click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Claude Louis Berthollet

Claude Louis Berthollet was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804. He is known for his scientific contributions to theory of chemical equilibria via the mechanism of reverse chemical reactions, for his contribution to modern chemical nomenclature. On a practical basis, Berthollet was the first to demonstrate the bleaching action of chlorine gas, was first to develop a solution of sodium hypochlorite as a modern bleaching agent. Claude Louis Berthollet was born in Talloires, near Annecy part of the Duchy of Savoy, in 1749, he started his studies at Chambéry and in Turin where he graduated in medicine. Berthollet's great new developments in works regarding chemistry made him, in a short period of time, an active participant of the Academy of Science in 1780. Berthollet, along with Antoine Lavoisier and others, devised a chemical nomenclature, or a system of names, which serves as the basis of the modern system of naming chemical compounds, he carried out research into dyes and bleaches, being first to introduce the use of chlorine gas as a commercial bleach in 1785.

He first produced a modern bleaching liquid in 1789 in his laboratory on the quay Javel in Paris, France, by passing chlorine gas through a solution of sodium carbonate. The resulting liquid, known as "Eau de Javel", was a weak solution of sodium hypochlorite. Another strong chlorine oxidant and bleach which he investigated and was the first to produce, potassium chlorate, is known as Berthollet's Salt. Berthollet first determined the elemental composition of the gas ammonia, in 1785. Berthollet was one of the first chemists to recognize the characteristics of a reverse reaction, hence, chemical equilibrium. Berthollet was engaged in a long-term battle with another French chemist, Joseph Proust, on the validity of the law of definite proportions. While Proust believed that chemical compounds are composed of a fixed ratio of their constituent elements irrespective of the methods of production, Berthollet believed that this ratio can change according to the ratio of the reactants taken. Although Proust proved his theory by accurate measurements, his theory was not accepted due to Berthollet's authority.

His law was accepted when Berzelius confirmed it in 1811, but it was found that Berthollet was not wrong because there exists a class of compounds that do not obey the law of definite proportions. These non-stoichiometric compounds are named berthollides in his honor. Berthollet was one of several scientists who went with Napoleon to Egypt and was a member of the physics and natural history section of the Institut d'Égypte. In April, 1789 Berthollet was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1801, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1809, Berthollet was elected an associate member first class of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands, predecessor of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, he was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1820 and a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1822. Claude-Louis Berthollet's 1788 publication entitled Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique, published with colleagues Antoine Lavoisier, Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau, Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, was honored by a Citation for Chemical Breakthrough Award from the Division of History of Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, presented at the Académie des Sciences in 2015.

A French High School located in Annecy is named after him. Berthollet married Marguerite Baur in 1788. Berthollet was accused of being an atheist, he died in Arcueil, France in 1822. Society of the Friends of Truth Satish, Kapoor. "Berthollet, Claude Louis". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 73–82. ISBN 978-0-684-10114-9. N. S. Kurnakow. "Singuläre Punkte chemischer Diagramme.". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 146: 69–102. Doi:10.1002/zaac.19251460105. Barbara Whitney Keyser. "Between science and craft: The case of berthollet and dyeing". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 47: 213–260. Doi:10.1080/00033799000200211. Charles Coulston Gillispie. "Scientific Aspects of the French Egyptian Expedition 1798-1801". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 133: 447–474. JSTOR 986871. H. E. Le Grand. "Berthollet's Essai de statique chimique and Acidity". Isis. 67: 229–238. Doi:10.1086/351586. JSTOR 230924. Swain P. A.. "Hypochlorite bleaches in the textile industry: a history".

