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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese. Classical Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese that evolved from the classical language, making it different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. Literary Chinese was used for all formal writing in China until the early 20th century, during various periods, in Japan and Vietnam. Among Chinese speakers, Literary Chinese has been replaced by written vernacular Chinese, a style of writing, similar to modern spoken Mandarin Chinese, while speakers of non-Chinese languages have abandoned Literary Chinese in favor of local vernaculars. Literary Chinese is known as kanbun in Japanese, hanmun in Korean and cổ văn or văn ngôn in Vietnamese. Speaking, Classical Chinese refers to the written language of the classical period of Chinese literature, from the end of the Spring and Autumn period to the end of the Han dynasty, while Literary Chinese is the form of written Chinese used from the end of the Han Dynasty to the early 20th century, when it was replaced by vernacular written Chinese.

It is also referred to as "Classical Chinese", but sinologists distinguish it from the language of the early period. During this period the dialects of China became more and more disparate and thus the Classical written language became less and less representative of the varieties of Chinese. Although authors sought to write in the style of the Classics, the similarity decreased over the centuries due to their imperfect understanding of the older language, the influence of their own speech, the addition of new words; this situation, the use of Literary Chinese throughout the Chinese cultural sphere despite the existence of disparate regional vernaculars, is called diglossia. It can be compared to the position of Classical Arabic relative to the various regional vernaculars in Arab lands, or of Latin in medieval Europe; the Romance languages continued to evolve, influencing Latin texts of the same period, so that by the Middle Ages, Medieval Latin included many usages that would have baffled the Romans.

The coexistence of Classical Chinese and the native languages of Japan and Vietnam can be compared to the use of Latin in nations that natively speak non-Latin-derived Germanic languages or Slavic languages, to the position of Arabic in Persia or the position of the Indic language, Sanskrit, in South India and Southeast Asia. However, the non-phonetic Chinese writing system causes a unique situation where the modern pronunciation of the classical language is far more divergent than in analogous cases, complicating understanding and study of Classical Chinese further compared to other classical languages. Christian missionaries coined the term Wen-li for Literary Chinese. Though composed from Chinese roots, this term was never used in that sense in Chinese, was rejected by non-missionary sinologues. Chinese characters are not alphabetic and only reflect sound changes; the tentative reconstruction of Old Chinese is an endeavor only a few centuries old. As a result, Classical Chinese is not read with a reconstruction of Old Chinese pronunciation.

With the progress of time, every dynasty has modified the official Phonology Dictionary. By the time of the Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, the Phonology Dictionary was based on early Mandarin, but since the Imperial Examination required the composition of Shi genre, in non-Mandarin speaking parts of China such as Zhejiang and Fujian, pronunciation is either based on everyday speech as in Cantonese. In practice, all varieties of Chinese combine these two extremes. Mandarin and Cantonese, for example have words that are pronounced one way in colloquial usage and another way when used in Classical Chinese or in specialized terms coming from Classical Chinese, though the system is not as extensive as that of Southern Min or Wu. Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese readers of Classical Chinese use systems of pronunciation specific to their own languages. For example, Japanese speakers use On'yomi pronunciation when reading the kanji of words of Chinese origin such as 銀行 or the name for the city of Tōkyō, but use Kun'yomi when the kanji represents a native word such as the reading of 行 in 行く or the reading of both characters in the name for the city of Ōsaka, a system that aids Japanese speakers with Classical Chinese word order.

Since the pronunciation of all modern varieties of Chinese is different from Old Chinese or other forms of historical Chinese, characters that once rhymed in poetry may not rhyme any longer, or vice versa. Poetry and other rhyme-based writing thus becomes less coherent than the original reading must have been. However, some modern Chinese varieties have certain phonological characteristics that are closer to the older pronunciati

