Clathrate hydrate

Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, hydrates, etc. are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules. In other words, clathrate hydrates are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is a gas or liquid. Without the support of the trapped molecules, the lattice structure of hydrate clathrates would collapse into conventional ice crystal structure or liquid water. Most low molecular weight gases, including O2, H2, N2, CO2, CH4, H2S, Ar, Kr, Xe, as well as some higher hydrocarbons and freons, will form hydrates at suitable temperatures and pressures. Clathrate hydrates are not chemical compounds, as the sequestered molecules are never bonded to the lattice; the formation and decomposition of clathrate hydrates are first order phase transitions, not chemical reactions. Their detailed formation and decomposition mechanisms on a molecular level are still not well understood.

Clathrate hydrates were first documented in 1810 by Humphry Davy who found that water was a primary component of what was earlier thought to be solidified chlorine. Clathrates have been found to occur in large quantities. Around 6.4 trillion tonnes of methane is trapped in deposits of methane clathrate on the deep ocean floor. Such deposits can be found on the Norwegian continental shelf in the northern headwall flank of the Storegga Slide. Clathrates can exist as permafrost, as at the Mallik gas hydrate site in the Mackenzie Delta of northwestern Canadian Arctic; these natural gas hydrates are seen as a vast energy resource, but an economical extraction method has so far proven elusive. Hydrocarbon clathrates cause problems for the petroleum industry, because they can form inside gas pipelines resulting in obstructions. Deep sea deposition of carbon dioxide clathrate has been proposed as a method to remove this greenhouse gas from the atmosphere and control climate change. Clathrates are suspected to occur in large quantities on some outer planets and trans-Neptunian objects, binding gas at high temperatures.

Gas hydrates form two crystallographic cubic structures: structure I and structure II of space groups P m 3 ¯ n and F d 3 ¯ m respectively. A third hexagonal structure of space group P 6 / m m m may be observed; the unit cell of Type I consists of 46 water molecules, forming two types of cages – small and large. The unit cell contains six large ones; the small cage has the shape of a pentagonal dodecahedron and the large one that of a tetradecahedron a hexagonal truncated trapezohedron. Together, they form a version of the Weaire–Phelan structure. Typical guests forming Type I hydrates are CO2 in carbon dioxide clathrate and CH4 in methane clathrate; the unit cell of Type II consists of 136 water molecules, again forming two types of cages – small and large. In this case there are sixteen eight large ones in the unit cell; the small cage again has the shape of a pentagonal dodecahedron, but the large one is a hexadecahedron. Type II hydrates are formed by gases like O2 and N2; the unit cell of Type H consists of 34 water molecules, forming three types of cages – two small ones of different types, one "huge".

In this case, the unit cell consists of three small cages of type 512, two small ones of type 435663 and one huge of type 51268. The formation of Type H requires the cooperation of two guest gases to be stable, it is the large cavity that allows structure H hydrates to fit in large molecules, given the presence of other smaller help gases to fill and support the remaining cavities. Structure H hydrates were suggested to exist in the Gulf of Mexico. Thermogenically-produced supplies of heavy hydrocarbons are common there. Iro et al. trying to interpret the nitrogen deficiency in comets, stated most of the conditions for hydrate formation in the protoplanetary nebulae, surrounding the pre-main and main sequence stars were fulfilled, despite the rapid grain growth to meter scale. The key was to provide enough microscopic ice particles exposed to a gaseous environment. Observations of the radiometric continuum of circumstellar discs around τ -Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars suggest massive dust disks consisting of millimeter-sized grains, which disappear after several million years.

A lot of work on detecting water ices in the Universe was done on the Infrared Space Observatory. For instance, broad emission bands of water ice at 43 and 60 μm were found in the disk of the isolated Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546 in Musca; the one at 43 μm is much weaker than the one at 60 μm, which means the water ice, is located in the outer parts of the disk at temperatures below 50 K. There is another broad ice feature between 87 and 90 μm, similar to the one in NGC 6302. Crystalline ices were detected in the proto-planetary disks of ε-Eridani and the isolated Fe star HD 142527 in Lupus. 90% of the ice in the latter was found crystalline at temperature around 50 K. HST demonstrated that old circumstellar disks, as the one around the 5-million-year-old B9.5Ve Herbig Ae/Be star HD 141569A, are dust


Neoptolemus called Pyrrhus, was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamia in Greek mythology, the mythical progenitor of the ruling dynasty of the Molossians of ancient Epirus. In Cypria, Achilles sails to Scyros after a failed expedition to Troy, marries princess Deidamia and has Neoptolemus, until Achilles is called to arms again. In a non-Homeric version of the story, Achilles' mother Thetis foretold many years before Achilles' birth that there would be a great war, she saw. She sought a place for him to avoid fighting in the Trojan War, disguising him as a woman in the court of Lycomedes, the king of Scyros. During that time, he had an affair with the princess, who gave birth to Neoptolemos. Neoptolemos was called Pyrrhos, because his father had taken Pyrrha, the female version of that name, while disguised as a woman; the Greeks captured the Trojan seer and forced him to tell them under what conditions they could take Troy. Helenos revealed to them that they could defeat Troy if they could acquire the poisonous arrows of Heracles.