School science review. 82: 65–71. Doi:10.1080/00033797900200141 Works by Claude-Louis Berthollet at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Claude Louis Berthollet at Internet Archive

Paul Mescal

Paul Mescal is an Irish actor best known for his theatre work. He will star as Connell in upcoming BBC Three series Normal People. Mescal was raised in Maynooth, County Kildare to parents Paul and Dearbhla, he has a sister, a brother, Donnacha. Paul was an under 21 footballer for Leinster and was a member of Maynooth GAA, his skills as a defender were praised by Gaelic footballer Brian Lacey. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Acting from The Lir Academy at Trinity College Dublin in 2017; as he was graduating from The Lir, Mescal was offered roles in two high-profile theatre productions: Angela's Ashes and The Great Gatsby. Due to scheduling, he took on The Great Gatsby, he played the Prince in a contemporary retelling of Hans Christian Andersen's The Red Shoes at the Gate that year. In 2018, Mescal landed the role of Lieutenant Langon in The Plough and the Stars at the Lyric Theatre and Gaiety Theatre in London, he played Bryan in the world premiere of Louise O'Neill's Asking for It. He acted in A Midsummer Night's Dream and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man with the Rough Magic Theatre company for the 2018 Dublin Theatre Festival and Kilkenny Arts Festival.

In May 2019, it was announced Mescal would star in the main role of as Connell alongside Daisy Edgar-Jones in upcoming Hulu and BBC Three series Normal People, an adaptation of the novel by Sally Rooney. He is set to play Matt in comedy series Bump. Paul Mescal on IMDb

As Long as You Love Me (Justin Bieber song)

"As Long as You Love Me" is a song by Canadian singer Justin Bieber, from his third studio album, Believe. The track features American rapper Big Sean, it was written by Eric H, was produced by Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins and Andre Lindal. It was first released on June 11, 2012, as a promotional single from the album, one month it was released as the album's second single; the song has since charted in the United Kingdom, first at number thirty as a promotional single with first-week sales of 11,598, after being released as a single it improved its position on the UK Singles Chart, reaching number 22. On Billboard's Rhythmic Airplay Chart, the single reached number one, giving Bieber his first number one single on an American airplay music chart, it peaked at number six on the Billboard Hot 100. It reached the number one position on Billboard's Dance/Mix Show Airplay chart, making Bieber the fifth Canadian artist to reach that position after Martin Solveig featuring Dragonette's "Hello" in 2011.

The song has sold 2,240,000 copies in the US as December 2012. The music video features actor Michael Madsen. In late 2011, Bieber confirmed to radio network Capital FM that he was recording material for his third studio album, going to be released in early 2012, he spoke to MTV News and revealed that Believe would surprise people in different ways, since it musically is a departure from his previous works. While Bieber has said that he wants his next release to recall Justin Timberlake's Future Sex/Love Sounds sonically, in an interview with V magazine, he noted that what he'll be singing is a bit more PG than the topics Timberlake covered on that album. "I'm not going to try to conform to what people want me to be or go out there and start partying, have people see me with alcohol. I want to do it at my own pace. I don't want to start singing about things like sex and swearing. I'm into love, maybe I'll get more into making love when I'm older. I want to be someone, respected by everybody." After releasing "Boyfriend" as the lead single, Bieber announced that he will release promotional singles to promote Believe.

The first promotional single "Die in Your Arms" was released to iTunes on May 29, 2012. The second "All Around The World" was released on iTunes on June 4, 2012. "As Long as You Love Me" was released on June 11, 2012, as the third and final promotional single. The cover art for "As Long as You Love Me" shows Bieber perched on a wooden stool, holding an acoustic guitar. Sia Nicole of "Idolator expressed dissatisfaction with the cover, saying "It’s false advertising for the high-fidelity track that has nary a strum within earshot." "As Long as You Love Me" was written by Bieber, Nasri Atweh, guest vocalist Big Sean, while production was handled by Darkchild, The Messengers and Andre Lindal. The song is written in the key of C minor, it is influenced by dubstep, with vocal loops complemented by a booming beat. As the song continues, it builds to a rave-ready drop. Lyrically, it tells listeners that true love can defy all circumstances and the obstacles that it can overcome. "As long as you love me/ We could be starving/ We could be homeless/ We could be broke," Bieber sings over a staccato beat and handclaps, with an undercurrent of a swirling-sounding synth.