Masakatsu Takagi

Masakatsu Takagi is a musician and filmmaker from Kameoka, Japan. He attended Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, his work has been noticed by Apple Inc. and a 3-minute promotional video for the company was made about how Takagi creates his videos on a Macintosh system, Apple Pro software, including Final Cut Pro and Logic Pro. He uses Adobe After Effects and Adobe Photoshop in his videos, he collaborated with David Sylvian on the track "Exit / Delete" from Coieda. He wrote the score for Mamoru Hosoda's films The Boy and the Beast and Mirai, he wrote the music for the Studio Ghibli documentary The Kingdom of Dreams and Madness. Takagi has lived in Hyogo, Japan since 2013. Pia opus pia eating JOURNAL FOR PEOPLE eating 2 rehome sail world is so beautiful COIEDA JOURNAL FOR PEOPLE world is so beautiful AIR'S NOTE BLOOMY GIRLS Private/Public Tai Rei Tei Rio Ymene Niyodo Tama Tama Mikrokozmosz Wolf Children Kagayaki The Boy and the Beast Mirai Official website

List of lieder by Anton Bruckner

Anton Bruckner composed about 20 lieder during his life, the earliest in c. 1845, the last in 1882. Most of the lieder were composed during his stay in the St. Florian Abbey and his tuition by Otto Kitzler. During his stay in St. Florian and in Linz before Kitzler's tuition, Bruckner made sketches for two lieder and composed three lieder. During the beginning of his stay in St. Florian, Bruckner made sketches for two lieder: Mild wie die Bäche, WAB 138, a 31-bar sketch made in c. 1845 for a lied in A-flat major on a text of Ernst Marinelli. The manuscript, in which the piano accompaniment is incomplete, is stored in the archive of the St. Florian Abbey; this Liedentwurf, of which a facsimile was first published in Band II/2, pp. 59–60, of the Göllerich/Auer biography, is edited in Band XXIII/1, Liedentwürfe, of the Bruckner's Gesamtausgabe. Wie des Bächleins Silberquelle, WAB 84.1, a 60-bar sketch made in c. 1845 for a duet for two sopranos in G major on the same text as Ständchen, WAB 84.2.

The first part of the manuscript with incomplete piano accompaniment is stored in the archive of the St. Florian Abbey, the remaining with bars 57-60 is found in the city museum of Wels; this Liedentwurf, of which a facsimile of the first part was first published in Band II/2, pp. 65–66, of the Göllerich/Auer biography, is edited in Band XXIII/1, Liedentwürfe, of the Bruckner's Gesamtausgabe. Thereafter, Bruckner composed three lieder: Der Mondabend, WAB 200, a 13-bar lied in A major composed in c. 1850 for Aloisia Bogner on a text by Johann Gottfried Kumpf. The lied is part of the workbook "Lieder für eine Singstimme mit Clavier-Begleitung für Fräulein Louise Bogner", retrieved in the Landesmuseum of Upper Austria; the workbook has been issued in 2015 by the Anton Bruckner Institut Linz. Frühlingslied, WAB 68, a 24-bar lied in A major, composed in 1851 for the name-day of Aloisia Bogner on a text by Heinrich Heine; the lied is edited in Band XXIII/1, No. 1, of the Bruckner's Gesamtausgabe. Wie bist du, Frühling, gut und treu, WAB 58, a 102-bar lied in G major composed in 1856 on five strophes of Oskar von Redwitz' Amaranths Waldeslieder.

The lied is edited in Band XXIII/1, No. 2, of the Bruckner's Gesamtausgabe. The lieder and sketches, which Bruckner composed in 1861–1862 as exercises during Kitzler's tuition, are found in the Kitzler-Studienbuch: O habt die Thräne gern, a 16-bar lied in A minor: Kitzler-Studienbuch, pp. 18–19 Nachglück, a 16-bar lied in C major: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 19 Herzeleid, a 16-bar lied in E minor: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 20 Nachglück, a 16-bar lied in F major: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 21 Von der schlummernden Mutter, a 20-bar lied in F major: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 22 Des Baches Frühlingsfeier, a 22-bar lied in D minor: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 23 Wie neid ich Dich, du stolzer Wald, a-24 bar lied in E-flat major: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 24 O habt die Thräne gern, a 32-bar lied in A minor: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 42 Last des Herzens, a 32-bar lied in E-flat major: Kitzler-Studienbuch, p. 43 Es regnet, a 24-bar sketch for a lied in E minor: Kitzler-Studienbuch, pp. 46–47 Wunsch, a 32-bar sketch for a lied: Kitzler-Studienbuch, pp. 47–48 Der Trompeter an der Katzbach, a 90-bar lied in F minor on a text by Julius Mosen: Kitzler-Studienbuch, pp. 207–213 After the end of Kitzler's tuition, during his stay in Linz and in Vienna, Bruckner composed four other lieder: Herbstkummer, WAB 72, a 62-bar lied in E minor composed in April 1864 on a text by "Ernst".

