Roza Eskenazi was a famous Jewish-Greek singer of rebetiko and Greek folk music born in Constantinople, whose recording and stage career extended from the late 1920s into the 1970s. Eskenazi was born Sarah Skinazi to an impoverished Sephardic Jewish family in Istanbul, in the Constantinople Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Throughout her career she hid her real date of birth, claimed to have been born in 1910. In fact, she was at least a decade older, was born sometime between 1895 and 1897, her father, Avram Skinazi, was a rag dealer. In addition to Roza, he and his wife Flora had two sons, the eldest, Sami. Shortly after the turn of the century, Skinazi family relocated to Thessaloniki still under Ottoman rule; the city was undergoing rapid economic expansion at the time, with its population growing by 70 percent between 1870 and 1917. Avram Skinazi found work in a cotton processing mill and took various odd jobs to improve his family’s financial standing. At the time, he entrusted young Sarah to a neighboring girl, who tutored several local children in basic reading and writing.
These sessions were the extent of her formal education. For some time, her brother, her mother lived in nearby Komotini, a city that at that time, still had a sizable Turkish-speaking population. Roza's mother found employment there as the live-in maid for a wealthy family, Roza assisted her with the housework. One day, Sarah was overheard singing by the Turkish owners of a local tavern, they were enthralled by her voice, came to the door to express their wish to hire the girl to perform in their club. Sarah's mother was incensed at the suggestion that her daughter, or any other member of her family, would become an artiste. Years in an interview, Roza admitted that her time in Komotini was a turning point in her life, it was there, she said, that she decided to become a dancer. She was not to realize her dream until her return to Thessaloniki. At the time, the family was renting an apartment near the city's Grand Hotel Theater, several of the neighbors performed there; every day, Sarah would help two of the dancers carry their costumes to the theater, hoping that she would one day appear on the stage alongside them.
It was there that she began her career as a dancer. While still a teenager, she fell in love with Yiannis Zardinidis, a wealthy man from one of Cappadocia's most prominent families. Zardinidis' family disapproved of the match; the two of them eloped around 1913, Sarah changed her name to Roza, the name by which she was known throughout her career. Zardinidis died of unknown causes around the year 1917, leaving Sarah/Roza with a little child, Paraschos. Realizing that she could not maintain her career as a performer while raising an infant, she brought him to the St. Taksiarchis nursery in the city of Xanthi, his father's family agreed to support him there, Paraschos Zardinidis grew up to be a high-ranking officer in the Greek Air Force. It was only years that he reunited with his mother, after finding her in Athens in 1935. Roza had moved to Athens shortly after Zardinidis's death to pursue her musical career, she teamed up with two Armenian cabaret artists and Zabel, who liked her because she could speak Turkish, because she showed talent as a singer.
Though she continued to perform as a dancer, she began to sing for patrons of the club in Greek and Armenian. It was there that she was first "discovered" by well-known composer and impresario Panagiotis Toundas in the late 1920s. Toundas recognized her talent and introduced her to Vassilis Toumbakaris of Columbia Records. In 1929 Roza cut four sides for Columbia, three of which were one demotic. By the mid-1930s, she had recorded over 300 songs for Columbia and HMV, had become one of their most popular stars; some were folk songs from Greece and Smyrna in Turkey. Her most important contribution to the local music scene, was her recordings of rebetiko and the Smyrna school of rebetiko, she was credited with being responsible for the breakthrough of this style into popular culture. Soon after she began recording, Roza began performing nightly at the Taygetos nightclub in Athens as well. Appearing with her on stage were Toundas, the violinist Dimitrios Semsis and oud player Agapios Tomboulis. Eskenazi, however was the star of the show, earning an unprecedented 200 drachmas per night.
She confided to her biographer Kostas Hatzidoulis that she should have been much wealthier, just on the income from the show, but that she had a weakness for expensive jewelry and spent too much of her income on it. Before long, her career extended beyond the political boundaries of Greece to the Greek Diaspora. Together with Tomboulis, she traveled to Egypt and Serbia, receiving a warm reception not only from the local Greek communities, but from the Turkish communities as well, her music had a certain edginess to it, one of her songs, Πρέζα όταν Πιείς, was censored by Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas. As a result of his decisions, many other traditional Rebetiko artists were marginalized, though a new trend in the genre, led by Vassilis Tsitsanis, was gaining ground. Within a short time, Greece's own independence would be challenged. By 1940, Italy invaded, in 1941 the German army occupied the country. Despite the repressive regime, she continued performing, in 1942, she opened up her own nightclub, together with her son Paraschos, with whom she had since been reunited.
