King Henry's "living fear" as a reference to the still-living Richard, an ambitious nobleman goes to the prison and murders him. King Henry repudiates the murderer and vows to journey to Jerusalem to cleanse himself of his part in Richard's death. Shakespeare's primary source for Richard II, as for most of his chronicle histories, was Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles. Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York appears to have been consulted, scholars have supposed Shakespeare familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars. A somewhat more complicated case is presented by the anonymous play sometimes known as The First Part of Richard II; this play, which exists in one incomplete manuscript copy is subtitled Thomas of Woodstock, it is by this name that scholars since F. S. Boas have called it.
This play treats the events leading up to the start of Shakespeare's play. This closeness, along with the anonymity of the manuscript, has led certain scholars to attribute all or part of the play to Shakespeare, though many critics view this play as a secondary influence on Shakespeare, not as his work; the earliest recorded performance of Richard II was a private one, in Canon Row, the house of Edward Hoby, on December 9, 1595. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 29 August 1597 by the bookseller Andrew Wise; the second and third quartos followed in 1598 – the only time a Shakespeare play was printed in three editions in two years. Q4 followed in 1608, Q5 in 1615; the play was next published in the First Folio in 1623. Richard II exists in a number of variations; the quartos vary to some degree from one another, the folio presents further differences. The first three quartos (printed in 1597 and 1598, commo
Ethan Green Hawke is an American actor and director. He has been nominated for four Academy Awards and a Tony Award. Hawke has directed three feature films, three Off-Broadway plays, a documentary, he has written three novels. He made his film debut with the 1985 science fiction feature Explorers, before making a breakthrough appearance in the 1989 drama Dead Poets Society, he appeared in various films before taking a role in the 1994 Generation X drama Reality Bites, for which he received critical praise. Hawke starred alongside Julie Delpy in Richard Linklater's Before trilogy: Before Sunrise, Before Sunset and Before Midnight, all of which received critical acclaim. Hawke has been nominated twice for both the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Hawke was further honored with SAG Award nominations for both films, as well as BAFTA Award and Golden Globe Award nominations for the latter, his other films include the science fiction drama Gattaca, the contemporary adaptation of Hamlet, the action thriller Assault on Precinct 13, the crime drama Before the Devil Knows You're Dead, the horror film Sinister.
In 2018 he garnered critical acclaim for his performance as a protestant minister in Paul Schrader's drama First Reformed receiving numerous accolades including New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and nominations at the Independent Spirit Awards and Critics' Choice Awards. In addition to his film work, Hawke has appeared in many theater productions, he made his Broadway debut in 1992 in Anton Chekhov's The Seagull, was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play in 2007 for his performance in Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia. In 2010, Hawke directed Sam Shepard's A Lie of the Mind, for which he received a Drama Desk Award nomination for Outstanding Director of a Play. Hawke was born in Austin, Texas, to Leslie, a charity worker, James Hawke, an insurance actuary. Hawke's parents were high school sweethearts in Fort Worth and married young, when Hawke's mother was 17. Hawke was born a year later. Hawke's parents were students at the University of Texas at Austin at the time of his birth, separated and divorced in 1974.
After the separation, Hawke was raised by his mother. The two relocated several times, before settling in New York City, where Hawke attended the Packer Collegiate Institute in Brooklyn Heights. Hawke's mother remarried when he was 10 and the family moved to West Windsor Township, New Jersey, where Hawke attended West Windsor Plainsboro High School, he transferred to the Hun School of Princeton, a secondary boarding school, from which he graduated in 1988. In high school, Hawke aspired to be a writer, but developed an interest in acting, he made his stage debut at age 13, in a production at The McCarter Theatre of George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan, appearances in West Windsor-Plainsboro High School productions of Meet Me in St. Louis and You Can't Take It with You followed. At the Hun School he took acting classes at the McCarter Theatre on the Princeton campus, after high school graduation he studied acting at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh dropping out after he was cast in Dead Poets Society.
He enrolled in New York University's English program for two years, but dropped out to pursue other acting roles. Hawke obtained his mother's permission to attend his first casting call at the age of 14, secured his first film role in Joe Dante's Explorers, in which he played an alien-obsessed schoolboy alongside River Phoenix; the film was met with favorable reviews but had poor box office results, a failure which Hawke has admitted caused him to quit acting for a brief period after the film's release. Hawke described the disappointment as difficult to bear at such a young age, adding "I would never recommend that a kid act."In 1989, Hawke made his breakthrough appearance in Peter Weir's Dead Poets Society, playing one of the students taught by Robin Williams's inspirational English teacher. The Variety reviewer noted "Hawke, as the painfully shy Todd, gives a haunting performance." The film received considerable acclaim, winning the BAFTA Award for Best Film and an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture.