In response to the prophecy, the Greeks took steps to retrieve the arrows of Heracles and bring Neoptolemos to Troy. Odysseus was sent to retrieve Neoptolemos a mere teenager, from Scyros; the two went to Lemnos to retrieve Philoctetes. Years earlier, on the way to Troy, Philoctetes was bitten by a snake on Chryse Island. Agamemnon had advised that he smelled bad; this retrieval is the plot of a play by Sophocles. Euripides, in his play Hekabe, has a moving scene which shows Neoptolemos as a compassionate young man who kills Polyxena, Hekabe's daughter with ambivalent feelings and in the least painful way. Neoptolemos was held by some to be brutal, he killed six men on the field of battle. During and after the war, he killed Priam, Polyxena and Astyanax among others, captured Helenos, made Andromache a widow, his concubine; the ghost of Achilles appeared to the survivors of the war, demanding Polyxena, the Trojan princess, be sacrificed before anybody could leave. Neoptolemos did so. With Andromache and Phoenix, Neoptolemos sailed to the Epirot Islands and became the King of Epirus.

With the enslaved Andromache, Neoptolemos was the father of Molossos and through him, according to the myth, an ancestor of Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great. According to Hyginus, his son with Andromache was Amphialos: CXXIII. NEOPTOLEMUS Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and Deidamia, begat Amphialus by captive Andromache, daughter of Ēëtion, but after he heard that Hermione his betrothed had been given to Orestes in marriage, he went to Lacedaemon and demanded her from Menelaus. Menelaus did not wish to go back on his word, took Hermione from Orestes and gave her to Neoptolemus. Orestes, thus insulted, slew Neoptolemus as he was sacrificing to Delphi, recovered Hermione; the bones of Neoptolemus were scattered through the land of Ambracia, in the district of Epirus. Although Neoptolemus is depicted thus, the play Philoctetes by Sophocles shows him being a much kinder man, who honours his promises and shows remorse when he is made to trick Philoctetes. Two accounts deal with Neoptolemos' death.

He was either killed after he attempted to take Hermione from Orestes as her father Menelaus promised, or after he denounced Apollo, the murderer of his father. In the first case, he was killed by Orestes. In the second, revenge was taken by the Delphic priests of Apollo. After his death his kingdom was portioned out and Helenos took part of it. "Helenus, a son of Priam, was king over these Greek cities of Epirus, having succeeded to the throne and bed of Pyrrhus..." Neoptolemus is one of the main characters in a tragedy by Sophocles. Andromache, a tragedy by Euripides. Neoptolemus does not appear on stage but his death at Delphi is described Apollodorus' Library, in Book 3 and in the Epitome 5.10-12, 5.21, 5.24 The Aeneid by Virgil Trojan Women by Seneca The Posthomerica, an epic poem by Quintus of Smyrna In Confessio Amantis Book 4 line 2161ff he is the slayer of the Amazon Penthesilea The Tragedy of Dido by Christopher Marlowe Pyrrhus features in the player's speech in Shakespeare's Hamlet where his killing of Priam is described The Second Part of the Iron Age, the final play in the Ages series by Thomas Heywood Pyrrhus is a leading character in Andromaque, a play by Jean Racine Andromaque, an opera by Grétry based on Racine's play Ermione, an opera by Gioachino Rossini based on Racine's play An Arrow's Flight, a novel by Mark Merlis The Song of Achilles, a novel by Madeline Miller The Song of Troy, a novel written by Colleen McCullough The Silence of the Girls, a novel written by Pat Barker Mentioned in Euripides' plays Trojan Women and Hecuba stating that Andromache, wife of Hector, was his promised spear bride.

Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Neoptolemus". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Syn Sophia

Syn Sophia, Inc. AKI Corporation and The Man Breeze, is an independent video game development studio located in Kichijōji, Japan founded on June 19, 1995; the company is most well known for its popular wrestling games in the late 1990s and early-mid-2000s, starting with the release of Virtual Pro-Wrestling in 1996. The title was the first entry in the Virtual Pro Wrestling series; the company's take on World Championship Wrestling proved successful in the late 1990s with the release of several games, culminating in WCW/nWo Revenge for the Nintendo 64. As a result, the World Wrestling Federation ended their twelve-year relationship with Acclaim Entertainment and partnered with THQ/AKI in 1999; the relationship would continue AKI's reputation for quality wrestling games, which ended with the release of WWF No Mercy. The company went public in 1998 and on April 1, 2007 was renamed syn Sophia, Inc; the first game developed under that name was Ganbaru Watashi no Kakei Diary for the Nintendo DS in 2007.

However, they used their previous name in some of their future titles until 2008 with the release of Style Savvy for the Nintendo DS. Ready 2 Rumble: Revolution would be developed under the name AKI Corporation USA. A version of WWF No Mercy for the Game Boy Color was in the works and planned for release alongside the Nintendo 64 version; the game was planned to utilize the Nintendo 64 Transfer Pak accessory to unlock special content in each version of the game. This feature was scrapped, with the extra content in each version instead being unlocked via gameplay. After further developmental woes, the game was shifted to Natsume, developers of the previous WWF game for Game Boy Color, before being canceled in late December 2000. Screenshots of this game at one point existed, but the websites which had them up were forced to remove them following the game's cancellation. A sequel to WWF No Mercy was in the early stages of development when it was shelved in early 2001 as Nintendo began to phase out the Nintendo 64 console.

A sequel to Electronic Arts' WCW Mayhem titled WCW 2000 and WCW Mayhem 2 was going to be developed by AKI and was planned for a PlayStation 2 release. There were some screenshots in Issue #33 of the Official PlayStation Magazine. However, it was shelved in 2001 after the World Wrestling Federation bought World Championship Wrestling; the engine of this game would be recycled for Def Jam Vendetta. A puzzle video game spinoff of the Dreamcast game Animastar, titled Animastar Puzzle, was announced in early 2000 but was cancelled due to the sudden demise of the Dreamcast console. Mikke! was an action game announced for the Nintendo DS console in early 2008. It was cancelled for unknown reasons. Official website Official website