Kemenche or kemençe is a name used for various types of stringed bowed musical instruments having their origin in the Eastern Mediterranean in Greece, Turkey and regions adjacent to the Black Sea. These instruments are folk instruments having three strings and played held upright with their tail on the knee of the musician; the name Kemençe derives from the Persian Kamancheh, means "small bow". The Kemençe of the Black Sea is a box-shaped lute, while the classical kemençe is a bowl-shaped lute. Other bowed instruments have names sharing the same Persian etymology include the kamancheh, a spike lute, the Cappadocian kemane, an instrument related to the kemenche of the Black Sea with added sympathetic strings. Byzantine lyra Kemence, from Folk Tours Middle Eastern Dance & Music
Musical instrument classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; the oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC. It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi, compiled from sources of the Chou period and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds; the eight-fold system of pa yin, from the same source, occurred and in the legendary Emperor Zhun's time it is believed to have been presented in the following order: metal, silk, gourd, clay and wood classes, it correlated to the eight seasons and eight winds of Chinese culture and west, autumn-winter and NW, summer and south and east, winter-spring and NE, summer-autumn and SW, winter and north, spring-summer and SE, respectively.
However, the Chou-Li, an anonymous treatise compiled from earlier sources in about the 2nd century BC, had the following order: metal, clay, silk, wood and bamboo. The same order was presented in the Tso Chuan, attributed to Tso Chiu-Ming compiled in the 4th century BC. Much Ming dynasty scholar Chu Tsai Yu recognized three groups: those instruments using muscle power or used for musical accompaniment, those that are blown, those that are rhythmic, a scheme, the first scholarly attempt, while the earlier ones were traditional, folk taxonomies. More instruments are classified according to how the sound is produced; the modern system divides instruments into wind and percussion. It is of Greek origin; the scheme was expanded by Martin Agricola, who distinguished plucked string instruments, such as guitars, from bowed string instruments, such as violins. Classical musicians today do not always maintain this division, but distinguish between wind instruments with a reed and those where the air is set in motion directly by the lips.
Many instruments do not fit neatly into this scheme. The serpent, for example, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips. However, it looks more like a woodwind instrument, is closer to one in many ways, having finger-holes to control pitch, rather than valves. Keyboard instruments do not fit into this scheme. For example, the piano has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument or a percussion instrument. For this reason, keyboard instruments are regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings, plucked strings or no strings at all, it might be said that with these extra categories, the classical system of instrument classification focuses less on the fundamental way in which instruments produce sound, more on the technique required to play them. Various names have been assigned to these three traditional Western groupings: Boethius labelled them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis, percussione.
Ottoman encyclopedist Hadji Khalifa recognized the same three classes in his Kashf al-Zunun an Asami al-Kutub wa al-Funun, a treatise on the origin and construction of musical instruments. But this was exceptional for Near Eastern writers as they ignored the percussion group as did early Hellenistic Greeks, the Near Eastern culture traditionally and that period of Greek history having low regard for that group; the T'boli of Mindanao use the same three categories as well, but group the strings with the winds together based on a gentleness-strength dichotomy, re
The pandura or pandore, an ancient string instrument, belonged in the broad class of the lute and guitar instruments. Akkadians played similar instruments from the 3rd millennium BC. Ancient Greek artwork depicts such lutes from the 4th century BC onward; the ancient Greek pandoura was a medium or long-necked lute with a small resonating chamber, used by the ancient Greeks. It had three strings: such an instrument was known as the trichordon, its descendants still survive as the Greek tambouras and bouzouki, the North African kuitra, the Eastern Mediterranean saz and the Balkan tamburica and remained popular in the near east and eastern Europe, too acquiring a third string in the course of time, since the fourth century BCE. Renato Meucci suggests that the some Italian Renaissance descendants of Pandura type were called chitarra italiana, mandore or mandola. Information about Roman pandura-type instruments comes from ancient Roman artwork. Under the Romans the pandura was modified: the long neck was preserved but was made wider to take four strings, the body was either oval or broader at the base, but without the inward curves of the pear-shaped instruments.
The word pandura was rare in classical Latin writers. Lute-class instruments were present in Mesopotamia since the Akkadian era, or the third millennium BCE. There were at least two distinct varieties of pandura. One type was pear-shaped, used in Persia. In this type the body had graceful inward curves which led up from base to neck; these curves changed at the bottom end off the instrument to a more sloping outline, an elongated triangle with the corners rounded off. The oval type, a favourite instrument of the Egyptians, was found in ancient Persia and among the Arabs of North Africa. From the ancient Greek word pandoura, a comparable instrument is found in modern Chechnya and Ingushetia, where it is known as phandar. In Georgia the panduri is a three-string fretted instrument; the modern Georganian panduri instrument is in the tanbur class. Phandar Tambouras Panduri Baglamas Mandora Bandura Tanbur Bouzouki Mandolin Citations Bibliography McKinnon, J. W.. "Pandoura". In Sadie, S; the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.
3. London: Macmillan Press. P. 10. Picture of a pandura published 1947 in the book The Great Palace of the Byzantine Emperors by David Talbot Rice. Henry George Farmer calls the instrument "a three-stringed pandoura" in his 1949 article An Early Greek Pandore. Website that has a history of Pandura with some good photos
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Ghaychak or Gheychak is a Persian bowed lute A double-chambered bowl lute with 4 or more metal strings and a short fretless neck. It is used by Iranians and Baloch people, is similar to Sarinda; the soundbox is carved out of a single piece of wood. The upper orifice is covered in the middle by the handle and the lower one is covered by a skin membrane against which the bridge rests. "Glossary of Instruments - AKMICA". Archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Retrieved 2006-12-11. Ghaychak