With revenue of $235 million worldwide, it remains Hawke's most commercially successful picture to date. Hawke described the opportunities he was offered as a result of the film's success as critical to his decision to continue acting: "I didn't want to be an actor and I went back to college, but the success was so monumental that I was getting offers to be in such interesting movies and be in such interesting places, it seemed silly to pursue anything else." While filming Dead Poets Society he auditioned for what would be his next film appearance, 1989's comedy drama Dad, where he played Ted Danson's son and Jack Lemmon's grandson. Hawke's next film, 1991's White Fang, brought his first leading role; the film, an adaptation of Jack London's novel of the same name, featured Hawke as Jack Conroy, a Yukon gold hunter who befriends a wolfdog. According to The Oregonian, "Hawke does a good job as young Jack... He makes Jack's passion for White Fang real and keeps it from being ridiculous or overly sentimental."
He appeared in Keith Gordon's A Midnight Clear, a well-received war film based on William Wharton's novel of the same name. In the survival drama Alive, adapted from Piers Paul Read's 1974 book, Hawke portrayed Nando Pa
Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht, known professionally as Bertolt Brecht, was a German theatre practitioner and poet. Living in Munich during the Weimar Republic, he had his first successes with theatre plays, whose themes were influenced by his Marxist thought, he was the main proponent of the genre named epic theatre. During the Nazi period and World War II he lived in exile, first in Scandinavia and in the United States. Returning to East Berlin after the war, he established the theatre company Berliner Ensemble with his wife and long-time collaborator, actress Helene Weigel. Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht was born in February 1898 in Augsburg, the son of Berthold Friedrich Brecht and his wife Sophie, née Brezing. Brecht's mother was his father a Roman Catholic; the modest house where he was born is today preserved as a Brecht Museum. His father worked for a paper mill, becoming its managing director in 1914. Due to his mother's influence, Brecht knew the Bible, a familiarity that would have a lifelong effect on his writing.
From her, came the "dangerous image of the self-denying woman" that recurs in his drama. Brecht's home life was comfortably middle class, despite what his occasional attempt to claim peasant origins implied. At school in Augsburg he met Caspar Neher. Neher designed many of the sets for Brecht's dramas and helped to forge the distinctive visual iconography of their epic theatre; when Brecht was 16, the First World War broke out. Enthusiastic, Brecht soon changed his mind on seeing his classmates "swallowed by the army". Brecht was nearly expelled from school in 1915 for writing an essay in response to the line "Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori" from the Roman poet Horace, calling it Zweckpropaganda and arguing that only an empty-headed person could be persuaded to die for their country, his expulsion was only prevented through the intervention of his religion teacher. On his father's recommendation, Brecht sought a loophole by registering for a medical course at Munich University, where he enrolled in 1917.
There he studied drama with Arthur Kutscher, who inspired in the young Brecht an admiration for the iconoclastic dramatist and cabaret-star Frank Wedekind. From July 1916, Brecht's newspaper articles began appearing under the new name "Bert Brecht". Brecht was drafted into military service in the autumn of 1918, only to be posted back to Augsburg as a medical orderly in a military VD clinic. In July 1919, Brecht and Paula Banholzer had Frank. In 1920 Brecht's mother died; some time in either 1920 or 1921, Brecht took a small part in the political cabaret of the Munich comedian Karl Valentin. Brecht's diaries for the next few years record numerous visits to see Valentin perform. Brecht compared Valentin to Charlie Chaplin, for his "virtually complete rejection of mimicry and cheap psychology". Writing in his Messingkauf Dialogues years Brecht identified Valentin, along with Wedekind and Büchner, as his "chief influences" at that time: But the man he learnt most from was the clown Valentin, who performed in a beer-hall.
He did short sketches in which he played refractory employees, orchestral musicians or photographers, who hated their employers and made them look ridiculous. The employer was played by his partner, Liesl Karlstadt, a popular woman comedian who used to pad herself out and speak in a deep bass voice. Brecht's first full-length play, arose in response to an argument in one of Kutscher's drama seminars, initiating a trend that persisted throughout his career of creative activity, generated by a desire to counter another work. "Anyone can be creative," he quipped, "it's rewriting other people that's a challenge." Brecht completed his second major play, Drums in the Night, in February 1919. Between November 1921 and April 1922 Brecht made acquaintance with many influential people in the Berlin cultural scene. Amongst them was the playwright Arnolt Bronnen with whom he established a joint venture, the Arnolt Bronnen / Bertolt Brecht Company. Brecht changed the spelling of his first name to Bertolt to rhyme with Arnolt.
