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Classic rock

Classic rock is a radio format which developed from the album-oriented rock format in the early 1980s. In the United States, the classic rock format features rock music ranging from the mid-1960s to the 1980s focusing on commercially successful blues rock and hard rock popularized in the 1970s AOR format; the radio format became popular with the baby boomer demographic by the end of the 1990s. Although classic rock has appealed to adult listeners, music associated with this format received more exposure with younger generations of listeners with the presence of the Internet and digital downloading; some classic rock stations play a limited number of current releases which are stylistically consistent with the station's sound, or by heritage acts that are still active and producing new music. Conceptually, classic rock has been analyzed by academics as an effort by critics and music establishments to canonize rock music and commodify 1960s Western culture for audiences living in a post-baby boomer economy.

The music predominantly selected for the format has been identified as commercially successful songs by white male acts from the Anglosphere, expressing values of Romanticism, self-aggrandizement, politically undemanding ideologies. The classic rock format evolved from AOR radio stations that were attempting to appeal to an older audience by including familiar songs of the past with current hits. In 1980, AOR radio station M105 in Cleveland began billing itself as "Cleveland's Classic Rock", playing a mix of rock music from the mid-1960s to the present. WMET called itself "Chicago's Classic Rock" in 1981. In 1982, radio consultant Lee Abrams developed the "Timeless Rock" format which combined contemporary AOR with rock hits from the 1960s and 1970s. KRBE, an AM station in Houston, was an early classic rock radio station. In 1983 program director Paul Christy designed a format which played only early album rock, from the 1960s and early 1970s, without current music or any titles from the pop or dance side of Top 40.

Another AM station airing classic rock, beginning in 1983, was KRQX in Dallas-Fort Worth. KRQX was co-owned with an album rock station, 97.9 KZEW. Management saw the benefit in the FM station appealing to younger rock fans and the AM station appealing a bit older; the ratings of both stations could be added together to appeal to advertisers. Classic rock soon became the used descriptor for the format and became the used term among the general public for early album rock music. In the mid-1980s, the format's widespread proliferation came on the heels of Jacobs Media's success at WCXR, in Washington, D. C. and Edinborough Rand's success at WZLX in Boston. Between Guthrie and Jacobs, they converted more than 40 major market radio stations to their individual brand of classic rock over the next several years. Billboard magazine's Kim Freeman posits that "while classic rock's origins can be traced back earlier, 1986 is cited as the year of its birth". By 1986, the success of the format resulted in oldies accounting for 60–80% of the music played on album rock stations.

Although it began as a niche format spun off from AOR, by 2001 classic rock had surpassed album rock in market share nationally. During the mid-1980s, the classic rock format was tailored to the adult male demographic ages 25–34, which remained its largest demographic through the mid-1990s; as the format's audience aged, its demographics skewed toward older age groups. By 2006, the 35–44 age group was the format's largest audience and by 2014 the 45–54 year-old demographic was the largest. Classic rock stations play rock songs from the mid-1960s through the 1980s. Classic rock stations have been hesitant to add 1990s rock such as alternative rock and grunge to their playlists, due in part to the drastic difference in style, but a small number of classic rock stations began adding 1990s music in the early 2010s. Most there has been a "newer classic rock" under the slogan of the next generation of classic rock. Stations such as WLLZ in Detroit, WBOS in Boston and WXZX in Columbus play music focusing more on harder edge classic rock from the 1980s to the 2000s.

The songs of the Rolling Stones from the 1970s, have become staples of classic rock radio. " Satisfaction", "Under My Thumb", "Paint It, Black", "Miss You" are among their most popular selections, with Complex calling the latter "an eternal mainstay on classic-rock radio". Classic-rock radio programmers play "tried and proven" hit songs from the past based on their "high listener recognition and identification", says media academic Roy Shuker, who identifies white male rock acts from the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper-era through the end of the 1970s as the focus of their playlists; as Catherine Strong observes, classic rock songs are performed by white male acts from either the United States or the United Kingdom, "have a four-four time rarely exceed the time limit of four minutes, were composed by the musicians themselves, are sung in English, played by a'classical' rock formation and were released on a major label after 1964."The format's origins are traced by music scholar Jon Stratton to the emergence of a classic-rock canon.