"As long as you love me/ I'll be your platinum/ I'll be your silver/ I'll be your gold," he adds. Big Sean drops a rap exalting a lady love, too. "I don't know if this makes sense, but you're my hallelujah/ Give me a time and a place, I'll rendezvous, I'll fly you to it," Sean raps. Jon Caramanica of The New York Times described the song as "a dubstep love song, with Mr. Bieber reaching into falsetto at points without losing power, showing restraint at the chorus." Natalie Shaw of BBC Music wrote, "It's fine that his vocal simpers on the verses of As Long As You Love Me, because the song's pulsating undercurrent propels it onto the dancefloor." Hermione Hoby of The Observer complimented his vocals, calling "plaintive and still unmistakably teenage." Jason Lipshutz of Billboard defined the track: "A massive yet somehow intimate dance track, with the drums reaching hair metal levels in their vibrations. The Biebs handles his business, but Big Sean's verse isn't necessary."Becky Bain of Idolator commented, "The electro-infused track carries your basic we-don’t-need-money-we-have-love sentiment, while Big Sean cameo is useless, but it does come at a pivotal moment in the Darkchild-produced tune."In his review for Fact Magazine, Alex Macpherson described the track: "'As Long As You Love Me' is a post-austerity, us-against-the-world electronic storm in which Bieber promises romantic fealty as he's buffeted this way and that by a cornucopia of sonic switch-ups courtesy of Darkchild: the 4×4 march leading up to the peak of the second chorus, the way the word'love' is caught, cut up and tossed into a digital swirl until it becomes helpless surrender.

Notably and too, Bieber's own delivery stands out: his blend of puppy-eyed pleading and genuine tenderness on the line'We could be homeless, we could be broke' is the song's emotional pivot. It's enough to make you jealous of those terrifyingly devoted Beliebers: imagine how much more intensely they’re feeling this." As part of promotion for "As Long As You Love Me", a music video, filmed in early July 2012, was released. Prior to the release of the video, Bieber revealed that a minute-long clip of the video was due to be broadcast following an episode of The Voice. NBC revealed that technical difficulties prevented the clip from being aired; the full video was premiered on Bieber's official YouTube page on July 12, 2012. Bieber ver

Operation Biting

Operation Biting known as the Bruneval Raid, was a British Combined Operations raid on a German coastal radar installation at Bruneval in northern France during the Second World War, on the night of 27–28 February 1942. Several of these installations were identified from Royal Air Force aerial reconnaissance photographs during 1941, but their exact purpose and the nature of the equipment that they possessed was not known; some British scientists believed that these stations were connected with the heavy losses being experienced by RAF bombers conducting bombing raids against targets in Occupied Europe. The scientists requested that one of these installations be raided and the technology it possessed be studied and, if possible and brought back to Britain for further examination. Due to the extensive coastal defences erected by the Germans to protect the installation from a seaborne raid, it was believed that a commando raid from the sea would suffer heavy losses and give sufficient time for the enemy to destroy the installation.

It was therefore decided that an airborne assault followed by seaborne evacuation would be the most practicable way to surprise the garrison of the installation, seize the technology intact, minimise casualties to the raiding force. On the night of 27 February, after a period of intense training and several delays due to poor weather, a company of airborne troops under the command of Major John Frost parachuted into France a few miles from the installation; the main force assaulted the villa in which the radar equipment was kept, killing several members of the German garrison and capturing the installation after a brief firefight. An RAF technician with the force dismantled a Würzburg radar array and removed several key pieces, after which the force withdrew to the evacuation beach; the detachment assigned to clear the beach had failed to do so, but the German force guarding it was soon eliminated with the help of the main force. The raiding troops were picked up by landing craft transferred to several Motor Gun Boats which returned them to Britain.