In 1922 while still living in Munich, Brecht came to the attention of an influential Berlin critic, Herbert Ihering: "At 24 the writer Bert Brecht has changed Germany's literary complexion overnight"—he enthused in his review of Brecht's first play to be produced, Drums in the Night—" has given our time a new tone, a new melody, a new vision. It is a language you can feel on your tongue, in your gums, your ear, your spinal column." In November it was announced that Brecht had been awarded the prestigious Kleist Prize for his first three plays. The citation for the award insisted that: language is vivid without being deliberately poetic, symbolical without being over literary. Brecht is a dramatist; that year he married the Viennese opera-singer Marianne Zoff. Their daughter—Hanne Hiob —was a successful German actress. In 1923, Brecht wrote a scenario for what was to become a short slapstick film
Dianne Evelyn Wiest is an American actress. She has twice won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, for the Woody Allen films Hannah and Her Sisters and Bullets over Broadway, appeared in three other films by Allen, she received an Academy Award nomination for Parenthood, won a Golden Globe Award for Bullets over Broadway. Wiest's other film appearances include Footloose, The Lost Boys, Bright Lights, Big City, Edward Scissorhands, Little Man Tate, The Birdcage, Practical Magic, Dan in Real Life, New York, Rabbit Hole, Sisters, she won the 1997 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series for Road to Avonlea, the 2008 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for In Treatment. Her other television credits include Law & Order, the CBS comedy series Life in Pieces. Wiest was born in Missouri, her mother, Anne Stewart, was a nurse. Her father, Bernard John Wiest, was a college dean and former psychiatric social worker for the U. S. Army.
Her mother was Scottish, from Auchtermuchty, while her father was an American of Croatian and German descent. They met in Algiers. Wiest has two brothers named Don, her original ambition was to be a ballet dancer, but she switched her goal to theater in her senior year at Nurnberg American High School. Wiest graduated from the University of Maryland in 1969 with a degree in Sciences. Wiest studied theater at the University of Maryland, leaving after her third term to tour with a Shakespearean troupe, she had a supporting role in a New York Shakespeare Festival production of Ashes. She acted at the Yale Repertory Theatre in New Haven, CT, playing the title role in Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabler, she was an understudy both off-Broadway and on Broadway, in Kurt Vonnegut's Happy Birthday, Wanda June in 1970. She made her Broadway debut in Robert Anderson's Solitaire/Double Solitaire, taking over in the role of the daughter in 1971, she landed a four-year job as a member of the Arena Stage in Washington, D.
C. in such roles as Emily in Our Town, Honey in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, leading roles in S. Ansky's The Dybbuk, Maxim Gorky's The Lower Depths and George Bernard Shaw's Heartbreak House, she toured the USSR with the Arena Stage. In 1976, Wiest attended the Eugene O'Neill National Playwrights Conference and starred in leading roles in Amlin Gray's Pirates and Christopher Durang's A History of the American Film. At Joe Papp's Public Theater she took over the lead in Ashes, played Cassandra in Agamemnon, directed by Andrei Şerban. In 1979, she originated the role of Agnes in Agnes of God in its first production in Waterford, Connecticut, she appeared in two plays by The Art of Dining. In the latter, Wiest's performance as the shy and awkward author Elizabeth Barrow Colt won three off-Broadway theater awards: an Obie Award, a Theatre World Award, the Clarence Derwent Award, given yearly for the most promising performance in New York theatre. On Broadway she appeared in Frankenstein, directed by Tom Moore, portrayed Desdemona in Othello opposite James Earl Jones and Christopher Plummer and co-starred with John Lithgow in Christopher Durang's romantic screwball comedy Beyond Therapy, directed by John Madden.