This canon arose in part from music journalism and superlative lists ranking certain albums and songs that are reinforced to the collective and public memory. Robert Christgau says the classic-rock concept transmogrified rock music into a "myth of rock as art-that-stands-the-test-of-time", he believes it was inevitable that certain rock a

Whole bowel irrigation

Whole bowel irrigation is a medical process involving the rapid administration of large volumes of an osmotically balanced macrogol solution, either orally or via a nasogastric tube, to flush out the entire gastrointestinal tract. Whole bowel irrigation was developed to cleanse the large bowel before surgery or colonoscopy. A solution of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate was used but this electrolyte solution was shown to be absorbed by the body, sometimes leading to complications. To solve this problem a specialized irrigation fluid was developed consisting of an iso-osmolar solution of macrogol. With the macrogol solution there is negligible fluid or electrolyte absorption and several studies have shown the overall safety of the procedure. Whole bowel irrigation was suggested as a possible treatment for toxic ingestions. WBI has the effect of mechanically flushing the ingested poison out of the gastrointestinal tract before it can be absorbed into the body. A study in 1987 provided evidence that whole bowel irrigation is an effective and safe gastrointestinal decontamination procedure for acute poisoning.

Its common administration for toxic ingestions has been replaced with that of activated charcoal. Whole bowel irrigation is sometimes used prior to colonoscopy, bowel surgery, other abdominal/pelvic surgery, or a barium enema examination, to cleanse the intestines, enhancing visibility of the intestines' inner surfaces, preventing complications from occurring as a result of spillage of bowel contents into the abdominal cavity, providing other benefits depending on the type of procedure being performed. Whole bowel irrigation is used in certain poisoning situations, it is reserved for patients who have ingested toxic doses of medications not absorbed by activated charcoal toxic ingestions of sustained-release or enteric-coated drugs, or in the situation of packaged drug ingestion. Whole bowel irrigation is undertaken either by having the patient drink the solution or a nasogastric tube is inserted and the solution is delivered down the tube into the stomach; when administered to adolescents and adults as preparation for surgery, colonoscopy, or another procedure, the solution is taken orally, unless oral administration is contraindicated.

Orally, the solution may be taken in a wide variety of settings, is taken at a rate of 240 mL every 10 to 20 minutes. Nasogastrically, the solution is administered at a rate of 500 mL/h in children 9 months to 6 years, 1000 mL/h in children 6 to 12 years, 1500 to 2000 mL/h in adolescents and adults; when used to cleanse the bowels for a procedure, the total volume of solution prescribed is 2 to 4 liters, taken at home by the patient. In cases of poisoning, the procedure is performed in a healthcare facility; the patient is seated on a toilet whenever possible and the procedure continues until the rectal effluent is clear. The entire procedure takes 4 to 6 hours. Patients vomit, indicating that the rate of infusion may need to be slowed or an antiemetic such as metoclopramide given. Major gastrointestinal dysfunction precludes the use of whole bowel irrigation. WBI is contraindicated in the presence of ileus, significant gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hemodynamic instability, uncontrollable intractable vomiting, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, in patients with a decreased level of consciousness with a compromised unprotected airway.

Minor complications include nausea, abdominal cramps, bloating. Patients with altered mental status or a compromised and unprotected airway are at risk for pulmonary aspiration. Several other laxatives are available for cleansing of the bowels prior to colonoscopy, surgery, or other procedures. Studies have shown some of these to be comparable to macrogol solutions in terms of effectiveness and better tolerated by patients due to the lower volume of laxative which must be ingested. Enemas are another option. Alternatives to WBI in cases of poisoning may include gastric lavage, activated charcoal, syrup of ipecac, mechanically-induced vomiting, administration of alternate laxatives, antidotes and/or symptomatic treatment for systemic poisoning, watchful waiting. However, every poisoning situation is unique and appropriate treatment options are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Poison Colonoscopy

Teflon Don (album)

Teflon Don is the fourth studio album by American rapper Rick Ross, released on July 20, 2010, on Maybach Music Group, Slip-n-Slide Records and Def Jam Recordings. Production for the album took place during 2009 to 2010 and was handled by several record producers, including Clark Kent, No I. D; the Olympicks, J. U. S. T. I. C. E. League, Lex Luger, The Inkredibles, The Remedy and Kanye West; the album debuted at number two on the US Billboard 200 chart, selling 176,300 copies in its first week. It attained some international charting and produced three singles with moderate Billboard chart success. On its release, Teflon Don received positive reviews from most music critics, earning praise for its cinematic production and Ross' lyrical persona. Based on an average score of 79 at Metacritic, it is Ross's most critically acclaimed album. In 2010, Ross announced to MTV. On the remix to his earlier single, "Maybach Music 2", DJ Khaled hyped the album, along with "Maybach Music III". In April 2010, on his official website, he stated.

