Classicism, in the arts, refers to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. In its purest form, classicism is an aesthetic attitude dependent on principles based in the culture and literature of ancient Greece and Rome, with the emphasis on form, proportion, clarity of structure, restrained emotion, as well as explicit appeal to the intellect; the art of classicism seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are objecting to the classicism of classic art. A violent emphasis or a sudden acceleration of rhythmic movement would have destroyed those qualities of balance and completeness through which it retained until the present century its position of authority in the restricted repertoire of visual images." Classicism, as Clark noted, implies a canon of accepted ideal forms, whether in the Western canon that he was examining in The Nude, or the literary Chinese classics or Chinese art, where the revival of classic styles is a recurring feature.
Classicism is a force, present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions. Classicism is a specific genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society, it was expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment. Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. There was another, more durable revival in the Italian renaissance when the fall of Byzantium and rising trade with the Islamic cultures brought a flood of knowledge about, from, the antiquity of Europe; until that time, the identification with antiquity had been seen as a continuous history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism and depictive realism, formalism, it introduced Polytheism, or "paganism", the juxtaposition of ancient and modern.
The classicism of the Renaissance led to, gave way to, a different sense of what was "classical" in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this period, classicism took on more overtly structural overtones of orderliness, the use of geometry and grids, the importance of rigorous discipline and pedagogy, as well as the formation of schools of art and music; the court of Louis XIV was seen as the center of this form of classicism, with its references to the gods of Olympus as a symbolic prop for absolutism, its adherence to axiomatic and deductive reasoning, its love of order and predictability. This period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek music. Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm. Examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals and divided works into Tragedy and Comedy.
Studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts. The Renaissance explicitly returned to architectural models and techniques associated with Greek and Roman antiquity, including the golden rectangle as a key proportion for buildings, the classical orders of columns, as well as a host of ornament and detail associated with Greek and Roman architecture, they began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, used the classical naturalism as the foundation of drawing and sculpture. The Age of Enlightenment identified itself with a vision of antiquity which, while continuous with the classicism of the previous century, was shaken by the physics of Sir Isaac Newton, the improvements in machinery and measurement, a sense of liberation which they saw as being present in the Greek civilization in its struggles against the Persian Empire; the ornate and complexly integrated forms of the baroque were to give way to a series of movements that regarded themselves expressly as "classical" or "neo-classical", or would be labelled as such.
For example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity and vigor in art. The 19th century saw the classical age as being the precursor of academicism, including such movements as uniformitarianism in the sciences, the creation of rigorous categories in artistic fields. Various movements of the romantic period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity, for example the Pre-Raphaelites. By this point, classicism was old enough; the 19th century continued or extended many classical programs in the sciences, most notably the Newtonian program to account for the movement of energy between bodies by means of exchange of mechanical and thermal energy. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the sciences. Classicism was used both by those who rejected, or saw as temporary, transfigurations in the political and social world and by those who embraced the changes as a
The 2009 Women's Cricket World Cup Final was a cricket match between New Zealand and England played on 22 March 2009 at the North Sydney Oval in Australia. It was the culmination of the ninth Women's Cricket World Cup. England won the final by four wickets, clinching their third World Cup title and their first outside England, it was the second time that the two teams had met at this stage of a World Cup – England won their previous final contest in 1993. After winning the toss, New Zealand captain Haidee Tiffen opted to bat first, her side were bowled out in 47.2 overs for a total of 166 runs. All-rounder Lucy Doolan, batting at number nine, was the highest scorer for New Zealand with 48. England bowler Nicky Shaw took a career-best four wickets for 34 runs. In their response, England built an opening partnership of 74 continued to score steadily. Despite losing wickets, they reached the winning total with 23 balls to spare, earning England their first World Cup title for 16 years. Shaw, who had not been included in the England team, was named player of the match after replacing the injured Jenny Gunn just minutes before the start of the match.
New Zealand were drawn in Group A of the competition, along with the West Indies, South Africa and their "traditional rivals" Australia. They started their campaign against Australia. Haidee Tiffen scored a cautious half-century for New Zealand, but her dismissal triggered a collapse in which the team lost seven wickets for the addition of 34 runs. In their reply, Australia lost wickets, a six over bowling spell by Kate Pulford, in which she took three wickets for 30 runs, slowed the run chase. After an initial rain delay held up the game, a second downpour finished the match, with Australia 13 runs short by the Duckworth–Lewis method. Tiffen missed New Zealand's second match, against the West Indies, with an injury, Aimee Mason deputised as captain. For the second time in as many matches, New Zealand suffered a collapse, losing their first six wickets for 104 runs. A seventh-wicket partnership of 57 between Mason and Sarah Tsukigawa helped New Zealand to remain competitive in the match, they completed their 50 overs with 192 runs.
