Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom. Related to economic liberalism, it developed in the early 19th century, building on ideas from the previous century as a response to urbanisation and to the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America. Notable liberal individuals whose ideas contributed to classical liberalism include John Locke, Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo, it drew on classical economics the economic ideas as espoused by Adam Smith in Book One of The Wealth of Nations and on a belief in natural law and utilitarianism. As a term, classical liberalism has been applied in retrospect to distinguish earlier 19th-century liberalism from social liberalism. Core beliefs of classical liberals included new ideas—which departed from both the older conservative idea of society as a family and from the sociological concept of society as a complex set of social networks.
Classical liberals believe that individuals are "egoistic, coldly calculating inert and atomistic" and that society is no more than the sum of its individual members. Classical liberals agreed with Thomas Hobbes that government had been created by individuals to protect themselves from each other and that the purpose of government should be to minimize conflict between individuals that would otherwise arise in a state of nature; these beliefs were complemented by a belief that laborers could be best motivated by financial incentive. This belief led to the passage of the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, which limited the provision of social assistance, based on the idea that markets are the mechanism that most efficiently leads to wealth. Adopting Thomas Robert Malthus's population theory, they saw poor urban conditions as inevitable, believed population growth would outstrip food production and thus regarded that consequence desirable because starvation would help limit population growth, they opposed any income or wealth redistribution, believing it would be dissipated by the lowest orders.
Drawing on ideas of Adam Smith, classical liberals believed that it is in the common interest that all individuals be able to secure their own economic self-interest. They were critical of what would come to be the idea of the welfare state as interfering in a free market. Despite Smith’s resolute recognition of the importance and value of labor and of laborers, classical liberals selectively criticized labour's group rights being pursued at the expense of individual rights while accepting corporations' rights, which led to inequality of bargaining power. Classical liberals argued that individuals should be free to obtain work from the highest-paying employers while the profit motive would ensure that products that people desired were produced at prices they would pay. In a free market, both labor and capital would receive the greatest possible reward while production would be organized efficiently to meet consumer demand. Classical liberals argued for what they called a minimal state, limited to the following functions: A government to protect individual rights and to provide services that cannot be provided in a free market.
A common national defense to provide protection against foreign invaders. Laws to provide protection for citizens from wrongs committed against them by other citizens, which included protection of private property, enforcement of contracts and common law. Building and maintaining public institutions. Public works that included a stable currency, standard weights and measures and building and upkeep of roads, harbors, railways and postal services. Classical liberals asserted that rights are of a negative nature and therefore stipulate that other individuals and governments are to refrain from interfering with the free market, opposing social liberals who assert that individuals have positive rights, such as the right to vote, the right to an education, the right to health care and the right to a living wage. For society to guarantee positive rights, it requires taxation over and above the minimum needed to enforce negative rights. Core beliefs of classical liberals did not include democracy nor government by a majority vote by citizens because "there is nothing in the bare idea of majority rule to show that majorities will always respect the rights of property or maintain rule of law".
For example, James Madison argued for a constitutional republic with protections for individual liberty over a pure democracy, reasoning that in a pure democracy a "common passion or interest will, in every case, be felt by a majority of the whole and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party". In the late 19th century, classical liberalism developed into neo-classical liberalism, which argued for government to be as small as possible to allow the exercise of individual freedom. In its most extreme form, neo-classical liberalism advocated social Darwinism. Right-libertarianism is a modern form of neo-classical liberalism. Friedrich Hayek identified two different traditions within classical liberalism, namely the British tradition and the French tradition. Hayek saw the British philosophers Bernard Mandeville, David Hume, Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, Josiah Tucker and William Paley as representative of a tradition that articulated beliefs in empiricism, the common law and in traditions and institutions which had spontaneously evolved but were imperfectly understood.