Artists Kanye West, Jay-Z, T. I. Raphael Saadiq and Drake were confirmed to be on the album. Producers for the album included No I. D. and Kanye West. The album was pushed back twice to a July 20 release date, it was released through Def Jam Recordings. Ross supported the album with his international Blowin' Money Fast Tour; the album's first single, "Super High" featuring Ne-Yo, peaked at number 100 on the US Billboard Hot 100. Its music video received airplay on MTV and BET; the album's second single, "B. M. F.", was released on June 29, 2010, features the rapper Styles P. The song reached number 60 on the Billboard Hot 100; the radio single was "Live Fast Die Young", sent to Rhythm/Crossover radio on July 13, 2010. It did not chart; the song "Aston Martin Music", featuring the Canadian rapper Drake and the American singer Chrisette Michele, debuted at number 98 on the Billboard Hot 100 after heavy downloads the week of the album's release. "Aston Martin Music" was released as the album's third single on October 5, 2010.

It peaked at number 30. Teflon Don received positive reviews from most music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 79, based on 18 reviews, which indicates "generally favorable reviews". Critics noted it as Ross's strongest album at the time and found its production cinematic and "epic". AllMusic writer David Jeffries gave the album 4 out of 5 stars and viewed it as an improvement over Ross's previous album Deeper Than Rap, stating "Teflon plays up the chilled and soulful elements of its predecessor, meaning Ross has graduated to a level where words like'organic' and'poignant' come into play". Entertainment Weekly's Simon Vozick-Levinson called Ross "a competent rapper" and complimented his "ear for lush, expansive beats". Jon Caramanica of The New York Times described him as "a ferocious character, an impressive rapper... a clever and loose thinker" and wrote that Teflon Don "establishes him as one of rap's most potent and creative forces".

Sean Fennessey of The Washington Post praised Ross's lyricism and wrote that he "is an enunciator of the highest order, his voice a tidal wave baritone... his word choice and onomatopoetic gestures... are unmatched in rap right now". Brian Richardson of Tiny Mix Tapes gave it 3½ out of 5 stars and wrote "he employs such confidence and panache staying within his limitations". XXL writer Rob Markman gave the album an XL rating and stated "if it is judged on the music, Teflon Don is damn near spotless; the lyrics are on par, the beats are lush, the imagery is larger than life". However, some critics thought that the album favored style over substance and criticized Ross's lyrics. Slant Magazine's Jesse Cataldo wrote that "despite fitful spots of brilliance, feels distinctly swampy... too comes off as a conspicuous mishandling of both assets and signifiers: too much drug posturing, too much repetition, too little real effort". OC Weekly writer Nate Jackson gave the album a C+ rating and stated "Ross squanders opportunities to expand the content of his verses beyond the digits of his bankroll".

Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club gave it a B rating and stated "Producers provide lush, larger-than-life soundscapes for Ross' crass consumerism, while classy guest vocalists outshine the star... the only thing deep about Ross are his pockets and his rumbling voice. Teflon Don excels as sleek, shiny pop escapism and simple". Wesley Case of The Baltimore Sun noted his lyrics as "sleek, too-often shallow", but praised its "elegance" and "grandiose stunting". USA Today's Steve Jones gave the album 3 out of 4 stars and wrote that Ross's "booming voice and colorful tales of ill-gotten wealth are hard to ignore, his Maybach music always sounds good rattling the trunk if your ride is less ostentatious". Ian Cohen of Pitchfork compared the album's embracement of "an aura of dominance" to late-1990s hip hop music and elaborated on its indulgent Mafioso-themes and sound, stating: Ross' greatest gift is the ability to conjure a fully-formed Planet Boss, a refuge from the dwindling fortunes of gangsta rap and the general economic downturn...