The raid was successful. The airborne troops suffered few casualties, the pieces of the radar they brought back, along with a captured German radar technician, allowed British scientists to understand enemy advances in radar and to create countermeasures to neutralise them. After the end of the Battle of France and the evacuation of British troops from Dunkirk during Operation Dynamo, much of Britain's war production and effort was channelled into RAF Bomber Command and the strategic bombing offensive against Germany. However, bomber losses on each raid began to increase during 1941, which British intelligence concluded was due to German use of advanced radar equipment; the British and Germans had been competing in radar technology for nearly a decade at this point, with the German technology at the same level as the British or surpassing them due to heavy investment in the fledgeling technology. By the beginning of the Second World War, Britain had devised effective radar systems through the work of Robert Watson-Watt, although much of the technology was still rudimentary in nature and Watson-Watt and other scientists had failed to devise an effective night-defence system in time for the German night-time bombing of Britain during 1940.

Another British scientist working on radar systems and techniques was R. V. Jones, appointed in 1939 as Britain's first scientific intelligence officer, had spent the first years of the conflict researching how advanced German radar was in comparison to Britain, convincing doubters that the Germans had radar. By examining leaked German documents, crashed Luftwaffe bombers, Enigma decryptions, through German prisoner of war interrogations, Jones discovered that high-frequency radio signals were being transmitted across Britain from somewhere on the Continent, he believed they came from a directional radar system. Within a few months of this discovery, Jones had identified several such radar systems, one of, being used to detect British bombers. Jones was able to see concrete proof of the presence of the Freya system after being shown several mysterious objects visible in reconnaissance pictures taken by the RAF near Cap d'Antifer in Normandy – two circular emplacements in each of, a rotating "mattress" antenna 20 ft wide.

Having found proof of these Freya installations and the other scientists under his command could begin devising countermeasures against the system, the RAF could begin to locate and destroy the installations themselves. Jones found evidence of a second part of the Freya set-up, referred to in Enigma decrypts as "Würzburg", but it was not until he was shown another set of RAF reconnaissance photographs in November 1941 that he learned what Würzburg was; the Würzburg radar device consisted of a parabolic antenna about 10 ft in diameter, which worked in conjunction with Freya to locate British bombers and direct Luftwaffe night fighters to attack them. The two systems complemented each other: Freya was a long-range early-warning radar system, but lacked precision, whereas Würzburg had a much shorter range but was far more precise. Würzburg FuSE 62 D had the advantage of being much smaller than the Freya system and easier to manufacture in the quantities needed by the Luftwaffe to defend German territory.

In order to neutralise the Würzburg system by developing countermeasures against it, Jones and his team needed to study one of the systems, or at least the more vital pieces of technology of which the system was composed. One such site had been sighted by an RAF reco

Hythe, Kent

Hythe is a coastal market town on the edge of Romney Marsh, in the district of Folkestone and Hythe on the south coast of Kent. The word Hythe or Hithe is an Old English word meaning landing place; the town has mediaeval and Georgian buildings, as well as a Saxon/Norman church on the hill and a Victorian seafront promenade. Hythe was once defended by two castles and Lympne; the town hall, a former guildhall, was built in its fireplace designed by the Adam Brothers. Hythe's market once took place in Market Square close to where there is now a farmers' market every second and fourth Saturday of the month. Hythe has gardening, horse riding, tennis, football and sailing clubs. Lord Deedes was once patron of Hythe Civic Society; as an important Cinque Port Hythe once possessed a bustling harbour which, over the course of 300 years, has now disappeared due to silting. Hythe was the central Cinque Port, sitting between Hastings and New Romney to the west and Dover and Sandwich to the east. According to Hasted, a French fleet approached Hythe in 1293 and landed 200 men, but "the townsmen came upon them and slew every one of them: upon which the rest of the fleet hoisted sail and made no further attempt".