(She played opposite Lithgow again in the Herbert Ross film Footloose. During the 1980s, she performed in Hedda Gabler, directed by Lloyd Richards at Yale Repertory Theatre, in Harold Pinter's A Kind of Alaska, Lanford Wilson's Serenading Louie, Janusz Glowacki's Hunting Cockroaches; as Wiest became established as a film actress through her work in Woody Allen's films, she was less available for stage roles. However, she did appear onstage during the 1990s, in In the Summer House, Square One, Cynthia Ozick's The Shawl, Naomi Wallace's One Flea Spare. In 2003, she appeared with Marisa Tomei in Oscar Wilde's Salome. In 2005, she starred in Kathleen Tolan's Memory House, she starred in a production of Wendy Wasserstein's final play Third at Lincoln Center. Recent New York theater roles include performances as Arkadina in an off-Broadway revival of The Seagull and as Kate Keller in a Broadway revival of Arthur Miller's All My Sons, opposite John Lithgow, Patrick Wilson, Katie Holmes. In 2009, Wiest appeared in the National Memorial Day Concert on the Mall in Washington, D.
C. in a dialogue with Katie Holmes celebrating the life of an American veteran wounded in Iraq, José Pequeño. Wiest spent September 2010 as a visiting teacher at Columbia University's Graduate Acting Program, working with a group of 18 first-year MFA Acting students on selected plays by Anton Chekhov and Arthur Miller. In 2016 she took on the role of "Winnie" in The Yale Repertory Theatre's production of Samuel Beckett's, Happy Days, reprised the role for Theatre for a New Audience in downtown Brooklyn, NY, in the spring of 2017, her early screen roles include small roles in It's My Turn and I'm Dancing as Fast as I Can, both starring Jill Clayburgh in the lead roles. In 1984, she starred as the reverend's wife and Ariel's mother. Under Woody Allen's direction, Wiest won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Hannah and Her Sisters in 1987 and Bullets over Broadway in 1995, she appeared in three other Woody Allen films: The Purple Rose of Cairo, Radio Days and September. She followed her fi
James Elliot Lapine is an American stage director, playwright and librettist. He has won the Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical three times, for Into the Woods and Passion, he has collaborated with Stephen Sondheim and William Finn. Lapine was born in Mansfield, the son of Lillian and David Sanford Lapine, he graduated from Franklin and Marshall College in 1971. Lapine did graduate study in both photography and graphic design at the California Institute of the Arts, where he received an MFA in 1973, he was a photographer, graphic designer, architectural preservationist and taught design at the Yale School of Drama. At Yale University he wrote an adaptation and directed the Gertrude Stein play Photograph, produced Off-Broadway at the Open Space in SoHo in 1977, he proceeded to write and direct Off-Broadway plays and musicals, working with composer William Finn on March of the Falsettos in 1981 as director. Frank Rich, the New York Times theatre critic, noted "Mr. Lapine's wildly resourceful staging."In 1982 he was introduced to Stephen Sondheim, they decided to work on a musical together, which became Sunday in the Park With George, with Lapine writing the book and directing with Sondheim's music and lyrics.
It was first produced Off-Broadway in 1983 and transferred to Broadway in 1984. The pair's next musical was Into the Woods, which premiered on Broadway in 1987. Lapine won both the Drama Desk Award for Best Book of a Musical, they collaborated on the musical Passion, for which Lapine wrote the book and directed. The musical ran on Broadway in 1994 and in the West End in 1996, receiving a nomination for the Olivier Award for Best New Musical, winning the Tony Award for Best Musical and Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical, among other awards and nominations, their latest collaboration is the revue Sondheim on Sondheim, presented on Broadway in 2010 and winning the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Musical Revue. In 1992 Lapine returned to working with William Finn, wrote the book and directed the Broadway musical Falsettos. Lapine wrote the book, with Finn composing the music, for A New Brain, which premiered Off-Broadway in 1998, they worked together with Lapine directing Finn's musical The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee, which premiered Off-Broadway in 2005 and transferred to Broadway.
The New York Times reviewer wrote of the Spelling Bee Broadway transfer that "Mr. Lapine has sharpened all the musical's elements without betraying its appealing modesty." The latest Finn-Lapine work is Little Miss Sunshine, which premiered in 2011 at the La Jolla Playhouse. Lapine has directed dramas, including Dirty Blonde, which ran Off-Broadway and on Broadway in 2000. Conceived by Claudia Shear and Lapine and written by Shear with direction by Lapine, Ben Brantley called Lapine's direction "stylish and compassionate." Lapine was nominated for Best Direction of a Play. Lapine directed the 2012 Broadway revival of Annie, he wrote a stage adaption of the Moss Hart autobiography, Act One titled Act One, which premiered on Broadway at the Lincoln Center Beaumont Theater in April 2014. In 1991 he directed his first film, which has a screenplay by his wife, Sarah Kernochan; the story revolves around the romance of George Sand and Chopin, starred Judy Davis and Hugh Grant. He followed with Life With Mikey with Michael J. Fox for Disney.
