An order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform. Coming down to the present from Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman civilization, the architectural orders are the styles of classical architecture, each distinguished by its proportions and characteristic profiles and details, most recognizable by the type of column employed; the three orders of architecture—the Doric and Corinthian—originated in Greece. To these the Romans added, in practice if not in name, the Tuscan, which they made simpler than Doric, the Composite, more ornamental than the Corinthian; the architectural order of a classical building is akin to the key of classical music. It is established by certain modules like the intervals of music, it raises certain expectations in an audience attuned to its language. Whereas the orders were structural in Ancient Greek architecture, which made little use of the arch until its late period, in Roman architecture where the arch was dominant, the orders became decorative elements except in porticos and similar uses.
Columns turned into pilasters. This treatment continued after the conscious and "correct" use of the orders following Roman models, returned in the Italian Renaissance. Greek Revival architecture, inspired by increasing knowledge of Greek originals, returned to more authentic models, including ones from early periods; each style has distinctive capitals at the top of columns and horizontal entablatures which it supports, while the rest of the building does not in itself vary between the orders. The column shaft and base varies with the order, is sometimes articulated with vertical hollow grooves known as fluting; the shaft is wider at the bottom than at the top, because its entasis, beginning a third of the way up, imperceptibly makes the column more slender at the top, although some Doric columns early Greek ones, are visibly "flared", with straight profiles that narrow going up the shaft. The capital rests on the shaft, it has a load-bearing function, which concentrates the weight of the entablature on the supportive column, but it serves an aesthetic purpose.
The necking is visually separated by one or many grooves. The echinus lies atop the necking, it is a circular block that bulges outwards towards the top to support the abacus, a square or shaped block that in turn supports the entablature. The entablature consists of three horizontal layers, all of which are visually separated from each other using moldings or bands. In Roman and post-Renaissance work, the entablature may be carried from column to column in the form of an arch that springs from the column that bears its weight, retaining its divisions and sculptural enrichment, if any. There are names for all the many parts of the orders; the height of columns are calculated in terms of a ratio between the diameter of the shaft at its base and the height of the column. A Doric column can be described as seven diameters high, an Ionic column as eight diameters high, a Corinthian column nine diameters high, although the actual ratios used vary in both ancient and revived examples, but keeping to the trend of increasing slimness between the orders.
Sometimes this is phrased as "lower diameters high", to establish which part of the shaft has been measured. There are three distinct orders in Ancient Greek architecture: Doric and Corinthian; these three were adopted by the Romans. The Roman adoption of the Greek orders took place in the 1st century BC; the three ancient Greek orders have since been used in European Neoclassical architecture. Sometimes the Doric order is considered the earliest order, but there is no evidence to support this. Rather, the Doric and Ionic orders seem to have appeared at around the same time, the Ionic in eastern Greece and the Doric in the west and mainland. Both the Doric and the Ionic order appear to have originated in wood; the Temple of Hera in Olympia is the oldest well-preserved temple of Doric architecture. It was built just after 600 BC; the Doric order spread across Greece and into Sicily, where it was the chief order for monumental architecture for 800 years. Early Greeks were no doubt aware of the use of stone columns with bases and capitals in ancient Egyptian architecture, that of other Near Eastern cultures, although there they were used in interiors, rather than as a dominant feature of all or part of exteriors, in the Greek style.
The Doric order originated on western Greece. It is the simplest of the orders, characterized by short, heavy columns with plain, round capitals and no base. With a height, only four to eight times its diameter, the columns are the most squat of all orders; the shaft of the Doric order is channeled with 20 flutes. The capital consists of a necking or annulet, a simple ring; the echinus is convex, or circular cushion like stone, the abacus is square slab of stone. Above the capital is a square abacus connecting the capital to the entablature; the entablature is divided into three horizontal registers, the lower part of, either smooth or divided by horizontal lines. The upper half is distinctive for the Doric order; the frieze of the Doric entablature is divided into metopes. A triglyph is a unit consisting of three vertical bands. Metopes are the carved reliefs between two triglyphs; the Greek forms of the Doric order come without an individua
The lesser swamp warbler or Cape reed warbler is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It is a resident breeder in Africa from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Chad and Ethiopia south to South Africa; this is a common species of reedbeds in standing water. The lesser swamp warbler is a plain coloured smallish bird 14–16 cm long and weighing around 20 gm, its upperparts are rich brown, it has a white supercilium. The underparts are white; the long, strong bill has a down-curved upper mandible. The legs are blue-grey and the eyes are brown. Adults of both sexes and juvenile birds are similar in appearance; the song is rich and melodious, a series of bubbly phrases that include trilling notes, cheerup chee trrreee and a large number of variations, with pauses between phrases. The lesser swamp warbler builds a deep, firm cup nest from strips of reed blades and sedges, lined with finer grasses, it is always placed in reeds above water. It nests from August to December, with the earliest nesters being those in the winter rainfall areas of the Western Cape Province.