J. U. S. T. I. C. E. League, No I. D. and Kanye West create beats that do sound like they're fantastically out of reach to anyone but the financial elite, you can hear every dollar that went into the record... Lyrics that might look clumsy on paper turn into grand pronouncements through pure self-belief, and like a great action hero, R

The Chosen Few (1980s Australian band)

The Chosen Few were an Australian rock band active between 1985 and 1992. Signed to Mushroom Records and managed by Stuart Coupe, the Chosen Few released four singles and a lone album Friends and Firewood. Despite constant national touring and receiving support from the country's most influential radio stations. Braithwaite's version of'Rise' is the title track of his successful 1990 album, remains a staple on Australian commercial radio; the Chosen Few was formed in 1985 in Sydney, Australia with Danny McCarthy, Abe Elshaikh, Paul Read & Rex Mansfield. After numerous months rehearsing and cutting demos, the band was taken up by rock writer and manager Stuart Coupe and signed to Mushroom Records in 1988; the band's debut single'Get It Right' was met with enthusiasm in the Australian rock music media and the band's following single'Rise' was critically praised and reached # 35 on the ARIA charts. However, the band's commercial prospects didn't appear promising when the band's third single'Love' failed to chart.

The band's debut album Friends and Firewood was released in 1990 and went triple platinum in sales, reached No.1 on the Rolling Stone Album Chart. After six years and 261 shows, The Chosen Few did their final four concerts at the Sydney Entertainment Centre as the opening act on Billy Joel's Storm Front tour. In 1994, The Chosen Few re-emerged as The Dreamseed with addition of guitarist Steve Barnes and Darren Bulmer, relocated to Germany. Paul Read is a member of Stormcellar. Friends and Firewood Get It Right / With Barely A Whisper - November, 1988 Rise / One Mistake - April, 1989 Love / Always Tomorrow - November, 1989 Days Like These / Bleed Me - June, 1990 45cat page discogs page Rate Your Music Page

Liberty (dog)

Honor's Foxfire Liberty Hume was the Golden Retriever Presidential pet of Betty Ford and Gerald Ford. Liberty was born February 8, 1974 and given to the president as an 8-month-old puppy by his daughter Susan Ford and new White House photographer David Hume Kennerly in the fall of 1974; the breeder of the dark gold pup was Ann Friberg of Washington. Liberty was photographed with Ford in the Oval Office, in the swimming pool at Camp David and on the South Lawn of the White House, she had a litter of pups in the White House on September 14, 1975, one of which – Misty – was kept by Ford. At one point Ford was locked in a White House stairwell after returning from walking the dog on the South Lawn early one morning. Photographs of the dog were autographed with a rubber stamp of her paw print. Stories indicated that if Ford wanted to end a conversation in the Oval Office he would signal Liberty and she would go to the guest wagging her tail creating a natural break. Ford discussed the dog in a speech on October 9, 1974 in a tribute to William Scranton in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: This puppy has taken over the White House.

In fact, you may have seen some of us laughing up here during dinner. As I reached in my pocket to get a match to light my pipe, look what I pulled out of the pocket — some dog biscuits! Let me tell you the story about Susan and Dave and how they bought this dog. I first should preface. One lived 13 years and died, another one died a year ago in August after 9 years. So we are partial, I would say, to golden retrievers. Well and Susan called up a highly recommended individual who had contacts with the people who raise golden retrievers all over the country, and Dave, as I understand it —, communicating with the breeder who happened to have a golden retriever about this age — Dave asked the individual if they had a dog and was it available, the owner said that they had this 8-month-old golden retriever, but breeder was a little cautious — they're possessive about these dogs — and he asked in a nice way who the dog's owner would be. And they said and Susan, that they had to keep it a secret. Well, the kennel owner said.

He would have to know who the dog's owner would be, he wanted to know would the dog have a good home. So, Dave and Susan specifically assured the dog owner that it would have a good home, they explained that the parents were friendly and middle-aged and they had four children. The kennel owner said, "That sounds fine. What kind of a house do they live in?"Susan and Dave said, "Well, it is a big white house with a fence around it." The kennel owner said, "This is a big dog. Will it have enough to eat? Does the father have a steady job?" Well, on that question, they were stuck a bit. Needless to say they got the dog and, in the appropriate spirit of the city of Philadelphia, we have named her "Liberty." One of those inquisitive reporters that we have in Washington asked Susan, going to take care of Liberty. And Susan did not hesitate one minute, she said, "Of course, it will be Dad." So, I have this feeling — this is one Liberty, going to cost me some of mine. But in a broader sense, the true nature of liberty.