In 1993 he directed Passion, for television. He directed the film version of Anne Tyler's novel Earthly Possessions, starring Susan Sarandon and Stephen Dorff, for HBO in 1999, he wrote the screenplay for Disney's film version of Into the Woods, directed by Rob Marshall. He wrote and directed the film Custody in 2016 with Viola Davis, Hayden Panettiere and Catalina Sandino Moreno. Lapine received the 2015 Mr. Abbott Award at a special gala on October 19, 2015; the award is presented by the Stage Directors and Choreographers Foundation "in recognition of a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the theatre." Lapine is married to director Sarah Kernochan. The couple's daughter is food writer Phoebe Lapine. James Lapine's niece Sarna Lapine directed the 2016 concert version of Sunday in the Park with George, of which James Lapine wrote the book and directed the original production; as a director, Lapine has worked onPhotography of Gertrude Stein March of the Falsettos - composed by William Finn A Midsummer Night's Dream - written by William Shakespeare Sunday in the Park with George - composed by Stephen Sondheim Merrily We Roll Along - composed by Stephen Sondheim Into the Woods - composed by Stephen Sondheim Falsettos - composed by William Finn Passion - composed by Stephen Sondheim Into the Woods The Diary of Anne Frank - written by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett Golden Child - written by David Henry Hwang Der Glöckner von Notre Dame - composed by Alan Menken and Stephen Schwartz Dirty Blonde - written by Claudia Shear Into the Woods Amour - composed by Michel Legrand The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee - composed by William Finn Sondheim on Sondheim - musical revue of Stephen Sondheim work Little Miss Sunshine - wrote the book.
John Peter Sarsgaard is an American actor. His first feature role was in Dead Man Walking in 1995, he appeared in the 1998 independent films Another Day in Paradise and Desert Blue. That same year, Sarsgaard received a substantial role in The Man in the Iron Mask, playing Raoul, the ill-fated son of Athos. Sarsgaard achieved critical recognition when he was cast in Boys Don't Cry as John Lotter, he landed his first leading role in the 2001 film The Center of the World. The following year, he played supporting roles in Empire, The Salton Sea, K-19: The Widowmaker. For his portrayal of Charles Lane in Shattered Glass, Sarsgaard won the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Supporting Actor and was nominated for the 2004 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sarsgaard has appeared in an eclectic range of films, including the 2004 comedy-drama Garden State, the biographical film Kinsey, the drama The Dying Gaul, big-budget films such as Flightplan, The Skeleton Key, Orphan, An Education and Day, the superhero film Green Lantern, Kelly Reichardt's Night Moves, Woody Allen's Blue Jasmine, Black Mass, The Magnificent Seven.
Sarsgaard appeared in the U. S. TV series The Killing as a man on death row wrongfully convicted for the brutal murder of his wife—a performance which he says included "some of the best acting I have done in my life."Sarsgaard has appeared in Off-Broadway productions including Kingdom of Earth, Laura Dennis, Burn This, Uncle Vanya. In September 2008, he made his Broadway debut as Boris Alexeyevich Trigorin in The Seagull, he is married to actress Maggie Gyllenhaal. Sarsgaard was born at Scott Air Force Base in St. Clair County, the son of Judy Lea and John Dale Sarsgaard, his father was an Air Force engineer and worked for Monsanto and IBM. His surname originates in Denmark. Sarsgaard was served as an altar boy, his family moved more than 12 times following his father's job. At the age of 7, Sarsgaard wanted to become a soccer player and took up ballet to help improve his coordination. After suffering several concussions while playing soccer, he gave up the sport and became interested in writing and theater.
Sarsgaard attended Fairfield College Preparatory School, a private Jesuit boys' school in Connecticut, where he became interested in film. Following his graduation from Fairfield Prep in 1989, he attended Bard College in New York for two years before transferring to Washington University in St. Louis in 1991, where he co-founded an improvisational comedy troupe "Mama's Pot Roast." While at WUSTL, Sarsgaard began performing in plays in an offshoot of New York's Actors Studio. In 1993, he moved to New York. Sarsgaard branched out with guest roles in television productions filmed in New York City, with Law & Order in 1995, New York Undercover as well as an appearance in the 1997 HBO special Subway Stories, he appeared in his first film role in Dead Man Walking, where he was cast as a murdered teenager, killed by Sean Penn's character. His next film roles were in a series of independent features: Another Day in Paradise, part of an ensemble cast that included James Woods, Melanie Griffith, Vincent Kartheiser, Natasha Gregson Wagner, In Desert Blue, where he had a supporting role in the film.