It lays three brown eggs. This species is monogamous; the lesser swamp warbler is seen alone or in pairs, moving through wetland reedbeds, clambering up and down reed stems. It eats other small invertebrates; this common species has a large range, with an estimated extent of 5.700,000 km². The population size is believed to be large, the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List. For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. Ian Sinclair, Phil Hockey and Warwick Tarboton, SASOL Birds of Southern Africa ISBN 1-86872-721-1 SASOL e-guide Birds of Southern Africa Lesser swamp warbler - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
Shulbrede Priory is a former medieval monastic house in West Sussex, England. It is a Grade I listed building. Shulbrede Priory was known as Woolynchmere Priory, being situate in the parish of Linchmere, at that time spelt Wlenchemere, it was founded as a house for canons of the Augustinian order, towards the end of the 12th century, by Sir Ralph de Arderne. As built, it was much larger than the portion now surviving. To the north was a cruciform church oriented towards an east facing altar, with north and south transepts dividing the nave from the chancel; the length of the church, from east to west, was about 140 feet and, from the north to the south transepts, about 98 feet. To the south of the nave were cloisters, around which were grouped a Chapter House and Warming Room to the east, a refectory to the south, a buttery and other buildings to the west. In about 1234, Ralph Neville, Bishop of Chichester agreed with the Abbot of Séez to appropriate the church at Shulbrede to the Priory, having been a "daughter" of the church at Cocking.
At the dissolution of the monasteries, the Priory became part of the Cowdray estate, which retained it until 1902. The only portion of the Priory buildings which remained standing was the range of buildings to the south of the cloisters; this includes the parlour leading into the former cloisters, the buttery and above it what was the prior's chamber or guests' hall. This was at some point divided into smaller rooms, one of the partition walls was decorated with wall paintings, which can still be seen; the paintings are of birds, women in Elizabethan dress, the Royal Arms of King James I, animals with inscriptions in Latin referring to the birth of Christ. From 1902, Shulbrede Priory became the family home of Arthur Ponsonby created first Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede, his wife, the daughter of the composer Sir Hubert Parry. Parry composed some piano pieces called Shulbrede Tunes, which were musical portraits of the members of the Ponsonby family. Lord and Lady Ponsonby had a son, Matthew Ponsonby the 2nd Lord Ponsonby, a daughter, the "Bright Young Thing" Elizabeth Ponsonby, whose family home this was.
Until 1925, when copyhold was abolished, the Court Baron of the Manor of Linchmere and Shulbrede was held in the priory. When Lord Ponsonby died in 1946, his widow continued to live at Shulbrede Priory, it was the home of their granddaughters, Laura Ponsonby, who died in 2016, Kate Russell, who still lives there with her husband. Shulbrede Priory became a Grade I listed building in 1959. Shulbrede Priory, an article about Shulbrede Priory by Chris Lea, dated 7 January 2013, illustrated with a variety of photographs of the building in its current form
David Starr Jordan High School is a public comprehensive four-year high school in Los Angeles. The school was named for the first president of Stanford University; the school colors are Royal blue and white and the mascot is a bulldog. Some sections of Florence-Graham, an unincorporated neighborhood in Los Angeles County, are jointly zoned to Jordan and John C. Fremont High School; the Gonzaque Village, Imperial Courts, Jordan Downs, Nickerson Gardens public housing developments of Los Angeles are zoned to Jordan. Jordan is one of a few high schools to have three, Olympic gold medalists come from the same high school in Hayes Edward Sanders, Florence Griffith-Joyner and Kevin Young. Sanders, in 1952, became the first African American to win the Olympic Heavyweight Boxing Championship while both Griffith-Joyner and Young still hold the current World Record in their respective events. From the 1930s to the 1970s the Jordan site was used for melting of scrap iron and scrap metal storage. From early 2015 through late 2016 Jordan High School was temporarily closed for Modernizations and New Constructions of the school.