The French tradition included Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Marquis de Condorcet, the Encyclopedists and the Physiocrats. This tradition believed in rationalism and sometimes showed hostility to religion. Hayek conceded that the national labels did not correspond to those belonging to
Pennsylvania Route 718 is an 11.1-mile-long state highway located in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. The southern terminus is at PA 318 in Shenango Township; the northern terminus is the Ohio state line in South Pymatuning Township. PA 718 begins at an intersection with PA 318 in Shenango Township, heading north on two-lane undivided Seig Hill Road; the road runs through wooded areas with some homes, passing under I-80. The route passes through agricultural areas prior to crossing the Shenango River into Wheatland. At this point, PA 718 becomes Council Street and heads through industrial areas, crossing Norfolk Southern's Wheatland Industrial Track railroad line. Farther north, PA 718 reaches an intersection with PA 418 and PA 760. At this intersection, PA 418 continues north along Council Street and PA 718 turns west to form a concurrency with PA 760 on Broadway Road; the two routes pass residential areas to the north and industrial areas to the south with a few businesses. The road enters Farrell and turns to the north, continuing to the west of developed neighborhoods and to the east of the Norfolk Southern railroad line as it passes more industry, including a large steel mill.
PA 718/PA 760 crosses into Sharon, where the road becomes Dock Street and passes under US 62, with a connection provided by local streets. From here, the road reaches an intersection with US 62 Business. At this junction, PA 760 ends and PA 718 makes a left turn to head west on US 62 Business; the two routes run along East State Street through the commercial downtown, crossing Norfolk Southern's Wheatland Industrial Track before heading across the Shenango River and becoming West State Street. PA 718 splits from US 62 Business by heading north along North Water Avenue; the road passes through industrial areas along the western bank of the Shenango River, crossing Norfolk Southern's Meadville Line. Farther north, the route passes homes to the west and riverside industry to the east, becoming the border between Hermitage to the west and Sharon to the east. PA 718 enters Hermitage and heads through forested areas with a few homes, coming to an intersection with the southern terminus of PA 846; the route continues north from this point and enters South Pymatuning Township, where the road name becomes Ivanhoe Road.
The road passes through more wooded areas of residences before heading into more agricultural surroundings. PA 718 turns northwest onto Tamarack Drive and passes through a mix of woods and farms with a few homes, reaching the Ohio border. At this point, the road continues west into Ohio as SR 305; the entire route is in Mercer County. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal
John Austin Victoreen was a self-taught physicist, engineer and otologist. He founded the Victoreen Instrument Company and was the author of two books, various technical papers on radiation and sound waves, holder of over 30 patents. Victoreen began his career in Cleveland, Ohio as a radio and radio parts manufacturer in the early 1920s. At age 23 he had received the first of many patents, this one for a high frequency tuning device that could be used in systems with radio frequency amplifiers of constant frequency, he had started a radio parts business and became interested in designing and building high quality radio receivers, some of which still exist today. His Heterodyne was considered by some to be the "Rolls Royce" of radios, his interest soon turned to radiation measurement. In 1928 he founded the Victoreen Instrument Company in Cleveland Heights, OH and began to manufacture an x-ray dosimeter invented by Hugo Fricke and Otto Glasser; the first commercial model was the Condenser-R meter, which measured the intensity and total dosage of X-ray exposure, he gained international fame for this.