He received his substantial role in the 1998 film The Man in the Iron Mask, where he played Raoul, the ill-fated son of John Malkovich's dueling Musketeer, Athos. The film uses characters from Alexandre Dumas' d'Artagnan Romances, is loosely adapted from some plot elements of The Vicomte de Bragelonne; the film received ambivalent reviews, but was a success at the box office, earning $182 million worldwide. In 1999, Sarsgaard earned critical recognition in Kimberly Peirce's Boys Don't Cry, where he was cast as notorious killer John Lotter; the film is based on the real-life story of Brandon Teena, raped and murdered in 1993 by Lotter and Tom Nissen after they found out that he was a trans man. Boys Don’t Cry received overwhelmingly positive acclaim from critics, his performance was critically well received. According to The Boston Globe, "Peter Sarsgaard... makes the killer's terrible trajectory not only believable, but grounded in the most mundane clodhopper behavior. He isn't a drooling monster, he's a guy you wouldn't look twice at a bar or a convenience store."
A contributor from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer wrote "It's a marvelous performance supported ably by... Sarsgaard as the unpredictable, sociopathic Lotter." The film was screened at a special presentation at the 2000 Venice Film Festival. In regards to his character, as how Sarsgaard made him "likeable, sympathetic even" was because he wanted the audience "to understand why they would hang out with me. If my character wasn't likable, I wanted him to be charismatic enough that you weren't going to have a dull time if you were with him." In another interview, Sarsgaard said. His first leading role was in the 2001 feature The Center of the World, where he plays Richard Longman, a lonely young entrepreneur who skips out on his company's big initial public offering and pays a stripper $10,000 to fly to Las Vegas with him; the film received average reviews, however, A. O. Scott of the New York Times, reported that the performances by both Sarsgaard and Parker "provide a rough grain of authenticity, captur
Third Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Its southern end is at Astor St. Mark's Place, it transitions into Cooper Square, further south, the Bowery, Chatham Square, Park Row. The Manhattan side ends at East 128th Street. Third Avenue is two-way from Cooper Square to 24th Street, but since July 17, 1960 has carried only northbound traffic while in Manhattan. However, the Third Avenue Bridge carries vehicular traffic in the opposite direction, allowing only southbound vehicular traffic, rendering the avenue non-continuous to motor vehicles between the boroughs; the street leaves Manhattan and continues into the Bronx across the Harlem River over the Third Avenue Bridge north of East 129th Street to East Fordham Road at Fordham Center, where it intersects with U. S. 1. It is one of the four streets that form The Hub, a site of both maximum traffic and architectural density, in the South Bronx. Like most urban streets, Third Avenue was unpaved until the late 19th century.
In May 1861, according to a letter to the editor of The New York Times, the street was the scene of practice marching for the poorly equipped troops in the 7th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment: "The men were not in uniform, but poorly dressed, — in many cases with flip-flap shoes. The business-like air with which they marched through the deep mud of the Third-avenue was the more remarkable." Portions of Third Avenue are served by several routes in Manhattan. Buses serving Third Avenue include the Lexington Avenues Line. Note that southbound M98, M101, M102, M103 service operates on Lexington Avenue north of East 24th Street. M98: between Hunter College and the Harlem River Drive M101 and M103: between Cooper Square and East 125th Street M102: between Cooper Square and East 116th StreetAlong the Bronx's Third Avenue run several bus routes: Bx2: between East 138th Street to East 149th Street Bx15: between East 149th Street and Fordham Plaza Bx21: between East 138th Street and Boston Road Third Avenue was the location of the Third Avenue Railroad, a horsecar line established in 1853 that evolved into one of the largest streetcar systems in Manhattan, the Bronx, Westchester County.
It was served by the Third Avenue elevated line, which operated from 1878 until 1955 in Manhattan, 1973 in the Bronx. The Bx55 replaced the Third Avenue Line in the Bronx in 1973. At the time the El was being torn down in Manhattan, there was a movement to rename the whole of Third Avenue in Manhattan "the Bouwerie", although it had never been part of the Bowery. Today, the Third Avenue – 149th Street station, Third Avenue – 138th Street station, the Third Avenue stations all are served by the New York City Subway. Notes Bibliography Nevius, Michelle & Nevius, Inside the Apple: A Streetwise History of New York City, New York: Free Press, ISBN 141658997X Third Avenue Elevated at forgotten-ny.com New York Songlines: Third Avenue