Students moved to a different school during renovations. The school reopened in late 2016. Prior to the 2005 opening of South East High School, Jordan served portions of the City of South Gate. King Drew Magnet High School of Medicine and Science opened in bungalows of Jordan in 1982. In 1999 it moved to a standalone campus in Willowbrook. In March 2017 LAUSD sued the Los Angeles Housing Authority, stating that contaminants seeped onto the Jordan site from the neighboring Jordan Downs housing project. Earl Battey, former professional baseball player George Brown, long jumper Buddy Collette, jazz saxophonist Ray Vasquez, Singer and actor Michael Douglass, All-Pro linebacker for the Green Bay Packers and San Diego Chargers. D. Fitness in San Diego. 2003 Packers Hall of Fame inductee. Florence Griffith-Joyner, multiple-Olympic gold medalist and current world record holder in the 100 meters and 200 meters Art Harris, former professional basketball player Aaron Holbert, former professional baseball player and current manager of the Mississippi Braves Ray Holbert, former professional baseball player Brenda Holloway, Motown recording artist Leon Hooten, former professional baseball player Le-Lo Lang, NFL cornerback Charles Mingus, jazz bassist Manny Montana, actor Roger E. Mosley, actor Clarence Otis, Jr. CEO Darden Restaurants Wally Parks, founder of the National Hot Rod Association, Class of 1931 Fletcher Joseph Perry, NFL Hall of Fame running back Ron Riley, former professional basketball player Hayes Edward Sanders, Olympic heavyweight boxing gold medalist.
William Franklin "Bill" Austin is an American billionaire businessman and founder, principal owner, chairman and CEO of Starkey Hearing Technologies, a global hearing aid manufacturer and the largest in the United States. Austin was born in Nixa, Missouri in February 1942, his father, J. E. “Dutch” Austin, worked as a lumber trader for Georgia-Pacific, while his mother, worked in a factory. To supplement the family's income and his mother would take walks and collect bottles for recycling. During the summer, they picked blackberries and harvested foxgloves and cascara chittem bark for medicinal purposes; as he grew older, he took on a host of other part-time jobs. In 1961, at age 19, following an offer from an uncle to work part-time at his hearing aid shop and inspired by medical breakthroughs, Austin attended the University of Minnesota with the intent to become a doctor and one day serve the needs of the poor in the developing world, his college career was cut short, after one particular customer changed his life.
As Austin tells it, a kind elderly gentleman bemoaned that the feedback from his hearing aid was so loud that it worsened his hearing, that no one had been able to repair it. Austin helped the man to hear again; the man was exceptionally grateful, his face beamed with gratitude, an image that stuck with Austin. After only a few weeks in college, Austin quit school and poured his time and energy into hearing devices. “As a doctor, I could help maybe 20, 25 people a day,” Austin said. “I felt that if I did the hearing-aid business that I would be able to impact more people.” In 1970, Austin paid $13,000 for Starkey Labs. He merged it with his business and under his leadership, the business thrived, owing to a dedicated commitment to innovate and provide high-quality service. Starkey offered the market's first custom, in-the-ear hearing aid, the product for which the company is still best known. Starkey became the first hearing device manufacturer to utilize both nano and digital technology. Austin instituted strong customer service policies, including a 90-day free-trial period.
In September 1983, the company's fortunes soared after one of the world's best known figures, U. S. President Ronald Reagan, was photographed wearing Starkey hearing aids. Reagan's acknowledgement that he used hearing devices led to much greater acceptance globally of hearing aid technology; that he was fitted with Starkey hearing aids caused sales to quadruple in just a few weeks. Over time, Austin's company began expanding, both in overseas; as his company grew, his determination to help the poor never abated, he began traveling to developing nations on charitable trips. At times, his trips have been without fanfare. For example, in 2013, he joined former President Bill Clinton on a mission to Africa to give customized hearing devices to nearly 400 people in Zambia and Rwanda. During his career, Austin has served five U. S. presidents, two popes and numerous humanitarians and luminaries including Mother Teresa, Walter Cronkite, Arnold Palmer, Billy Graham and many others. As of November 2019, his company had more than 6,000 employees working in 25 facilities, doing business in more than 100 markets worldwide.
In addition to his roles within Starkey Hearing Technologies, Austin spends much of his time—as much as 25 days a month—working on behalf of his nonprofit Starkey Hearing Foundation, founded in 1984 by Austin and his wife, Tani. Together, they have handed out more than one million hearing aids to the poor, his philanthropic work has been recognized globally, he has received numerous honors and awards: In 2002, he received the HOBY Albert Schweitzer Leadership Award. In 2003, he was presented with a Caring Award from the Caring Institute. In 2004, he was named “Humanitarian of the Year” by the National Association for Home Care & Hospice. In 2005, he received the Humanitarian Award from Variety International. In 2006, he was awarded Honorary Doctor of Laws by Pepperdine University. In 2007, People Magazine noted Austin as one of its “Heroes Among Us,” and the magazine subsequently honored him in 2008 with its formal “Heroes Among Us" award. In 2008, the Horatio Alger Association presented Austin with its Horatio Alger Award.