In 1348 the Black Death afflicted Hythe, in 1400 the plague further reduced the population. Hythe has no coat of arms. Hythe was the home of the Mackeson Brewery, which after changes of ownership, closed in 1968, it was the birthplace of Mackeson Stout, a type of beer first brewed in 1909, which went on to become a national brand. Mackeson stout is no longer brewed locally but is produced under contract by one of the major national brewers. Hythe Ranges is a military training ground. Access to this section of the shore is restricted; the Royal Military Canal runs to Winchelsea. Running under Stade Street, the canal, intended to repel invasion during the Napoleonic wars of 1804 to 1815, gives central Hythe its character. Now shaded by trees, the canal, 10 yards wide, passes into the marsh from the middle of the town; the canal runs through Hythe. It follows the original haven, once Hythe's harbour as far as the light railway thence across Romney Marsh to Winchelsea, its 26-mile length can be walked.

Built around the same time as a defence against possible invasion by Napoleon were the Martello Towers. In total 74 of these towers were built between Seaford; the walls were up to 13 ft thick, each tower held 24 men and had a huge cannon mounted on the top. They were named after a similar tower at Mortella Point in Corsica which the Navy had captured from the French. Although never needed for their original purpose they were used to combat smuggling and acted as signalling stations and coastal defences during the two world wars. Three of the towers survive at Hythe. Geologically the town developed on a succession of non-parallel terraces, rising from the level ground around the Royal Canal towards the steep incline upon which the parish church of St Leonard was built. From the High Street, alleys lead up to the steeper levels of the town; this publication may show the Royal Canal named as the Royal Military Canal because, its previous name. The large 11th-century church is up the hill; the chancel, from 1220, covers a processional ossuary lined with 8,000 thigh bones.

They date from the mediaeval period having been stored after removal, to make way for new graves. This was common in England, but bones were dispersed, this is thus a rare collection. Several of the skulls show marks of trepanning; this is one of only two surviving ossuaries in England. The chancel is closed in winter. Other curiosities are worth looking for. On pillars on the south side of the nave are mediaeval graffiti depicting ships; the vestry door, on the north side of the nave, is unlocked. It has been suggested that this, which in late mediaeval times was on the outer wall of the church, was once an internal wall, with the earlier Norman church a stage higher up the hill; this would make the existing chapel of St Edmund the original chancel, with the original nave being on the other side of the north wall. Evidence of earlier masonry is visible on the north wall. Going round into the north transept, it is clear that Roman masonry was re-used in the building of the arch, narrow and late-Saxon in style.

At the time of Hasted's ` History of Kent' this doorway was not visible on the inside. Lionel Lukin, credited with inventing the self-righting lifeboat, is buried in the parish churchyard. Hythe was once defended by two castles and Lympne. Saltwood derives its name from the village in its shadow. During the reign of King Canute the manor of Saltwood was granted to the priory of Christ Church in Canterbury, but during the 12th century it became the home of Henry d'Essex, constable of England. Thomas Becket had sought from King Henry II restoration of the castle as an ecclesiastical palace. Henry instead granted the castle to Ranulf de Broc; that the castle had be

David Anderson (Australian politician)

David More Anderson was an Australian politician. He was born at Glasgow, Scotland, to master painter Archibald Anderson and Elizabeth Buchanan, née More, he arrived in Australia in 1884, finding work as a grocer and auctioneer in the Leichhardt area of Sydney. Around 1891 he married Emily Amelia Ely Linderman. In 1896 he moved to Gladesville and in 1905 to Ryde, serving as an alderman on Ryde Municipal Council from 1896 to 1919, he continued to work in the real estate and auctioneering business, established a brickworks in 1910. In 1920 he was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as a Nationalist member for Ryde. With the reintroduction of single-member districts in 1927 he was elected as the member for Eastwood, but he was defeated in 1930. Anderson died at Ryde in 1936