Im April, WAB 75, a 73-bar lied in A-flat major composed in c. 1865 on a text by Emanuel Geibel. Mein Herz und deine Stimme, WAB 79, a 60-bar lied in A major composed in 1868 on a text by August von Platen. Volkslied, WAB 94, a 34-bar composition in C major composed in 1882 on a text by Josef Winter. Bruckner composed it, as well as a second setting for men's choir, for a competition für eines sangbares Nationallied; these lieder are edited in Band XXIII/1, Nos. 3 to 6, of the Gesamtausgabe: There three commercial recordings with Bruckner's lieder: Marie Luise Bart-Larsson, Gernot Martzy, Kammermusikalische Kostbarkeiten von Anton Bruckner – CD: Weinberg Records SW 01 036–2, 1996 Robert Holzer, Thomas Kerbl, Anton Bruckner - Lieder/Magnificat – CD: LIVA 046, 2011. Reissued as Anton Bruckner - Lieder, Chöre, Magnificat – CD: Gramola 99071, 2015, with, in addition, the in the meantime retrieved Der Mondabend. NB: The lieder are transposed to match Holzer's tessitura. Three lieder by Elisabeth Wimmer, Daniel Linton-France in: Bruckner, Anton – Böck liest Bruckner I – CD – Gramola 99195, 3 October 2018There is as yet no recording of the lieder composed during Kitzler's tuition.

August Göllerich, Anton Bruckner. Ein Lebens- und Schaffens-Bild, c. 1922 – posthumous edited by Max Auer by G. Bosse, Regensburg, 1932 Anton Bruckner – Sämtliche Werke, Band XXIII/1: Lieder für Gesang und Klavier, Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Angela Pachovsky, Vienna, 1997 Anton Bruckner - Sämtliche Werke, Band XXV: Das Kitzler Studienbuch, Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Paul Hawkshaw and Erich Wolfgang Partsch, Vienna, 2015 Lieder für Luise Bogner, eine Volksliedersammlung Anton Bruckners, Oberösterreichische Schr

Thomas Coram

Captain Thomas Coram was a philanthropist who created the London Foundling Hospital in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury, to look after abandoned children. It is said to be the world's first incorporated charity. Thomas Coram was born in Lyme Regis, England, his father is believed to have been a master mariner. He was sent to sea at age 11; as such, he never received a proper education. In 1694, he was settled in what is now Dighton, Massachusetts part of Taunton. Coram lived in Dighton for ten years. By a deed dated 8 December 1703, he gave 59 acres of land at Taunton to be used for a schoolhouse, whenever the people should desire the establishment of the Church of England. In the deed, he is described as "of Boston, sometimes residing in Taunton", he seems to have been a shipwright, he gave some books to form a library at St. Thomas' Church, one of which, a Book of Common Prayer given to him by Speaker Onslow, is preserved in the church. In 1704, at the age of 36, he returned to London and helped to obtain an act of Parliament giving a bounty on the importation of tar from the colonies.