In 2009, Austin was inducted into the Science Museum of Minnesota's Science and Technology Hall of Fame. In 2010, Mexican President Felipe Calderon conferred to Austin its highest international honor, the Aztec Eagle Award. In 2011, Austin accepted the Jefferson Award for Outstanding Public Service by a Corporation on behalf of Starkey Hearing Technologies. In 2017, the International Federation for Peace and Sustainable Development, affiliated with the United Nations, named Austin as its first Goodwill Global Ambassador for Ear and Hearing Health. In 2018, AG Bell awarded Austin its Lifetime Achievement Award. Austin and wife Tani live in Brownsville, Texas. Starkey Hearing Technologies
Henry Knox was a military officer of the Continental Army and the United States Army, who served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794. Born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts, he owned and operated a bookstore there, cultivating an interest in military history and joining a local artillery company; when the American Revolutionary War broke out in 1775, he befriended General George Washington, rose to become the chief artillery officer of the Continental Army. In this role he accompanied Washington on most of his campaigns, had some involvement in many major actions of the war, he established training centers for artillerymen and manufacturing facilities for weaponry that were valuable assets to the fledgling nation. Following the adoption of the United States Constitution, he became President Washington's Secretary of War. In this role he oversaw the development of coastal fortifications, worked to improve the preparedness of local militia, oversaw the nation's military activity in the Northwest Indian War.
He was formally responsible for the nation's relationship with the Indian population in the territories it claimed, articulating a policy that established federal government supremacy over the states in relating to Indian nations, called for treating Indian nations as sovereign. Knox's idealistic views on the subject were frustrated by ongoing illegal settlements and fraudulent land transfers involving Indian lands, he retired to Thomaston, District of Maine in 1795, where he oversaw the rise of a business empire built on borrowed money. He died in 1806 from an infection he contracted after swallowing a chicken bone, leaving an estate, bankrupt. Henry Knox's parents and Mary, were Ulster Scots immigrants who migrated from Londonderry to Boston in 1729, his father was a shipbuilder who, due to financial reverses, left the family for Sint Eustatius in the West Indies where he died in 1762 of unknown causes. Henry was admitted to the Boston Latin School, where he studied Greek, Latin and European history.
Since he was the oldest son still at home when his father died, he left school at the age of 9 and became a clerk in a bookstore to support his mother. The shop's owner, Nicholas Bowes, became a surrogate father figure for the boy, allowing him to browse the shelves of the store and take home any volume that he wanted to read; the inquisitive future war hero, when he was not running errands, taught himself French, learned some philosophy and advanced mathematics, devoured tales of ancient warriors and famous battles. He immersed himself in literature from a tender age. However, Knox was involved in Boston's street gangs, becoming one of the toughest fighters in his neighborhood. Impressed by a military demonstration, at 18 he joined. On March 5, 1770, Knox was a witness to the Boston massacre. According to his affidavit, he attempted to defuse the situation, trying to convince the British soldiers to return to their quarters, he testified at the trials of the soldiers, in which all but two were acquitted.
In 1771 he opened his own bookshop, the London Book Store, in Boston "opposite William's Court in Cornhill." The store was, in the words of a contemporary, a "great resort for the British officers and Tory ladies, who were the ton at that period." Boasting an impressive selection of excellent English products and managed by a friendly proprietor, it became a popular destination for the aristocrats of Boston. As a bookseller, Knox built strong business ties with British suppliers and developed relationships with his customers, but he retained his childhood aspirations. Self-educated, he stocked books on military science, questioned soldiers who frequented his shop in military matters; the genial giant enjoyed reasonable pecuniary success, but his profits slumped after the Boston Port Bill and subsequent citywide boycott of British goods. In 1772 he cofounded the Boston Grenadier Corps as an offshoot of The Train, served as its second in command. Shortly before his 23rd birthday Knox accidentally discharged a gun, shooting two fingers off his left hand.
He managed to reach a doctor, who sewed the wound up. Knox supported the Sons of Liberty, an organization of agitators against what they considered repressive British colonial policies, it is unknown if he participated in the 1773 Boston Tea Party, but he did serve on guard duty before the incident to make sure no tea was unloaded from the Dartmouth, one of the ships involved. The next year he refused a consignment of tea sent to him by James Rivington, a Loyalist in New York. Henry married Lucy Flucker, the daughter of Boston Loyalists, on June 16, 1774, despite opposition from her father, due to their differing political views. Lucy's brother served in the British Army, her family attempted to lure Knox to service there. Despite long separations due to his military service, the couple were devoted to one another for the rest of his life, carried on an extensive correspondence. After the couple fled Boston in 1775, she remained homeless until the British evacuated the city in March 1776. Afterward, she traveled to visit Knox in the field.
Her parents left, never to return, with the British during their withdrawal from Boston after the Continental Army fortified Dorchester Heights, a success that hinged upon Knox's Ticonderoga expedition. When the war broke out with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, Knox and Lucy snuck out of Boston, Knox joined the militia army besieging the city, his abandoned bookshop was looted and all of its stock stolen. He se