It comes with both obligations. Freedom, we all know, is free. United States presidential pets Media related to Liberty at Wikimedia Commons White House: Presidential Pets - White House photo Ford Family Pets - from the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum photographs section Liberty's Pedigree at Golden Retriever Weekly Liberty's K9Data Page Link

The Grange, Windsor

The Grange is a heritage-listed detached house at 38 Crowther Street, City of Brisbane, Australia. It was built from c. 1874 to 1877. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992; this small brick house appears to have been constructed c. 1874 as a family home for Lutwyche brickmaker William Williams, who in that year acquired 9 hectares of land at Lutwyche, including the house site, from Brisbane businessman Nehemiah Bartley. The kitchen was erected in 1877 by contractor John William Young for £ 69/10 / -. Williams was associated with the development of Lutwyche as Brisbane's principal brickmaking district in the 1870s and 1880s, it is that the bricks for his own house and kitchen were supplied from the brickworks on his Lutwyche property. Although Williams had arrived in Queensland from England by early 1864 and was at Lutwyche in 1865, he does not appear to have commenced brickmaking until the 1870s; some of the first bricks produced by him were used in construction of the Old Government Printery), erected in 1874.

By 1888 Williams owned four brickyards, including the Milton Brickworks on River Road at Toowong, was producing the highest per annum output of bricks in the Lutwyche area. Mrs Williams managed the business from c. 1882, Williams and his son William, worked two of the brickyards themselves. Following Williams' death in the early 1890s, the freehold passed to his widow, who sold the house in 1904; the land has been subdivided since. Fullers Street at Lutwyche was named Williams Street, after the early brickmaker and his family, nearby Brickfield Street recalls the brickmaking enterprise which Williams established at Lutwyche in the 1870s; the Grange, located on the crest of a rise at the southwest corner of Crowther and Fuller streets, consists of a residence fronting Crowther Street to the east with a detached kitchen house to the west. The residence is a single-storeyed rendered masonry structure with an attic and corrugated iron gable roof; the building has verandahs to four sides with curved corrugated iron awnings, timber posts with shaped brackets and brick paving.

Timber sash windows have been built to match early windows in the kitchen house, timber front and rear doors are additions. Internally, the building has four rooms with fireplaces to both north rooms and a central entry to the east and west; the northeast room has cedar cupboards either side of the fireplace and the northwest room has an early timber staircase to the attic. The floor consists of a recent 20-millimetre concrete slab laid over sand on a bed of original brick bats. Walls are lime plastered with horse hair, have original concrete skirting. Internal timber doors are not original; the attic has a recent ensuite at the north end, a single Velux roof window has been inserted on the southwestern side. The kitchen house is a single-storeyed masonry structure rendered, with a corrugated iron gable roof; the building has a verandah to the west with a corrugated iron awning, timber posts and brick paving, early timber doors and sash windows. Internally, the building is a single room with a fireplace at the north end, a recent timber floor and limewash finish to the walls.

A single Velux roof window has been inserted on the eastern side. A weatherboard boathouse/living area with a corrugated iron gable roof has been added to the northwest of the kitchen house, a weatherboard bunkhouse with a hipped corrugated iron roof has been added to the southwest. A timber pigeon coop is located in the northwest corner of the site, a timber picket fence surrounds the eastern side of the residence; the Grange was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria. The place is important in demonstrating the pattern of Queensland's history; the Grange is important in demonstrating the 19th century development of Windsor-Lutwyche as a brick-making district, is significant as a rare surviving brick, gable-style artisan's home of the 1870s, which offers rare surviving evidence of 1870s brick construction in Brisbane. The place demonstrates uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage; the Grange is important in demonstrating the 19th century development of Windsor-Lutwyche as a brick-making district, is significant as a rare surviving brick, gable-style artisan's home of the 1870s, which offers rare surviving evidence of 1870s brick construction in Brisbane.

The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. The Grange is important in demonstrating the 19th century development of Windsor-Lutwyche as a brick-making district, is significant as a rare surviving brick, gable-style artisan's home of the 1870s, which offers rare surviving evidence of 1870s brick construction in Brisbane; the place is important because of its aesthetic significance. It exhibits a range of aesthetic characteristics, including the contribution through scale and materials to the local streetscape and Windsor townscape; the place has a special association with the life or work of a particular person, group or organisation of importance in Queensland's history. The place has a special association with the Williams family and their contribution to the development of the brick-making industry in the Windsor-Lutwyche area; this Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence.

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