He carried on business for some time. During the War of the Spanish Succession, he commanded a merchant ship and acquired the epithet of captain. In 1712, he obtained a role in Trinity House, Deptford, a private corporation that combined public responsibilities with charitable purposes. In 1717, he unsuccessfully promoted the idea of founding a colony to be called'Georgia' in what is today Maine as a philanthropic venture. In 1719, he was stranded off Cuxhaven, when sailing for Hamburg in the Sea Flower, the ship was plundered by the neighbouring inhabitants, he became known for his public spirit. Old Horace Walpole called him "the honestest, most disinterested, most knowing person about the plantations he had talked with", he obtained an act of parliament taking off the prohibition upon deal from Germany and the Netherlands. In 1732, he was appointed one of the trustees for Georgia colony founded through James Oglethorpe's exertions. In 1735, he brought forward a scheme for settling unemployed English artisans in Nova Scotia.

The plan was approved by the board of trade and, after being dropped for a time, was carried out before Coram's death. Brocklesby states that on some occasion, he obtained a change in the colonial regulations in the interest of English hatters, refused to take any reward from his clients except a hat. While living in Rotherhithe and travelling into London to engage in his business interests, Coram was shocked by the sight of infants exposed in the streets in a dying state, he began to agitate for the foundation of a foundling hospital. This institution was to be a children's home for children and orphans who could not be properly cared for, he laboured for seventeen years, he induced many ladies of rank to sign a memorial. A charter, signed by King George II, was at last obtained for the Foundling Hospital in 1739 and considerable sums were subscribed; the first meeting of the guardians was held at Somerset House on 20 November 1739. At a court, a vote of thanks was presented to Coram, who requested that thanks should be given to the ladies interested.

Some houses were first taken in Hatton Garden, where children were first admitted in 1741. A piece of land was bought for £7,000 in Bloomsbury. Lord Salisbury, the owner, insisted that the whole of his ground "as far as Gray's Inn Lane" should be taken; the foundation stone of the hospital was laid on 16 September 1742. In October 1745, the west wing was finished and the children removed from Hatton Garden. Great interest was excited in the undertaking by William Hogarth, who in May 1740 presented his fine portrait of Coram to the hospital. Hogarth presented a picture of Moses with Pharaoh's daughter, gave 157 tickets in the lottery for the "March to Finchley", one of which won the prize. In addition, he introduced a portrait of Coram into an engraved power of attorney for receiving subscriptions to the hospital. Handel gave performances at the hospital in 1749 and 1750. Coram continued to be invested in the hospital. Up until 1742, he continued to be elected to the General Committee, but at the May Day meeting in 1742 he received too few votes to qualify, as a result no longer had any say in the management of the hospital.

The reason why he was pushed out is not clear. He was said to have spread defamatory rumours about two of the governors. Another possible reason is. In his years, he advocated a scheme for the education of Native American girls in America. During his time in America, he lived and worked with Native Americans leading to an interest in promoting and supporting their education: the girls. Despite the general view at the time that education was not as important for girls, he was of the opinion that it was just as important for them to receive an education, if not more: An Evil amongst us here in England is to think Girls having learning given them is not so Material as for boys to have it. I think and say it is more Material for Girls, when they come to be Mothers, will have the forming of their Children's lives and if their Mothers be good or bad the children Generally take after them, so that giving Girls a vertuous Education is a vast Advantage to their Posterity as well as to the Publick; this theme was prevalent in his plans for the Foundling Hospital in that girls should receive an education.

After the loss of his wife, he neglected his private affairs, fell into difficulties. A subscription was raised for

Jacksonville Icemen

The Jacksonville Icemen are a minor league ice hockey team in the ECHL in Jacksonville, that began play in the 2017–18 season. The team plays its home games at VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena; the Icemen were known as the Muskegon Fury from 1992 to 2008, the Muskegon Lumberjacks from 2008 to 2010, the Evansville IceMen from 2010 to 2016. On November 16, 2015, Evansville IceMen owner Ron Geary wrote a letter to the fans that the team's operating lease with the Ford Center was ending after the 2015–16 season. Despite attempts to negotiate a lease extension with the city since February 2015, the two parties had not yet come to an agreement on new terms; the City of Evansville and Geary were unable to come to an agreement. Geary agreed to terms with the city of Owensboro, Kentucky, to relocate the team to the Owensboro Sportscenter if the IceMen were forced to leave the Ford Center. On February 8, 2016, the City of Evansville announced that it had secured an expansion team in the Southern Professional Hockey League to play at the Ford Center beginning in the 2016–17 season, thus displacing the IceMen franchise from Evansville.