According to Cricinfo, the West Indian reply "was devoid of momentum". Spin bowlers Mason and Lucy Doolan took three wickets apiece to limit the West Indies to 136 runs for the loss of eight wickets from their overs. In their final group stage match, New Zealand ensured that they won the group with a big win over South Africa. Amy Satterthwaite, Sara McGlashan and Nicola Browne all scored half-centuries as their team reached a total of 250 for five. South Africa struggled in their chase: only Cri-Zelda Brits reached double figures in an innings dominated by the bowling of Mason and Suzie Bates, who collected four wickets each. England were placed in Group B, alongside India and Sri Lanka. In their first contest, against Sri Lanka, they scored 277 runs, aided by a 95-ball century from Claire Taylor, a half-century by Caroline Atkins. Sri Lanka lost by 100 runs. Laura Marsh took three wickets, three of the Sri Lankan batsmen were run out in their chase. Following the match, Jenny Gunn's bowling action was reported to the International Cricket Council as being illegal, but she was cleared a few days later.
England faced India in their second match, in a contest billed as the battle for top spot in the group. England won the match bowling India out for 169. Another large win, over Pakistan, guaranteed. Marsh took a career-best five wickets to help bowl Pakistan out for just 78 runs, a total which her side reached in less than half of their allowed overs. England and New Zealand met each other in the first match of the Super Sixes. England batted first, despite being 96 for four at one stage, 57 runs from captain Charlotte Edwards, a rapid 22 runs from Gunn, helped their side recover to post a total of 201 for five. In response, New Zealand began positively, were boosted by a half-century from their captain, but the spin bowling of Edwards and Colvin controlled the run rate, New Zealand were bowled out for 170, Edwards taking four wickets. England's following match was against the West Indies, they once again surpassed 200 runs after batting first. Sarah Taylor, Claire Taylor and Atkins all scored half-centuries to propel England to their total of 236 for eight.
The English bowlers dismissed the West Indies for 90 runs, with Marsh collecting three wickets. The win secured England a place in the final, irrespective of the result in their final match against Australia. In their second match, New Zealand faced an Indian side which had beaten Australia in their first Super Six contest. India scored 207, during an innings in which they lost four batsmen to run outs. New Zealand began their response well, putting on a partnership of 78 runs for the first wicket between Pulford and Tiffen. After Tiffen's dismissal, Bates supported Pulford, who fell for 71 runs, New Zealand reached their target with 14 balls to spare. New Zealand set a record partnership for the second wicket in women's ODIs in their final match: Bates scored 168 and Tiffen 100 as the pair put on 262 runs together. Bates played an aggressive innings, scoring her runs from 105 balls, including 19 fours. New Zealand reached 373 from their overs, bowled Pakistan out for 150, granting themselves a 223 run victory, qualifying for the final.
Samuel Gutekunst is a former American football offensive tackle, a free agent. Gutekunst has been a member of the Frankfurt Galaxy, Berlin Thunder, Baltimore Ravens, Jacksonville Jaguars and Seattle Seahawks. Gutekunst first started his career with the Heiligenstein Crusaders in Heiligenstein. After being scouted for the Rheinland Pfalz / Saarland junior all-star team, he transferred to the Saarland Hurricanes where he played for the GFL-juniors in 2003 and subsequently for the seniors in the GFL throughout the 2005 season. While being involved with the Saarland Hurricanes, Gutekunst was an offensive line coach for the Rheinland Pfalz / Saarland all-star team 2004/05 as well as for the Heiligenstein Crusaders during the 2004 season. Gutekunst was assigned twice to the Frankfurt Galaxy as a National Player in 2005 and 2006, starting two games during his first and five in his second season, where he won the Worldbowl in the NFL Europe Championship Game against the Amsterdam Admirals at LTU-Arena.
Because of his efforts, he advanced to the NFL through the International Practice Squad Program with the Baltimore Ravens in 2006. As a part of the Ravens Practice Squad he won the AFC North. By losing the divisional playoffs to the Indianapolis Colts, the Ravens were only two games short of attending the Super Bowl; the Ravens ended the season with an overall record of 13–4. After returning to NFL Europe, Gutekunst was assigned to the Berlin Thunder where he started eight games of the 2007 season, missing two with ruptures in his right foot. Following the 2007 season, NFL Europe was shut down; as a part of the developmental program, Gutekunst went back to the NFL with the Jacksonville Jaguars where he spent the 2007 season going to the playoffs for the second time as a part of the Jaguars practice squad. As a Free Agent,Samuel Gutekunst was assigned to the Seattle Seahawks in 2008 but missed training camp and the 2008 season after sustaining an injury to his lower back, he was drafted in the UFL Premiere Season Draft in 2009 for the New York Sentinel Franchise, but was unable to attend because of his back injury.
Gutekunst now studies Sportsmanagement in Germany. Just Sports Stats Jacksonville Jaguars bio Seattle Seahawks bio