He developed other radiation measurement devices and his company provided 95% of the instrumentation for the Bikini atomic tests after World War II. His company was considered to be the "first nuclear company". During World War II, Victoreen was contracted by the Manhattan Project to develop portable radiation devices as part of the secret Operation Peppermint project leading up to D-Day. Victoreen moved to Colorado Springs in 1950 and was on the staff as a consulting physicist at the Medical Center there, his interest in audio power amplification and frequency response led him into the field of otology and otometry. He moved from Colorado Springs to Maitland, FL in 1962 Victoreen was born to Ernest and Anne Victoreen in 1902, he married Francis S. Shima, they had two children: Jacqueline Ann and Robert Roy. Francis died in 1968 and he was remarried to Lizzie Louise Sturges Feb 11, 1970. Books Hearing Enhancement Basic Principles of Otometry White Papers and Journal Articles Probable X-Ray Mass Absorption Coefficients for Wave-Lengths Shorter than the K Critical Absorption Wave-Length The Thimble Ionization Chamber The Absorption of Incident Quanta by Atoms as Defined by the Mass Photoelectric Absorption Coefficient and the Mass Scattering Coefficient Ionization Chambers The Calculation of X-Ray Mass Absorption Coefficients Electrometer Tubes for the Measurement of Small Currents Roentgen Rays: Measurement of Quality Equal Loudness Pressures Determined with a Decaying Oscillatory Waveform The Role of Transient-Induced Reverberations in Electro-Acoustical Speech Amplifier Systems Correction Factors for Barometric Pressure and Temperature as Applied to X-Ray Measuring Devices Calibrated in International Roentgens Source- USPTO 4,109,116 Hearing Aid Receiver With Plural Transducers August 22, 1978 3,814,864 Condenser Microphone Having a Plurality of Discrete Vibratory Surfaces June 4, 1974 3,755,755 Audio Oscillator for Generating Either C.
W. Damped Wave Trains, or Narrow Band Noise August 28, 1973 3,652,953 Audio Oscillator for Generating Either C. W. Damped Wave Trains, or Narrow Band Noise March 28, 1972 3,602,654 Hydraulically Expandable Earpiece August 31, 1971 3,478,840 Sound Reproducer November 18, 1969 3,408,460 Method and Apparatus for Testing Hearing October 29, 1968 3,118,023 Transducer Hearing and Coupling January 14, 1964 3,073,900 Method and Apparatus for Determining Hearing Characteristics May 16, 1958/January 15, 1963 2,989,597 High Fidelity Soundtranslating Apparatus June 20, 1961 2,876,360 Apparatus for the Comparison of Sources of Radiation March 3, 1959 2,756,346 Pocket Ionization Chamber Oct 6, 1950/July 24, 1956 2,728,005 Gaseous Discharge Tube March 9, 1949/December 20, 1955 2,728,004 Glow Tube December 20, 1955 w/ J. Eddleston 2,666,801 Electric Battery and Method of Making Same Jan 19, 1954 2,600,817 Method and Apparatus for Assorting, Recording, or Computing June 17, 1952 2,587,254 Indicating Pocket Ionization Chamber February 26, 1952 2,574,000 Ionization and Vacuum Tube Chamber November 6, 1951 2,573,999 Ionization Chamber November 6, 1951 2,542,440 Geiger Tube February 20, 1951 W/ R.
Barton 2,540,063 Coin Detecting and Indicating Apparatus January 30, 1951 2,521,315 Geiger Tube September 5, 1950 2,507,743 Method and Apparatus for Recording or Indicating May 16, 1950 2,462,441 Vacuum Tube with Filamentory Cathode February 22, 1949 2,456,094 Method and Apparatus for Regulating Water Temperature December 14, 1948 2,416,599 Resistor and Method of Making the Same November 5, 1943/February 25, 1947 2,314,060 Electrical Apparatus March 16, 1943 2,235,268 Potential Measuring Apparatus September 12, 1938 March 18, 1941 2,190,200 X-Ray Measuring Instrument February 13, 1940 2,162,412 Potential Measuring Apparatus June 13, 1939 1,703,912 Audio Frequency Transformer March 5, 1929 1,674,934 Coil and Method of Making Same June 26, 1928 1,589,308 Radio Frequency Apparatus April 30, 1926 Photos of the abandoned Victoreen factory, Cleveland, OH on Flickr Antique Radio 1920s Victoreen kit Antique Radio Victoreen 8 tube Superhet Mention of the Victoreen Corotron High Voltage Supply Problems CD V-700 Victoreen Instrument Co. Geiger Counter Oak Ridge article on CDV-700 Radiation Measurement Technologies Hearing Health Matters Victoreen work on hearing aid technology.
Hear Now Texas Otologist, mentored by Victoreen