On March 14, the IceMen and the ECHL announced the franchise's relocation to Owensboro had been approved but the franchise would have to go dormant for the 2016–17 season to allow time for the necessary renovations on the Owensboro Sportscenter to be completed. However, by September 2016, Geary still had not taken over management of the Sportscenter and the City of Owensboro announced a different management company would take over the Sportscenter on October 1. On the September 30 deadline, Geary sent a letter to mayor Ron Payne stating he would not be purchasing the Sportscenter because of too much cost to convert and refurbish the arena. In January 2017, Geary sold part of the franchise to an ownership group based out of Jacksonville and the relocation was approved by the ECHL on February 8, 2017. Geary remained as the primary owner; the team hired Jason Christie as their first head coach and affiliated with the Winnipeg Jets and the Manitoba Moose, the organization familiar with Christie from his time as the head coach of the Tulsa Oilers.

In the team's second season in Jacksonville, the franchise qualified for the ECHL playoffs for the first time since it joined the league in 2012. Following the season, Geary sold his shares of the team and the controlling interest was acquired by SZH Hockey LLC, a group led by Andrew Kaufmann on July 16, 2019. Sports in Jacksonville Jacksonville Icemen

Asticou Inn

The Asticou Inn is an inn in Northeast Harbor, Maine. It was built in 1883. In 1899, it was rebuilt; the rear of the building overlooks the Northeast Harbor inlet, which opens out to the Atlantic Ocean. The inn has been owned by the Asti-Kim Corporation since 1965 and, between 2015 and 2019, was managed by the Acadia Corporation. There are 48 guest rooms: 31 in the main inn, plus 17 in six adjacent buildings: Cranberry Lodge, Blue Spruce, Bird Bank, three "Topsiders"; the inn closes for the seven months between Memorial Day. Augustus Chase Savage lived with his wife, Emily Manchester, in the 1854-built Harbor Cottage, which sits near the apex of the corner of Peabody Drive. Savage predicted that an overflow of vacationers to Bar Harbor would benefit Northeast Harbor. In 1883, across the road from Harbor Cottage, he built the Asticou Inn; the original building was destroyed by a fire 16 years after opening. It was rebuilt by A. C. and his son, George. A. C.'s other son, Frederick Lincoln Savage, was the architect.

It reopened in 1901. The inn was spared during the great fires of 1947; the combined Savage families took active parts in the day-to-day management of the business, with the women establishing the inn's reputation for hearty New England food and the children picking berries that contributed to desserts and pies. George Savage died in 1922, aged about 48, his 19-year-old son, Charles Kenneth Savage, was brought back from his boarding school in Boston, Massachusetts, to help his mother, maintain the inn's tradition. When Charles married, his wife, Katharine Larcher Savage, became the manager of the inn's kitchen, her pastries, ice creams and desserts proved popular. Charles and Katharine ran the inn until 1964, they had a son. In 1956, Savage created the Asticou Azalea Garden across the street from the inn; some members of the Savage family were interred in a family cemetery around where the cottages Blue Spruce and Bird Bank stand today. They were moved to Forest Hill Cemetery, on the other side of the azalea garden, created by A.

C. Savage in 1904. Frederick Savage, meanwhile, is buried in Ledgelawn Cemetery on Cromwell Harbor Road, along with his wife of 23 years, who survived him by 37 years. In 1965, when Mabelle Savage died, ownership of the inn passed from the Savage family to the Asti-Kim Corporation, a group of local businesspeople and summer residents. Guy Toole was an employee at the inn for 44 consecutive seasons. Marilyn "Muffy" Cyr worked at the inn for 45 years in various capacities, including chambermaid, head housekeeper, desk clerk, reservations manager, special functions assistant, floral arranger. For the latter part of her time at the inn, Tom Weverstad was the special functions director. Official website